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673 [617]

MarginaliaHist. tripartita lib. 4 Cap. 6.Truthe it is, that the Byshoppes of the Orient, for debates in matters of the faythe, amonges theim selues made sutes to the Byshop of Rome, but that was not for the superioritie of iurisdiction vpon them, but because thei were greatly deuided. And those countreis as well Byshoppes as others muche infected with the heresies of the Arrians 

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An anti-Trinitarian sect condemned at Nicaea. Arians believed that the Father, Son and Holy Spirit were not of the same substance.

, whereof the Weste was in a maner cleare. And among the Orientes none were counted indifferent to decyde those matters, but were all suspecte of affection for one cause or other: wherefore they desyred the opinions of the Byshoppes of the West, as indifferent, vntangled with affections of any of those partes, and incorrupted with any of the Arrians, as apeareth by the Epistles of saynt Basill, wrytten in all theyr names for the sayde purpose. In the whiche also it is especially to be noted that their sute was not to the byshoppe of Rome syngularly, or by name: but as the tytles do shewe, to the whole congregacion of byshoppes of Italy, and Fraunce, or of the whole Weste, and sometyme preferryng the Frenche byshoppes saying, Gallis, & Italis, and neuer namyng the Romaynes. Marginaliaprisci partres primacum Ro. ecclæ ignorabāt. And for a cleare profe that the auncient fathers knewe not thys primacie of one aboue all, we neede none other testimonie, but their determination in the councell of Nyce, that Alexandria and Antiochia, and vniuersally of other primates, should haue the whole gouernaunce of theyr consyne countries, lykewyse as the byshop of Rome had of his Suburbicans. And this determination proueth also, that your three Scriptures ment nothyng lesse, then this primacie ouer al. For God forbidde that we shoulde suspecte that counsell as ignoraunt of those playne Scriptures, to the whiche sythe that tyme all Christendome hath leaned, as the anker of our fayth. And yf you lyke to reade the auncient ecclesiasticall histories, there you may see, that Athanasius and other Patriarkes dyd execute that primacie, as in makyng, cōsecratyng and orderyng of churches, Byshoppes and clerkes in theyr coūtreis East and South, as the byshoppes of Rome in that tyme did in the West and North. And if ye would yet any thing obiect against any of these wytnes, then for to eschewe contention, and for a finall conclusion, let the byshop of Rome stande to his owne cōfession made many yeares past by his predecessoure Agatho 
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The bishops refer here to Pope St Agatho of the late seventh century and to his epistles to emperors Constantine, Heraclius and Tiberius, wherein Roman supremacy was supposedly denied. These letters can be found in Agatho, 'S Agathonis Papae Epistolae', in Patrologiae cursus completus: series Latina, 221 vols., ed. by J P Migne (Paris, 1844-1903), lxxxvii, pp.1161-1260.

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, to the Emperour Constantine, Heraclius, and Tiberius, in his Epistle wrytten to them in his name, and in the name of all the Synodes whiche he thought to be vnder the sea Apostolyke, wherin sone after the beginning of the espistle, he comprehēded thē al vnder the name of the byshops dwelling in the North & West partes of theyr Empyre, So that there in his own epistle, he cōfesseth all his subiectes or obedienciaries, to be only of the north & west: & so appeareth euidētly by his owne confession, that neither by gods lawe nor mans lawe he had to do with any persone of the east or the south. And this his hyghe soueraignitie ouer all chalēged, as you & others say, by scripture, as by his own confession quayled & brought to a litle and straighte angle. And this Agatho, was not a man vnlearned, as appeareth by the actes of the vj. synode Constantinopolitane in the iiij. acte, wherin is written at large, & expressed the said epistle & confession. And afore the primacie of Peter, which aunciētdoctors speake of, that was only in preachynge and teaching the faith of Christ, which he first among all the Apostles, & first of all mortall mē, did expresse with his mouth. MarginaliaPrimatus Petro nō habet successores. That primacie did so adhere to his own persone, that it was neuer deriued neither to any successour, nor to other Apostle, but chiefly to himselfe: for all other professing after the same, spake it after him, who had professed it before. MarginaliaApoc. xxi. Moreouer all the Apostles, as S. Iohn sayth, be fundamēts in the heauenly Ierusalem, & not Peter only. Moreouer Ciprian affirmeth, as is aforesaid, that al the Apostles were of equall dignitie & power, which all auncient autours likewyse do affirme. For Christ gaue 
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Matthew 28.19.

