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674 [618]

Actes and Monumentes of the Church.

Israel, that is: of suche whiche by true fayth see Christ whiche is the ende of the lawe. The office deputed to the Byshops 

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Ezekiel 3.17. This carries on both the natural/political body analogy and the commonality of the authority of spiritual officers (priests/bishops) arguments. The bishops flesh this out below with comparisons between the authority of a king with that of an admiral at sea and a captain on the field of battle.

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in the misticall body, is to be as eies to the whole body, as almighty God saith to the prophet Ezechiel: MarginaliaEzeh. iii. Speculatorē te dedi Domui Israel. I haue made thee an ouerseer ouer the house of Israel. And what byshop so euer refuseth to vse the office of an eie in the mysticall body, to shew vnto the body the right waye of lyuing, whiche appertayneth to the spirituall eye to doo, shall shewe him selfe to be a blynde eye: and if he shall take other office in hande then appertayneth to the ryght eye, shal make a confusion in the body, takyng vpō him an other office, then is geuen to him of God. Wherfore if the eie wyll take vpō him the office of the whole head, it may be answered vnto it, it can not so doo, for it lacketh brayne. And examples sheweth likewyse, that it is not necessary alwayes that the head should haue the facultie or chiefe office of administratiō, you may see in a nauie by sea, where the Admyrall, who is captayne ouer all, doth not medle with steryng or gouernyng of euery shyppe, but euery maister particular must dyrecte the shyppe, to passe the Sea in breakyng the waues, by his stearyng and gouernaunce, whiche the Admyrall the head of all, dooth not hym selfe, nor yet hath the facultie to doo, but commaundeth the maisters of the shyppe to do it. And lykewyse many a captayne of great armies, which is not able, nor neuer coulde peraduenture shoote or breake a speare by his own strength, yet by his wysdome and commaundement onely, he atchiueth the warres, and attaineth the victory. And where ye thynke that vnitie standeth not only in the agreing in one fayth and doctrine of the churche, but also in agreing in one head: if ye meane the 
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This is a reference to St Augustine's City of God (book 22, chapter 18). The allusion is to the church as body and Christ as head of that body. This is to counter any argument of papal supremacy.

very & only head ouer al the churche our sauiour Christe: Quem pater dedit caput super omuem ecclesiam, quæ est corpus eius: Whome the father hath set ouer all the churche, whiche is his body, wherein all good Christian men do agre, ye saye truthe. And if ye meane of any one mortall man to be head ouer all the churche, & that to be the bishop of Rome, we do not agre with you. For you do there erre in the true vnderstāding of scripture, or els ye must saye, that the said councell of Nice and other moste auncient did erre, whiche deuided the administration of churches, the Orient from the Occident, & the South from the North, as is before expressed. And that Christ 
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Matthew 18.20.

the vniuersall head, is present in euery churche, the gospel sheweth. MarginaliaMat. xviii Vbi duo veltres, congregati fuerint in nomine meo, ego in medio eorum sum Where two or thre be gathered together in my name, there I am in the myddes of them. MarginaliaMat. 28. And in another place: 
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Matthew 28.20.

Ecce ego vobiscum sum, vsque ad consumationem seculi: Beholde, I am with you, vntil the end of the world. By which it may apeare Christ the vniuersall head euery where, to be with his mistical body the church: who by his spirite worketh in all places (howe farre so euer they be distaunt) the vnitie and cōcorde of the same. And as for any other one vniuersall head to be ouer all, then Christ him selfe scripture proueth not, as it is shewed before. And yet of a further profe, to take awaye the scruples, that peraduenture do to your appearaunce ryse of certain wordes in some auncient authours, and especially in S. Cyprians epistles, as the vnitie of the church stode in the vni-tie with the byshop of Rome, though they neuer cal him supreme hed, if you precisely weigh and conferre al their sayinges together, ye shal perceiue that thei neither spake nor ment other thing, but when the byshop of Rome was once lawfully elected and intronizate, if then any other would by factiō, might, force, or otherwise, (the other liuing & doing his office,) enterprise to put him down, and vsurpe the same byshoprike, or exercise the others office him selfe. As Nouatianus 
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The bishops are discussing the election of Novatian (elected as antipope) during the papacy of Cornelius (c.251). St Cyprian secured support for Cornelius' rightful election as bishop of Rome (not as supreme head of the church - as Pole interpreted the epistles).

