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cute these Iniunctions, MarginaliaGood ministers required.and doo their duety otherwise, that ye are bounden to doo in euerye behalf accordingly, and profyt their cure no les with good example of liuing, than with declaration of the woord of God, or els their lacke and defaultes shall be imputed vnto you, who shall straightlye aunswer for the same, if they doo otherwyse.

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Item, that you shall admit no man to preach wythin anye your benefices or cures, but suche as shall appeare vnto you to be suffyciently licensed thervnto by the kinges highnesse or hys graces autority, or the bishop of the dioces, and such as shalbe so licensed ye shall gladly receiue to declare the word of God without anye resystance or contradiction.

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MarginaliaPilgrimage and images abandoned.Item, if he haue heretofore declared to your parishners, any thing to the extollinge and setting forth of Pilgrimages to fained reliques or Images, or any such superstition, ye shal nowe openlye afore the same recante and reproue the same shewing them (as the trouthe is) that you did the same vpon no grounde of scripture, but as one being led and seduced by a commen errour and abuse crept into the Church, through the sufferaunce and auarice of such as felt profit by the same.

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MarginaliaThe worde of God to be preached wythout stop or interruption.Item, if ye do or shal know any within your parish, or els where that is a letter of the word of God to be red in English or syncerely preached, or of the execution of these iniunctions, or a fautor of the byshop of Romes pretensed power now by the lawes of this realme iustly reiected and extirped, ye shall detecte and put the same to the kinges hyghnesse or hys honorable counsell or to his Vicegerent aforsaid, or to the iustice of peace next adioyning.

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MarginaliaRegester boke for euery parishItem, that you and euery Person, Vicare or curate wythin this dioces shal for euery church kepe one boke of register, wherin ye shal wryte the day and yere of euery wedding, christening, and burying made within your parish for your time, and so euery man succeding you likewise, and also therein set euerye persones name, that shall be so wedded, christened or buried, and for the safe keping of the same boke, the parish shal be bound to prouide of theyr common charges, one sure coffer with ii. locks and keies, wherof the one to remaine wyth you, and the other wyth the Wardens of euerye suche Paryshe, where in the sayde booke shal be laid vp, which booke ye shall euerye Sondaye take forth, and in the presence of the sayde Wardens or one of theþ, wryte & record in the same al the weddings christeninges, and buriynges made the whole weke before, and that done to laye vp the sayde boke in the sayde coffer as a fore, and for euerye tyme the same shall be omitted that partye that shalbe in the faut therof, shall forfait to the sayd church iii. shillynges iiii. pens to be emploid on the reparatyon of the same church.

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Item, that ye shall ones euerye quarter of a yere, read these and the other former Iniunctyons geuen vnto you by auctority of the kinges highnes openly and deliberately before al your parishoners, to the entent that bothe you maye be the better admonished of your duety, & your saide parishoners the more incited to ensue the same for their part.

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Item, for as much as by a law established, euery man is bound to pay his tithes, no manne shall by coloure of duety, omitted by their Cu-rates, deteine their tithes, and so redubble one wrong with a nother, or be his own iudge MarginaliaTithes to be payed.but shall truely pay the same as hath bene accustomed to theyr Persones and Curates wythoute any restraint or dyminution. And suche lacke & default as they can iustly finde in their persons and Curates to call for reformation there of at their ordinaryes, and other superiours handes who vpon complaint and due profe therof shall reforme the same accordingly.

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Item 

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Diarmaid MacCulloch observes that this provision is a late insertion into the text of these injunctions and included to justify the forthcoming destruction of Thomas Becket's shrine at Canterbury (Diarmaid MacCulloch, Thomas Cranmer (New Haven, 1996), pp. 226-7).

, that no Person shall from henceforthe altare or chaunge the order and manner of any fastyng daye that is commaunded and indycted by the churche, nor of prayer nor of deuyne seruice, otherwyse then is specifyed in the said Iniunctions vntyl such time as the same shalbe so ordered and transposed by the kinges hyghnes auctority. The Euēs of such sainctes whose holy daies be abrogated only excepted, which shal be declared henceforth to be no fastinge dayes, MarginaliaBeckets day abrogate.excepte also the commemoration of T. Becket sometime Archbishop of Cauntorbury, whyche shalbe cleane omitted, and instead therof the feriall seruice vsed.

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MarginaliaKnollynge of Auees forbidden. Item, that the knollynge of the Auees after seruice, and certaine other times, whyche hathe beene broughte in and begon by the presence of the bishop of Romes pardon, henceforth be left and omitted, least the people do here after trust to haue pardone for the sayinge of theyr Auees betwene the said knollyng, as they haue doone in tymes past.

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MarginaliaSuffrages of saintes reiected.Item, where in tymes past men haue vsed in diuers places in theyr Processyons to synge Ora pro nobis to so manye sayntes, that they had no time to sing the good suffrages followinge, as Parce nobis domine. &Libera nos domine, it must be taughte and preached, that better it were to omyt Ora pro nobis, and to syng the other suffrages beinge mooste necessarye and effectuall. All which and singuler Iniunctions, I minister vnto you and to your Parishoners by the kynges highnes auctority to me cōmitted in this part, whyche I charge & commaund you by the same autority to obserue and kepe vpon pain of depriuation, sequestration of your frutes, or such other cohertyon as to the king or his vicegerēt for this time being shalbe sene conuenyent.

