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671 [615]

tum ipse acceperat 

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The quote is taken from 'De Spiritu sancto', book ii, p.808. The bishops draw out the equity argument for Paul and Peter. The Henrician apologist often referred to Ambrose, as his writings could be interpreted against the theory of the church's foundation on one human figure.

ad fundandam ecclesiam: se quoque pati modo electum vt primatum habeat in fundandis ecclesiis Gentium. Et paucis interiectis. Ab hiis itaque (videlicet Apostolis) qui inter cæteros clariores erant probatum dicit Paulus donum quod accepit a Deo, vt dignus esset habere primatum gentium, sicut habebat Petrus in prædicatione circumcisionis. Et sicut dat Petro socios viros egregios inter Apostolos, ita sibi iungit Barnabam, qui diuino iudicio ei adiunctus est: gratiam tamen primatus sibi soli vindicat concessam a Deo, sicut & soli Petro concessa est inter Apostolos dederuntque sibi inuicem dexteras &c. Et Paulo post Quis auderet (inquit Ambrosius) primo Apostolo resistere, nisi alius talis, qui fiducia electionis suæ sciens se non imparem, constanter improbaret quod ille sine consilio fecerit?

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Which may thus be englyshed: He nameth Peter onely, and compareth hym to hym selfe, for he receiued a primacie to buylde a Churche, and that he in lyke sorte was chosen to haue a prymacie in buylding the churches of the Gentiles. And shortly after it followeth. Of the Apostles he sayeth, his gifte was alowed whiche he had receiued of God, that he myght be found worthy to haue the primacy in preaching to the Gentylles, as Peter hadde in preachyng to the Iewes. And as he assigned to Peter for his cōpanions, whiche were the chosen men amongst the Apostles, euen so also dothe he take to hym selfe Barnabas who was ioyned vnto hym by Gods iudgement, yet did he chalenge styll to hym selfe alone the prerogatiue or primacie whiche God hadde graunted hym as to Peter alone was it graunted among other of the Apostles. So that the Apostles of the circumcisiō gaue their handes to the Apostles of the Gentiles to declare their concorde in felowshyppe, that eyther of theim should know that they had receyued the perfection of the spirite in the preachyng of the Gospel, and so should not nede either other in any matter. MarginaliaEqualitie of degree amōg the Apostles. And shortly after, who should dare resist Peter the chiefe Apostle, but an other suche a one, whiche by the confydence of his election myght knowe hymselfe to be no lesse, and so myght reproue boldelye that thynge whiche he inconsyderately had done &c. This equalitie of dignitie of Paule, whiche S. Ambrose affyrmeth by scripture to be equally cōmitted to Peter and Paule S. Cypriane and S. Hierome 

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This refers to St Cyprian (d.258), who was converted to Christianity late in life, and to St Jerome (c.347-420), who is best known as the translator of the out of its original languages into the Latin edition known as the Vulgate. These church fathers were useful for the parity argument as both recognized Peter and Paul as sectarian leaders (Jews and Gentiles respectively).

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, do extende to all the Apostles. MarginaliaDe simplicitate clerico Cypriane saying thus: 
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This comes from Cyprian's treatise entitled 'On the unity of the church' (which can be found in The Writings of Cyprian, 2 vols., ed. by A Roberts and J Donaldson (Edinburgh, 1882), i, pp.377-98). The quote comes early in the work (pp.380-1).

Hoc erant vtique & ceteri Apostoli, quod fuit Petrus, pari consortio præditi, & honoris & potestatis. Vndoubtedly, all the reste of the Apostles were the same that Peter was, endewed with lyke equalitie of honoure and power. MarginaliaContra Ioanum. And S. Hierome thus: 
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This comes from Jerome's treatise 'Contra Jovinianum' (which can be found in Nicene and Post Nicene Fathers, second series, 14 vols., ed. by Henry R Percival (New York, 1890-1900), vi, pp.346-416. The quote comes early in the work (pp.350-1).

Cuncti Apostoli claues regni celorum accipiunt, & ex æquo super eos Ecclesiæ fortitudo fundatur: All the Apostles receyued the keyes of the kyngdome of heauen, and vpon them as indifferently and equally is the strengthe of the churche grounded and establyshed. Whiche S. Hierome also aswell in his commentaries 
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The bishops were making an argument that the primacy of Rome was a human institution without scriptural foundation [see, Public Records Office, State Papers 1/113, fols.5rv]. The references to the treatise of Jerome is to his 'Commentariorum In Epistolam ad Titum (Liber Unus)' (which can be found in Patrologiae cursus completus: series Latina, 221 vols., ed. by J P Migne (Paris, 1844-1903), vii, pp.555-600). The quote comes early in the work (at p.566). The bishops also refer here to a letter of Jerome to Evagrius. This is probably Evagrius of Antioch (an early friend and patron of Jerome) although no specific letter to be found in the edited collections of Jerome epistles. As Evagrius' selection as bishop of Antioch was disputed as unlawful at the time, a letter to his friend on the authority and role of a bishop makes some sense.

