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1068 [1068]

K. Henry. 8. A Table of the Frenche Martyrs.


MarginaliaEx Gallicana hist. et Adriano.Gilleken Tielman burnt. an. 1541. Adde moueouer to the
same Catalogue of Dutch Martyrs burnt and consumed, in
the lower countreyes vnder the Emperours dominion: the
names of these folowing. William Swolle, burnt at Mechlin.
an. 1529. Nicholas Paule at Gaunt beheaded. Robert Org-
uier, and Ioan hys wife, with Baudicon and Martyn Org-
uier their children, which suffred at Lisle, an. 1556. M. Ni-
cholas burnt at Mons in Hennegow. Laurence of Brussels,
at Mons. Iames Posseau, at Mons. Cornelys Volcart, at Bru-
gis, an. 1553. Hubert the Printer, and Philip Ioyner, at Bru-
gis, an. 1553. A womā buried with thornes vnder her. Peter
le Roux, at Brugis. an. 1552. At Mechlin suffred Frances, &
Nicolas Thijs, ij. brethrē. an. 1555. At Antwerpe were burnt
Adrian a Painter and Henry a Tayler. an. 1559. Also
Cornelys Halewyne Loksmith, and Herman Ianson the
same yeare. M. Iohn Champ, scholmaster, an. 1557. with a
number of other besides, which in the said boke are to be sene
and read.

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☞ An. 1525. we read also in the French historye of a cer-
tayne Monke. who because he forsooke hys abhominable or-
der and was maryed, was burnt at Prage.


MarginaliaA preacher at Erdphord poysoned.The prie
stes of
Erdford.

A prea-
cher poyso
ned at
Erdford.

In the collections of Henry
Pantalion, we read also of a cer
teine godly preacher to be poy-
soned, for preachyng the worde
of truth, by the Priestes of Erd-
ford. Ex elegia cuiusdam vi-
ri Docti. in Pantal.


And here ceasyng with this persecution in Germa-
nie, we will nowe (Christ willyng) procede further to
the French Martyrs, comprehending in a lyke Table,
the names and causes of such as in that kyngdome suf-
fered for the woorde of God, and cause of rightuous-
nes, as in this briefe Summary consequently here vn-
der ensueth.

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An other Table of them which suffred in Fraunce for the lyke witnes of the Gospell.
The French Martyrs. 
Commentary  *  Close
French martyrs

This tabulation of French martyrs was introduced by Foxe into the 1570 edition of the A&M. It must have required a considerable investment of energy and research to prepare, and it was a substantial contribution to the work. Through it, and the accompanying tables of Spanish and German (Dutch) martyrs, Foxe clearly laid claim to situate the events in England within a European perspective - a claim that has frequently been ignored by later commentators. The table remained unchanged thereafter for the 1576 and 1583 editions - although a further edition of his key source, Jean Crespin, had appeared in 1582. By then, however, Crespin was dead, and the work was being updated by others, and the changes were principally to the post-1559 material which did not substantially alter what Foxe had derived from Crespin for this table. How did Foxe construct the table? In a prefatory essay to this edition, we outline the complex relationship between Foxe and the early editions of Crespin, and the extent of their mutual borrowings. It is clear, however, that Foxe could not read French. His knowledge of the French editions of Crespin - those of 1564 and 1570 - had, therefore, to be at second-hand. We must imagine that there was someone, perhaps in John Day's print-shop, whose familiarity with the French language enabled them to transcribe, or perhaps read, the text to Foxe. What is still more impressive is that, from a detailed comparison of the material in the table, it is clear that he used, at least for some of the entries, the 1570 edition of Crespin. This had appeared in the early months of that year, just in time for Foxe to include the entries that were unique to it (e.g. Thomas Moutarde, who had not appeared in earlier versions of Crespin) in this table. In addition, Foxe indicates the other sources which he utilised in its compilation. He seems generally to have used them as confirming the veracity of Crespin, his origo princes. Heinrich Pantaleon's Martyrum historia [...] pars secunda (Basel, 1563) was an important source in this respect. Foxe's Rerum in Ecclesia Gestarum […] pars prima (Basel, 1559) had been envisaged as a complementary and companion volume to Pantaleon's (as the particular titles indicate). By 1570, however, Foxe harboured an ambition to broaden his geographical and chronological scope. He ended the 1570 edition (Bk 12, p. 2296) holding out the prospect of a further volume in store, one which would both take the story forward from the accession of Elizabeth I, and also place it more evidently in an international context: 'Touchyng whose florishyng state [that of Queen Elizabeth I], her Princely reigne, and peaceable gouernement, with other things diuers and sondry incident to the same, and especially touchyng the great styres and alterations which haue happened in other foreine nations, and also partly among our selues here at home, for so much as the tractation hereof requireth an other Volume by it selfe, I shall therfore differre the reader to the next booke or Section insuyng: wherein (if the Lord so please to susteine me with leaue and lyfe) I may haue to discourse of all and singular such matters done and achiued in these our latter dayes and memory, more at large'. That no doubt explains why the table of the French martyrs ends with an otherwise inexplicable 'list' of miscellaneous martyrs that he has not included elsewhere in the table. They were those whom Crespin had included in his martyrology in 1564/1570, but whose deaths had falled after 17 November 1558. This was to be his marker for the putative, future volume. His other sources included Pierre de La Place, Commentaires de l'état de la religion et de la république sous les rois Henri & François seconds & Charles neuvième (1565) which he was able to access in 1570 in a Latin translation of the first part (Rerum in Gallia ob religionem gestarum libri tres, regibus Henrico secundo, ad illius quidam regni Finem, Francisco secundo, et Carolo nono) which had been published at Amsterdam. In one instance, discussed in the biographical list under 'Civaux', Foxe also referenced a manuscript source - 'ex scripto testimonio Senatus Genev[ensis]' for the martyrdom of one François Civaux. How Foxe had come by this reference, and why Crespin had not mentioned him in his martyrology, are discussed further in that biographical list.

