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738 [682]

Actes and Monumentes Of the Church

deth with the Lord? Which thing as in example of al ages is to be seene: So in this late proclamation diuised by the bishoppes is in like maner exemplefied. The which proclamacion though it was sore and terrible for þt time, yet not lōg after by reson of the kings death (whō þe Lord shortly thervpon toke to his mercy) it made at length but a castell come downe. So that where the prelates thought to make their iubilie, it turned them to the Threnes of Ieremy. Such be the admirable workinges of the Lorde of hostes, whose name be sanctified for euer. This I doo not inferr for anye other purpose, but only for the works of þe Lord to be sene: premonishing the (good reader) withall, þt as touching the king (who in this proclamatiō had nothing but the name only) here is nothīg spoken by to his laud and praise. MarginaliaThe praise of king Hēry the. 8.Who of his owne nature & disposition, was so inclinable and forward in all thinges vertuous and commendable, that the like enterprise of redresse of Religion, hathe not lightlye bene sene in anye other prince christened: As in abolishinge the stout and almost inuincible autority of the Pope, in suppressing Monasteres, in repressing custome of idolatry and pilgrimage &c. Which enterprises as neuer king in England did accōplish (though some began to attempt them) before him: So yet to this day we se but few in other realmes dare folowe the same. If princes haue alwayse theyr counsell about them, that is but a common thing: If some time they haue euil coūsel ministred, that I take to be the fault rather of such aboute them, then of princes thē selues. So longe as Quene Anne, L. Cromewel. B. Cranmer. M. Denney, 

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Sir Anthony Denny was the Chief Gentleman of the Privy Chamber and thus in charge of the attendants who waited on the king.

D. Buts with such like were about him, & could preuail with him, what organe of Christes glory did more good in the church then he? 
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Death of Henry VIII

Foxe completely rewrote his conclusion of Henry VIII's reign between his 1563 and 1570 editions. (Interestingly, Foxe said nothing about the death of the king, nor did he offer final thoughts on his reign, in the Rerum). In 1563, Foxe began with thoughts on the futility of persecution and then procceeded to remark on the importance of good councillors to guide a monarch. He claimed that Anne Boleyn, Thomas Cromwell, Archbishop Cranmer, Sir Anthony Denny (the Chief Gentleman of the Privy Chamber) and Dr. William Butts, Henry's physician, were able to often guide Henry into serving the True Church. (Although only Cromwell and Cranmer could qualify as royal councillors in the strictest sense of the word, most scholars are agreed in seeing Anne Boleyn, Butts and Denny as both staunch evangelicals and individuals with considerable personal access to Henry which these used to further evangelical causes). Foxe then bewailed the increasing loss of influence that these good councillors had on Henry, and opined that Henry, goaded on by his bishops, would have continued persecuting the True Church, had his reign not been cut short by his death (1563, pp. 681-2). Foxe then described how the persecutions of Henry VIII's reign led many prominent evangelicals to recant, even though they later served God and even, in some cases, suffered martyrdom.

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In 1570, Foxe dropped all of this material. There were three basic reasons for this. The first is that Foxe had acquired important new information about the death of Henry VIII and the monarch's attitudes toward religion in general, and Stephen Gardiner in particular, at the time of his death. Even a cursory glance through this material indicates that - unless Foxe invented these anecdotes - the source for this was Cranmer. Since we know that Ralph Morrice, Cranmer's secretary supplied Foxe with material for the 1570 edition, it would seem reasonable to infer that he was Foxe's source for these narratives as well. Moreover, Morrice is cited by Foxe as his informant (Morrice having heard Sir Anthony Denny relate it to Cranmer) for the famous anecdote of Henry declaring that he eliminated Stephen Gardiner from the list of executors to his will, because the king believed that the other executors would not be able to control Gardiner as he had done.

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But Foxe also eliminated the previous account because his views on Elizabeth I had changed and this affected his treatment of Henry. As Foxe grew impatient with the failure of Elizabeth to reform the English Church, he omitted his strictures on the need for good counsel and also the relatively benign portrait of Henry with which he had closed Book 8 in his first edition (in the 1563 edition, Foxe claims that only death prevented Henry from launching a more severe persecution of evangelicals. In the 1570 edition, he dropped this material and replaced it with an account of how Henry VIII was on the brink of sweeping evangelical reforms when he died.). This was replaced by an account which was much more critical of Henry for failing to complete the Reformation he had begun and which also implicitly suggested that it was Elizabeth's duty to finish the final uprooting of Catholicism begun by her father and brother.