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vpō the Epistle to Tite, as in his Epistle to Euagrius, sheweth that these primacies long after Christes ascention, were made by the deuise of men, where before, Communi clericorum consilio singulæ Ecclesiæ regebantur etiam patriarchales. By the commune agrement of the clergie euery of the churches were gouerned, yea the Patriarchall churches. The wordes of S. Hierome be these. MarginaliaCa. 1. super. Sciant ergo episcopi se magis ex consuetudine quam dispensationis dominicæ veritate, presbyteris esse maiores: Let the byshops vnderstand, that they be grea-ter then other priestes, rather of custome, then by the vertue and veritie of the Lordes ordinaūce. And in his Epistle to Euagrius he hath lyke sentence, and addeth thereto: Vbicunque fuerit episcopus, siue Romæ, siue Eugubii, siue Constantinopoli, &c. Wheresoeuer a byshop be, either at Rome, or at Eugubin, or at Constantinople. &c. he is of all one worthines, and of al one priesthod. MarginaliaDifference betwixt byshops and priestes howe it came in. And that one was elected whiche should be preferred before other, it was deuysed to the redresse of scismes, leaste any one chalengyng to muche to them selfe, should rente the churche of Christe. These wordes onely of saint Hierome, be sufficiēt to proue that Christ by none of these thre textes (whiche be all that you and others do alledge for your opinion) gaue to Peter any suche superioritie, as the Byshop of Rome by theim vsurpeth. And that Peter nor no other of the chiefe Apostles did vendicate suche primacie or superioritie, but vtterly refused it. And therfore gaue preheminence aboue them selues to one, that though he be sometymes called an Apostle, yet he was none of the xij. as Eusebius in the beginning of his second booke 
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The bishops here refer to Eusebius, Church History (which can be found in Nicene and Post Nicene Fathers, second series, 14 vols., ed. by Henry R Percival (New York, 1890-1900), i, pp.73-405 (lib.ii). James the Just is considered either the half-brother or step-brother of Jesus and was the first bishop of Jerusalem.

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called Historia ecclesiastica, doothe testifie, alledging for him the great and auncient clerke Clementem Alexandrinum saying thus. Petrus, Iacobus ac Iohannes post assumptionem saluatoris, quamuis ab ipso fuerant omnibus pene prælati, tamen non sibi vendicarunt gloriam, sed Iacobum qui dicebatur Iustus, Apostolorum Episcopum statuunt: Peter, Iames and Iohn, after Christes ascention into heauen, although they were by hym preferred wel nye before all other, yet they chalenged not that glory to them selfe, but decreed that Iames, who was called Iustus, should be chiefe bishop of the Apostles. By these wordes it is cleare that Iames was the Byshoppe of the Apostles, not because, as some menne doo glose, he was elected by the Apostles, but because he hadde thereby primacie and honor of a byshop in Ierusalem, aboue the rest of the Apostles. And one thyng is especially to be noted, and also marueled at, that the byshoppes of Rome do chalenge this primacie alonely by Peter, and yet Saynt Paule whiche was his equall, or rather superiour by scripture in his Apostolate amongst the Gentils, whereof Rome was the principall, suffred at Rome where Peter did, and is commonly in all the churche Romane, ioyned with Peter, in all appellacions and titles of preheminence: And both be called Principes Apostolorum. The chiefe of the Apostles. Vpon both is equally founded the church of Rome, the accounting of byshoppes of Rome, many yeares agreeth thereunto. MarginaliaLib. 5. cap. 21. For Eusebius sayeth that Clemens tertius post Paulum & Petrum, pontificatum tenebat: That Clement was the thyrde byshop after S. Paul and Peter: Reconyng them both as byshoppes of Rome. And yet therin preferryng S. Paule. Wyth lyke woordes saying of Alexander byshoppe of Rome, that Quinta successione post Petrum atque Paulum, plebis gubernacula sortitus est: Alexander obtayned the gouernaunce of the people by succession, the fyfte Byshoppe after Peter and Paule, Irenæus also, as MarginaliaLib. 5. Eusebius reciteth, that Fundata &ædificita Ecclesia beati Apostoli, Lino officium Episcopatus iniungunt. After the churche was ones founded and buylded, they charged Linus with the Byshoprike of the holy Apostle. Whereby appeareth, that they both ioyntly constituted hym byshop of Rome, and

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receyued
KK.ij.
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