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930 [930]

Actes and Monumentes Of the Church

wyll, and no man (as farre as I can call to rememberance) demaūding of him, shewed hys opinion concerning Iustification by Christ. I lament (sayd he) and repent becheching god forgiuenes for the same, that so seriouslye, and stedfastly I haue with standed thys proposition: that onely fayth doth iustify: but I allwayes feared that it should be taken to the liberty of the fleshe, & soo shoulde contaminate the innocency of lyfe which is in Christe. But, that proposition: that onely fayth doth iustyfy, is true (quod he) swete, and full of spirituall solace, if it be truly construed, and rightly vnderstanded. And when he was demaunded, what he thought to be the true and very sense therof: I vnderstande (quod he) that to be the lyuely fayth, which consisteth in our onely sauiour Iesus Christ, which doth imbrace hym: so that in our only sauioure Iesus Christ all the hope of our saluation be fastenest. And as concerning good workes (sayd he) they haue theyr croune and merit, and are not destitute of theyr rewardes. Yet neuerthelesse they do not merite the heauey kingdō. For no workes (he sayd) could purchase and obteyne that blessed, happy, and euerlasting mortalitie: no nor yet those thynges, whiche we dooe vnder grace by the motion of the holye ghost. For that blessed and mortall glory is gyuen and bestowed vppon vs mortall men of the heuenly father for hys sonne our sauiour christes sake, as Saynte Paul testifieth: the gift of god is eternal lyfe 

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Romans 6: 23.

. And these be the resolutiōs which I heard him giue to the questiōs by maister Nowel proposed: from which hys sentence & iugement so heard by me of hym vttered, I neuer as I remember declined, but euer was of the same. MarginaliaThe iudgemente of Doctor Yōg about the controuersies of religion.I besech our Lord Iesus Christ to cesse and alay these troublouse stormes wherwith the church is tossed: and that he woulde vouchsafe for hys holy name sake, tenderly to behold and loke vpon hys poore wretched flocke so miserably scattered & dispersed, beseching him of his goodnes to preserue your worship. At London the. iii. of Nouember.

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Here followeth the lamentable and no lesse worthy and notable story of William Gardiner, suffering moste constantly for the testimony of the truth.

Marginalia1552NOwe we wyll for a tyme depart, and leaue the coastes and countrie of Englande, wherupon our style hath now long stayed: and with open sayles, as it were folowyng þe tempestes of persecution, passe ouer into Portugale emonges the marchauntes, whereunto William Gardiner, an English man, of necessity calleth me, who was burned in Lishboune the chiefe citie of Portugale, in the yeare of our Lord. 1552 

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William Gardiner

This account of William Gardiner's spectacular act of sacrilege was first printed in the Rerum (pp. 203-8). A faithful translation of it was printed in the first edition of the A&M and reprinted, without significant change, in all subsequent editions. The most surprising thing about this account, however, is not Gardiner's extraordinary actions, but the accuracy of Foxe's account of them. A comparison of Foxe's narrative with the records of the Portuguese Inquisition records of the case, show that Foxe's narrative of Gardiner's crime and punishment, despite occasional errors, was accurate in even small details. [The records of the case are printed in I. da Rosa Pereira, 'O Descato na Capela Real em 1552 e o processo do calvinista inglês peranto Ordinário de Lisboa', Anais da Academia Portuguesa da Historia 29 (1984), pp. 597-623. English translations of some of these documents are available in Thomas S. Freeman and Marcelo J. Borges, '"A grave and heinous incident against our holy Catholic Faith": Two Accounts of William Gardiner's Desecration of the Portuguese Royal Chapel in 1552', Historical Research 69 (1996), pp. 2-17]. Needless to say, Foxe did not have access to these records. Rather, the accuracy of Foxe's account was clearly due to an informant who was not only present at the event, but knew Gardiner well. Foxe identifies this informant as one Pendigrace. The fact that Foxe was able to obtain this account from a person with whom he had no known association and whilst he was in exile, speaks volumes about the network of associates that supplied Foxe with information for his work, both during Mary's reign and afterwards. Yet it should also be remembered that, for all of its accuracy, Foxe's account of Gardiner provides one of the rare examples of his inventing a speech and claiming that it actually took place.