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¶ The history of master Ihon Lābert otherwise called Nycolson, wyth the actes and processe of king Henrye the viii. and the byshops agaynst hym, by whome he was condempned and burned at London. Anno. 1538. 
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John Lambert

In the Rerum, Foxe presented a rather lengthy account of the martyrdom of John Lambert (Rerum, pp. 146-54). It began with a verbose description of Satan's unceasing efforts to stir up discord and of how, thanks to the devil, Henry VIII , after the dissolution of the monasteries, began to turn against the evangelicals. Foxe then related how Lambert got into a discussion of the sacrament with John Taylor and how this led to Lambert's arrest for heresy. This is followed by a detailed account of Lambert's trial before Henry VIII. (Foxe would reveal in the 1570 edition that his source for this narrative was one 'A. G'. This was very probably Anthon Gilby, who shared Lambert's theological beliefs and who shared a residence with Foxe in Frankfurt in 1554-55). This in turn is followed by an 'apostrophe' to Henry VIII, warning him (and all princes) that they would face divine judgement if they murdered God's saints. In the Rerum, Foxe also mentioned that Lambert had written a treatise defending his beliefs. Foxe summarised this treatise. (The work referred to was A treatyse made by Johan Lambert, was edited by John Bale and almost certainly he had informed Foxe of the treatise and its contents). Foxe concluded with a story of Thomas Cromwell having Lambert brought to him before his execution and begging the martyr's forgiveness. In the first edition of the Acts and Monumnts, Foxe reprinted the account from the Rerum, but also added some new material. He added the details that Thomas Bilney converted Lambert, that Lambert know both Latin and Greek, and that he was chaplain to the Merchant Adventurers in Antwerp. Most importantly, Foxe added the 45 articles charged against Lambert in 1532 and Lambert's responses to them. Foxe's source for these does not survive, but it was almost certainly a separate court book of the proceedings. Where Foxe found it is harder to answer; the natural place for it have been kept would have been Lambeth, but there is no other indication that Foxe consulted the records there before 1563.

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In the Dialogi sex Harpsfield made a number of pointed objections to the claims of Henry VIII and Elizabeth to being Supreme Heads of the English Church (Dialogi sex, pp. 989-91). Among other things, Harpsfield observed that Foxe had denounced Henry for executing Lambert and had even warned the king of his possible damnation (Dialogi sex, p. 991). Although he did not state it explicitly, Harpsfield had made a telling point: If Henry VIII was truly the Supreme Head of the Church, how could his judgement that Lambert was a heretic be questioned? Foxe saw the problem and, in the account of Lambert, he quietly dropped his 'apostrophe' to Henry VIII, although he replaced it with a general warning that even princes would have to account to God for their actions (This oration was dropped from the 1570 edition because Harpsfield had used it to question the validity of the title of Supreme Head of the English Church which had been claimed by Henry and Elizabeth). Foxe also added, for the first time, a note identifying 'A. G.' as the source for the account of Lambert's trial; this verification may also have been a response to Harpsfield.

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Foxe made other changes to the account of Lambert in 1570. He re-arranged the account to place it in a more coherent order. He also added more precise detail on the circumstances of Warham's examination of Lambert (concerning Frith's arrest and examination in 1538). He also added detail on the protracted agony of Lambert's execution, which he must have obtained from an eyewitness. Most importantly, Foxe finally obtained Bale's edition of A treatyse made by Johan Lambert…(Wesel, 1548?), STC 15180 and reprinted it. The 1570 account of Lambert was itself reprinted without change in subsequent editions of the Acts and Monuments.

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In some ways, the most surprising thing about Foxe's account of Lambert is that he included it in the Acts and Monuments at all. In several respects, it presented Foxe with severe embarassments. For one thing, as we have seen, Henry VIII's direct, and enthusiastic, involvement in Lambert's trial created problems for Foxe. Worse yet was the role of the future martyr Thomas Cranmer and of Foxe's ideal godly magistrate Thomas Cromwell, in condemning Lambert. Foxe did try to alleviate these embarrassments by unconvincingly attempting to blame Lambert's prosecution on Stephen Gardiner and other Henrician bishops (See A treatyse made by Johan Lambert…, ed. John Bale (Wesel, 1548?), STC 15180). Foxe also related an implausible tale of Cromwell asking Lambert for his forgiveness (It is highly unlikely that Cromwell would have had someone condemned by the king brought to his and that he would have sought the condemned man's forgiveness. This anecdote has to regarded as another attempt by Foxe to alleviate the embarrassment caused by Lambert's having been denounced by other evangelicals). Nevertheless the account of Lambert was of considerable use to Foxe for one basic reason: apart from John Frith, Lambert was the only Henrician martyr who articulated a Eucharistic theology with which Foxe was largely in agreement. Lambert, and his writings, were invaluable to Foxe in providing a Reformed ancestry for the theology of the Elizabethan church.

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Thomas S. Freeman

MAyster Lambert 

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Lambert's trial before Henry VIII began on 16 November 1538; he was executed on 22 November 1538.

was conuerted by master Bilney, and mayster Arthur, he was a Nofolke man born, did forsake his filthy priesthode of Antichrist, and after wēt to the vniuersity of Cambridge, and there profited much in the Greke tounge, and translated many workes out of the Laten and Greke tounge, into our mother tounge, and so continued in Cambridge a while, and then went beyonde the seas to Tindall and Frith, & there remained a xii. month and more 
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Foxe does not mention that Lambert was summoned before Convocation on 27 March 1531 and then he returned to Antwerp.

, and was pre

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