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Thomas S. Freeman

As is apperant by such muniments, instruments, & acts setforth by him, in setting vp the bible in the church, in explooing the Pope with his vile pardons, in remouing diuers supersitious ceremonies, in bringinge into order the inordinate orders of friers and sectes: in putting chantrey priestes to theire pensions: in permitting whit meate in lent: in distroyng pilgrimages worship: in abrogatinge idle and superfluous holy dayes, both by act publik, and also by priuate letters sent to boner, tending after this effect.

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By the king

RIght reuerend father in God right trustye and Welbeloued, we greete you wel. And wher as considering the manifolde inconuenience which haue ensued and daily do ensue to our subiectes by the greate superfluity of holly dayes we haue by the assents & cōsēts of all you the bishops and other notable personages of the clergy of thys our realme, in ful congregation and assēbli had for that purpose, abrogated and abolished, such as be neither canonical, ne meete to be suffred in a commonwelth, for the manifold inconueniences whichdo ensew of the same as is reherced. To the intent our determination therin may be dewlye obserued and accomplished we haue thought cōuenient to commaunde you imediatly vpō the recept hereof, to addresse your commaūdemēts in oure name to all the curates, religious houses, and colleages within your dioces, with a copye of the act made for the abrogacion of the hollidayes aforesaide, a transumpt whereof ye shall receaue herewith, commaundinge them & every of them in no wise, eyther in the churche or otherwise, to indicte or speake of any of the saide dayes and feastes abolished. Wherby the people might take occasion either to murmure or to contemne the order taken therin. And to continew in there accustomed idlenes, the same notwithstanding. But to passe ouer the same with such a secret silence, as they may haue like abrogation by disuse, as they haue already by our autority in conuocaciō. And for as much as the time of haruest now approcheth, our pleasure is ye shall with such dilligence and dexteritie, put this matter in execution as it may imedyatly take place for the benyfyte of my subiectes at thys tyme accordingly wythout faylynge, as ye wil aunswere vnto vs for the contrary. Geuen vnder our signet at our monastery of Chertesey the xi. day of August.

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THus while good coūsel was about him, & could be hard. he did much good. So againe when sinestre and wicked counsaile vnder subtile and craftye pretences had gotten once the fote in, thrusting truth and veritye out of the princes eares, how much as religion and all good thinges went prosperously forward before, so much on the contrary side al reuolted bakward againe. Whervpon proceaded this proclamation aboue mentioned, concerning the abolishing and burning of english bookes. Which proclamation bearing þe name of the kings maiesty, but being the very dede of the bishops: no doubt had done much hurt in the church emong the godly sort: bringing thē either in to great daunger or els keping them in much blindnes: had not the shortnes of the kinges dayes stopped the malignant purposes of the forsaid prelats, causing the king to leaue that by death vnto the people, which by his lief he would not graunt. For within 4. moneths after, the proclamatiō comming out in August he deceased 

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Henry VIII died on 28 January 1547.

in þe beginning of Ianuary in the xxxviii. yeare of his reigne, Marginalia1547.An. 1547. leauinge behinde him iii. children, who succeded him in his kingdome, king Edward, Quene Mary, & Quene Elisabeth, of whom it remaineth now to prosecute (by the permission and sufferance of Christ our hye Lorde and prince) in the proces of this history, accordinge as the order of there succession, and actes done by them in the church shall require.

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The death of this kinge, 

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Notice that in this conclusion, printed in the 1563 edition, Foxe claims that only death prevented Henry from launching a more severe persecution of evangelicals. In the 1570 edition, he dropped this material and replaced it with an account of how Henry VIII was on the brink of sweeping evangelical reforms when he died.

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as it tooke awaye a valiant, and Martiall prince out of this life so it brought no little tranquility and libertye to the church of England: for so much as many mens names were gathered and enrolled to ge-

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