did attempt in the time of Cornelius, that then the sayde fathers, reconed them catholikes that did cōmunicate with him that was so lawfully elected, & the custome was, one primacie to haue ado one with an other, by cōgratulatorie letters, sone after the certentie of their election was knowen to kepe the vnitie of the churche. And they that did take parte or mainteine that other vsurper, to be Scismatikes, because that vsurper was a Scismatike, for that, Quia non sit fas in eadem ecclesia, duos simul episcopos, nec priorem legitimum episcopum sine sua culpa deponi: That it is not lawfull 
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The bishops are referring to epistles 41-3 [for which, see the on-line edition at http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/0506.htm].

for two byshops to be at once together in one churche. Nor that the former byshop beīg lawful, ought not to be deposed gyltlesse, without his fault be proued. And this is not a prerogatiue of Rome churche, more then of any other cathedrall, speciall, patriarchall, or metropoliticall churche, as appeareth in the iij. Epistle of the first boke, and in the viij. of the second, and of the fourth booke of S. Cypriane to Cornelius. Whose wordes & reasons, al though peraduētur might seme to conclude the vnitie of the church, in the vnitie of the bishop of Rome, because they wer all wrytten to him in his owne case, may aswel be wrytten to and of any other byshop lefully chosen and possessed, who percase should be like wyse disturbed by any factions of ambitious heretikes, as the byshops of Rome then were. And where ye thinke the name 
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This refers back to the events of 1532-3 in which Henry VIII's supreme headship was recognized. The entire point of the letter was that this, and the subsequent act of royal supremacy (1534) was not innovative but merely acknowledged the existing, natural status quo.

of Supreame head vnder Christ geuē, attributed to the kings maiestie, maketh an innouation in the churche, and pertubatiō of the order of the same: it can not be any innouatiō or trouble to the churche, to vse the roume that God hath called him to, whiche good Christian Prynces did vse in the beginning when fayth was moste pure, as S. Augustine 
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The quote is taken from 'Epistolarum Classis III, Epistolae Quas Scripsit Reliquo Vitae Tempore (ab anno 411 ad 450)' [see Patrologiae cursus completus: series Latina, 221 vols., ed. by J P Migne (Paris, 1844-1903), xxxiii, pp.471-1024 (at pp.704-8 (Ep. clxii))]. Augustine speaks of the imperial office as a kind of divine deputy position.

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ad Glorium & Eleusium sayth, MarginaliaAugust. Epist. 162. Ait enim quidam: Non debuit Episcopus pro cōsulari iudicio purgari: quasi vero ipse sibi hoc comparauerit, ac non Imperator ita quæri iusserit, ad euius curam de qua rationem Deo redditurus esset, res illa maxime pertinebat. One there is whiche sayth, that a bishop ought not to haue bene put to his purgatiō before the iudgement seate of the deputie, as thoughe he hym selfe procured it, and not rather the Emperour hym selfe caused this inquirie to be made, to whose iurisdiction (for the whiche he muste aunswere to God) that cause did especially pertaine. Chrysostome wryteth 
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Chrysostom had written extensively on imperial authority. [For a discussion, see I Barrow, A Treatise of the Pope's Supremacy (Cambridge, 1859), pp.66-8.]

of that Imperiall authoritie thus: Læsus est qui non habet parem vllum super terram, summitas & caput est omnium hominum super terram. He is offended that hath no peere at all vpon the earth, for he is the highest potentate, and the head of all men vpon earth. And Tertullianus ad Scapulam sayeth: 
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This refers to Tertullian, Liber Ad Scapulam. [See, Patrologiae cursus completus: series Latina, 221 vols., ed. by J P Migne (Paris, 1844-1903), i, pp.697-706 (at p.700)]. The argument being that all due honour and reverence is due to an emperor (whose authority is inferior only to God's).

Colimus ergo & imperatorem sic, quomodo & nobis licet, & ipsi expedit, vt hominē a deo secundum: & quicquid est a deo cōsequutū solo deo minorem, hoc enim & ipse volet: sic enim omnibus maior est, dum solo vero Deo minor est. Idem in Apologetico de Imperatoribus capite 30. Loquens ait:

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