the Apostles like power in the gospel saying: MarginaliaMat. 18. Ite, docete omnes gentes, baptizantes eos. &c. Go and teache all nations, baptizing thē &c. And S. Paul as is sayd before, knew no other primacie geuen to Peter to preach in any place, but among the Iewes, as he himself had amōg the Gentiles, as he writeth to the Galathians, 
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The entire epistle is a vindication of Paul's apostolic authority, but especially 1.11-2.21.

where S. Ambrose, as is afore saide, affirmeth the same. And that the mother of al churches is Ierusalē, as afore is said & not Rome, the scripture is plaine, both in the prophet Esay: 
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Isaiah 2.3.

MarginaliaEsay. 11. De Siō exibit lex, & verbum Domini de Ierusalem: Out of Sion shal the lawe procede, & the word of the lord out of Ierusalem. Vpon the which place S. Ierome saith, In Hierusalē primum fundata ecclesia, totius orbis ecclesias seminauit: Out of the church first founde in Ierusalem, sprong al other churches of the whole worlde. And also in the gospell, which Christ before his ascension commaunded his Apostles to preache ouer al the worlde, beginning first at Ierusalē: So that the byshops of Rome vniuersal power by him claimed ouer all, can not by any scripture be iustified, as if ye haue red the auncient fathers expositions of the said scripturs, as we suppose you haue sith your letters sent hither concerning this matter, and would geue more credence to their humble and plaine speaking, then to the latter contentious and ambicious wryters of that highe, & aboue the Ideas of Plato 
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This begins a section devoted to rational thinking.

his subtiltie (whiche passeth as ye wryte) the lawyers learning and capacitie: we doubt not, but that ye perceiue & thinke the same. And where ye thinke that the kynge can not be taken as supreme head of the church, because he can not exercise the chief office of the church in preaching & ministring of the Sacramentes, it is not requisite 
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In his Pro Ecclesiasticae Unitatis Defensione, Pole had made the argument that he could never accept any argument of supreme authority invested in a temporal ruler (or sacerdotal monarchy) making the familiar argument that; 'If the soul is superior to the body, then faith is superior to reason, thus spiritual to temporal, and church over state', and used this as evidence that popes are superior to kings [for which, see Pro Ecclesiasticae Unitatis Defensione (Rome, c.1537), sigs. xxiv-xxiirv]. The bishops respond [at Public Records Office, State Papers 1/113, fol.8v] with Plato's famous body analogy [found in Timaeus]. In essence, the 'body politic' is examined through a series of logical connections between society and the human body - society (due to the organic nature of the state) should function is a manner similar to a body.

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in euery body naturall that the head shall exercise either all maner of offices of the body, or the chief office of the same. For albeit the head is the highest and chiefe member of the natural body, yet the distributiō of life to al the mēbers of the body aswell to the head as to other mēbers, cometh from the heart and is minister of lyfe to the whole body as the chief acte of the body. This similitude yet hath not his full place in a misticall body, although the scriptvre speaking 
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I Samuel 15.17.

of kyng Saul saith: Marginalia1. Reg. Cum esses paruulus in oculis tuis, cōstitui te caput in tribubus Israel: When thou wert but of smale reputation in thine own eyes, I made the head amōgst the tribes of Israel. And if a kyng amongst 
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The bishops are drawing a logical conclusion.

the Iewes were Caput in tribubus israel: hoc est hominum videntium deum per vmbram, tempore legis, multo magis princeps christianus caput est in tribubus israel, hoc est vere per fidem videntium Christū, qui est finis legis: The head in the tribes of Israel: that is of men which se God by a shadow in the time of þe law, much more is a christiā king head in þe tribes of

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spiritual Israel
KK.iij.
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