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Gardiner's case clearly caught Foxe's imagination, at least partly because of his constancy during excruciating torments. One of the rare woodcuts in the Acts and Monuments depicts Gardiner being raised and lowered into the fire (Rerum, p. 209). And Foxe wrote a poem - only printed in the Rerum - eulogizing Gardiner's fortitude and villifying his tormenters. In the A&M, Foxe made the reasons for his admiration clear. Gardiner's constancy and willingness to suffer for the Gospel made him a model for Christians to follow, if not in dying for Christ, than in living the Christian life.

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Thomas S. Freeman

. A man verely in my iudgemēt, not onely to be compared with the moste principall, and chiefe Martyrs of these our dayes 
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This is an astonishing claim and another indication of Foxe's admiration for Gardiner and his conviction that Gardiner was a model for all Christians.

, but also suche a one, as the aunciente churches in the tyme of the fyrste persecutions, can not shewe a more famous: whether that we do beholde the force of his fayth, his fyrme and stedfast constantnesse, the inuincible strēgth of hys spirite, or the cruell and horryble tormentes whiche by the onely report thereof would put any man in horror or feare. Yet notwithstandyng it dyd not somuche dyscourage hym: that it is to be doubted, whether the payne of hys body, or hys courage were the greater, when as in dede bothe appeared to be very greate. Wherefore, yf any prayse, or dignitye amongsmen, (as reason is) bee due vnto the Martyrs of Christe for theyr valiaunte actes, thys one man amonges many semeth worthy to be nōbred, and also to bee celebrate in the Churche with the Ignatians, Laurentianes, Ciriatianes, Crescentianes 
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I.e., Cyriac and Crescentius. These along with Ignatius, Laurence and Gordian, were martyrs of the early Church. Foxe is developing his belief that Gardiner was fully the equal of the martyrs of the early Church.

, and Gordianes. Wherefore yf the Church of Christe doe receyue so great and manifolde benefites by these Martyrs, with whose bloude it is watred, and fatted with theyr husbandry, strewed with their ashes, confirmed with theyr constancye, and witnesse, and finally through whose agonyes and victories the glory of the truthe and gospell dothe tryumphe: Let not vs then thinke it any great matter, to requyte them with oure duetye agayne, by committing them vnto memorye, as a perpetuall pledge of oure good wyll towardes them. Albeit, they themselues receyue no glory at our handes, and muche lesse challenge the same: but referre it wholye vnto the Lord Christ, from whom al þt in them was, came, whatsoeuer great or notable thing there was in them. 
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Foxe is careful here to remind his readers that the saints were not intercessors between God and man.

Notwithstandyng, forsomuche as Christe hymselfe is glorifyed in hys saynctes, we cannot shewe our selues thankefull vnto hym, excepte we also shew our selues thankefull vnto those, by whome his glorye dothe encrease. MarginaliaHow it cāe to passe that the primatiue church had yerely commemorations of martyrs.Hereuppon I thinke it came to passe, that the auncient Christians, in the time of the fyrst persecution, thought good to celebrate yearely commemorations of the martirdome of those holy men: not so much to honor them, as to glorify God in his souldiours, vn to whom all glory and prayse dothe worthely belong: And moreouer, that we beyng instructed by theyr examples, myghte bee the more prompt and redy in the pollicies of those warres, stande the more stoutly in battaile against our aduersaryes, and learne the more easilye to contemne and despise this world. For vnto this ende they doe not a litle preuayle. for who would greatly lōg or lust after this life, which so manye wayes is miserable, lamentable through so many tormentes, ruinous through so many casualties, and scarcely of anye long continuaunce, but onely to a few men: and yet vnto fewer geueth a free lyfe, withoute some notable calamitie or affliction? 
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This is the beginning of a long discourse by Foxe on how William Gardiner's constancy provided a model for Christians to follow in their daily lives, not in seeking martyrdom, but in resisting temptation and renouncing the pleasures of the flesh.

What good mā would haue this world in reputation, wherein he seeth so many good mē so cruelly oppressed, whereas finally no man can liue in quietnes, except he be wicked? MarginaliaThe world giueth quietnes to the wicked onely. Wherefore, I doe not a litle maruayle, in this greate slaughter of good men, with so many spectacles and examples of cruell tormente, that Christians dooe yet lyue as it were drowned in the foolishe desyres of this world, seyng dailye before theyr eyes, so many holy and innocent men yelde vp theyr spirites vnder the handes of the tormentours, to lye in filthy prisons, in bondes, darkenesse, and teares, and to be consumed with fyre. We

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