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56 [56]

Actes and Monumentes of the Church.

auaricious intent, should haue no further power to raign, we gaue them commaundement to depart the same way, they came. MarginaliaNote here a couragius hart in a valiaunt Emperour. An example for all prynces to follow.And now seing our raigne and Empery standeth vpon the election of Princes, from God alone, who in the passyon of his sonne, subdued the worlde to be gouerned with two swordes necessarye: and againe, seing Peter the Apostle hath so informed the world with this doctrine. Deum timete, Regem honorificate: That is. Feare God, honoure your king Therfore who so saith, that we haue and professe our imperiall kingdome by the benefite of the Lord Pope, is contrary both to the ordinaunce of God, and to the doctrine of Peter, also shall be reproued for a lier.

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Therefore as our endeuer hathe bene heretofore, to helpe and to deliuer the seruile captiuitie of Churches, out of the hande, and from the yoke of the Egyptians, and to maintayne the right of their liberties and dignities: We desire you all, wyth your compassyon to lament wyth vs, this flaunderous ignominie inferred to vs and our kingdome, trusting that your faythfull good wil, which hath bene euer trusty to the honour of this Impery, neuer yet blemished from the first beginning of the citie, and of relygion, will prouide, that it shall haue no hurte nowe, through the straunge noueltie, and presumptuous pride of such. Which thinge rather, than it should come to passe, knowe you this, for certaine, I had rather incurre the daunger of death rather, I say, than to suffer such cōfusion to happen in our daies.

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This letter of Cesar fretted the Pope not a litle, who wrote again to the bishoppes of Germany, accusing the Emperour, and willing thē to worke against him, what they coulde. They aunswer againe withall obedience to the pope, submitting them selues, and yet excusinge the Emperour, and blaming him rather: And exhorted him henceforthe to temper his letters and legaces with more gentlenes and modestie: the which councell he also followed, perceiuinge otherwise, that he could not preuaile.

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Much trouble had good Fridericus with this Pope, but much more wyth the other, that followed: For this pope continued not very long, the space only of foure yeares, & odde monethes vnder whose time, or not muche aboue, liued MarginaliaGratianus petrus Lombardus. Petrus Comestor. Auicenna. Abbas Ioachimus.Gratianus compiler of the Popes decrees, and Petrus Lombardus: also Petrus Comestor: Auicenna, Abbas Joachim9. MarginaliaThe order of EremitsAbout which time also rose vp thorder of the Eremites by one William, once Duke of Aquitania, and afterward a Frier. MarginaliaAn. 1159. The saying and iudgemēt of pope Adrianus of the papal sea.This Hadrianus walking wt his Cardinals abrode, to a place called Anaguia, or Arignanum, (as Voleteran calleth it) chanced to be choked wyth a flie, gettinge into his throte, and so strangeled, who in the latter time of hys papacy, was wont to say, that ther is no more miserable kinde of life in the earthe, than to be aPope. MarginaliaThe popes rather successours to Romulus then to Petrus.And to come to the papacy by bloud, that is (said he) not to succede Peter, but rather Romulus, who to raign alone, did slay his brother,

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MarginaliaAlexander iii. Pope.Although this Adrian was bad inoughe, yet came the next muche worse, one Alexander iii. of that name. Who yet was not elected alone. For besides him, the Emperour, wyth ix. Cardinals, albeit Sabellicus saith, but wyth three, did set vp an other Pope named Victor the iiii: betwene these two Popes rose a foule schisme, and great discord, and so longe continued. In so much that the Emperour being required to take vp the matter, sent for them bothe, to appeare before him, that in hearing them both, he might iudge their cause the better. Victor came, but Alexander disdaining that his matter shuld come in controuersy, refused to appeare. Where vpon the Emperoure wyth a full consent of hys Bishops, and clergy about him, assigned and ratified the election of Victor to stād. And so brought him into the city, ther to be receiued and placed. MarginaliaAlexander curseth the EmperourAlexander flyinge into Fraunce accursed them both, sending his letters to all christendome, as men to be auoided and cast out of al christen cōpany. Also to get him frends at Rome, by flattery, and money, got on his side the greatest parte of the citie, both to the fauouring of hym, and to the setting vp of such consules, as were for his purpose. After this Alexander comminge from Fraunce to Sicile, from thence to Rome, was there receiued with much fauoure, through the helpe of Philip the french king.

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MarginaliaAn. 1164.The Emperoure hearinge this rebellion and cōspiracy in Rome, remoued wyth great power into Italy, wher he had destroyed diuers great cities. Comming at lengthe to Rome, he required the citizens: that the cause betwixte the two Popes might be decised, and him which had the best right to be takē. If they wold so do, he wold restore again that, which he toke from them before. Alexander mistrusting his parte, and doubting the willes of the citezens, hauynge shyppes ready prepared for him, from William Duke of Apulia, fetch a course about to Venis.

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To declare here the difference in histories, betwene Blondus, Sabellicus, and the Venitian chronicles, with other wryters, concerning the order of this matter, I will ouerpasse. In thys most do agree: that the pope being at Venis, and required to be sēt of þe Venetiās, to themperour, they wold not sēd him. Whervpon Fridericus themperour sent thither his sōne Otho, wyth men and ships wel apoynted, charging hym not to attempt any thing before his comming. The yong mā more hardy, than circumspect, ioyning with the Venetians, was ouercome, and so takē brought into the city. Hereby the Pope toke no small occasion to worke his feates.

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The father to helpe the captiuity and miserye of his sonne, was compelled to submit him selfe to the Pope, and to intreat for peace.

Pope Alexander treading on the necke of Fredericke the Emperour.
woodcut [View a larger version]
Commentary on the Woodcuts  *  Close
This significant moment of papal humiliation, already valued as a precedent in the time of Henry VIII, featured in a woodcut in Robert Barnes, Bapsttrew Hadriani iiii und Alexanders iii gegen keyser Friderischen Barbarossa geübt, which Foxe's illustrator clearly borrowed from. This is among the images in the Acts and Monuments that show borrowings from German sources. As with the Canossa illustration, this image had to be pasted in and folded into the 1563 edition, since there was not enough room on the page to include a woodcut of this size. This illustration appears to have wielded some considerable influence, well into the seventeenth century, inspiring further visual representations of anti-papal sentiment. In the Pope-Burning procession in London in 1680, for example, one float carried figures depicting a seated pope holding the papal keys in one hand, with his foot on the neck of a monarch lying prostrate at his feet. This is unmistakably a conflation of two woodcut pictures from the Acts and Monuments: this,of Pope Alexander III treading on the neck of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, and that depicting the Pope seated on the papal throne holding the keys aloft while the monarch humbly kisses his foot. (See below 'Proud primacy of popes', no. 4 (B), p. 928). CUL copy: The curtains in the background are in a particularly bright green. The cardinal is dressed in bright orange, with some detail in red. The archbishop behind him is in papal white with a yellow pallium, which is tinted (possibly as shading) in purple. His mitre is in yellow with purple details. Frederick wears purple, with pink sleeve / gown with brown fur edging. The pope is in a white simar, with a pallium, which is the same as that worn by the archbishop, although the pope's has green edging also. Note that his gauntlets are bright orange and red, with yellow details and his papal slippers are yellow with red crosses. His papal tiara is in yellow, with purple velvet. The ferula in his hand is in yellow, with a white napkin. WREN copy: Coloured similarly to the CUL copy but in this one the footwear worn by the pope is a reddish-orange with yellow crosses (essentially the reverse the CUL copy).

So
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