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Foxe's notion of the geographical boundaries of the kingdom of France was clearly somewhat defective. He includes some French-speaking martyrs from the Walloon provinces of Flanders (e.g. Thomas Calbergue; Nicolas Paul; Thomas Moutarde; Etienne de la Forge) and, at one point, acknowledged that this had been an error (1583, p. 912). More reasonably (since France had occupied most of Savoy in the years preceding the peace of Cateau-Cambrésis (1559)) he also includes some martyrs from the Haute-Savoie (Jean Pointet, Geoffroi Varagle). In one instance, he includes a martyr originating from the principality of Béarn (François Danville). Foxe's standard of accuracy is generally high, even though his transliteration of the place-names, personal-names and institutional affiliations occasionally gave him problems and there are some signs of occasional misunderstandings. These are noted in the individual biographical entries for those mentioned in the table, as relevant.

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Foxe's techniques for summarising the often lengthy and substantiated narratives of the French martyrs in Crespin are interesting. In comparison with Crespin (especially in the 1570 edition, which is the one which most single-mindedly focuses on the French reformation) he shows markedly less interest in what had become seen (through Genevan eyes) as its 'nicodemite' elements. Guillaume Briçonnet, Lefèvre d'Etaples, Marguerite de Navarre, Gérard Roussel hardly appear. Given its rationale, this is hardly surprising. More remarkable is that the role of the leading French magisterial reformers - Guillaume Farel and, more particularly, Jean Calvin - hardly signifies at all. In selecting his material from Crespin, Foxe removed all references to the letters exchanged between Calvin and the French martyrs. Instead, he focused most on the details of their interrogations and their execution narratives. Crespin's sources were undeniably patchy - at one point, Foxe passes an acidic comment on the lack of precision in the record-keeping - but, in some instances, he had managed to acquire first-person narratives of their interrogations, and in others he seems to have had access to transcripts of the process-verbaux, the court records. Foxe summarised this material selectively, often intelligently, albeit carefully eliding elements which might require elaborate glossing, or which departed from the collective and overall picture of the triumphant, suffering martyrdom that he sought to create through this table.

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Mark Greengrass
University of Sheffield

Persecutors.Martyrs.The Causes.

MarginaliaIames Pauane, Martyr.Doctour
Martiall
of Paris.

Iames
Pauane
scholema-
ster.
At Paris.
An. 1524.

THis Iames first beyng taken
by the Bishop of Melden, or
Meaux, was cōpelled to recāt by
D. Martiall. Afterward retur-
nyng agayue to his confeßion,
he was burnt Paris. Ex 1525.
Ioan. Crispino.

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MarginaliaDionysius de Rieux, Martyr.
This Denys hauing a wodden crosse put into hys handes by the friers, with hys teeth cast it into the riuer, which made the Friers madde.

Dioni-
sius de
Rieux.
At Melda,
or Meaux.
An. 1528.

This Denys was one of them
which were first burnt at Mel-
da. For saying, that the Masse is
a playne deniall of the death &
Paßion of Christ. He was al-
waies wont to haue in his mouth
the wordes of Christ: He that
denyeth me before mē, him
will I denye before my fa-
ther, and to muse vpō the same
earnestly. He was burnt with a
slow fire, & did abide much tor-
ment. Ex Crisp. & alijs.

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MarginaliaIoānes Cadurcus, Martyr.
Ioannes
de Ca-
durco,
Bacheler
of the Ci-
uill lawe.
An. 1533.

This Iohn, first for making a
Sermō or exhortatiō to his coū-
treymē of Limosin in Fraunce
vpō Alhallowe day: & after, sit-
tyng at a feast where it was pro-
pounded, that euery one should
bryng foth some sentēce, for that
hee brought forth this: Christ
reigne in our hartes, & did pro-
secute the same by the scriptures
in much length of wordes, was
therupon accused, taken, and dis-
graded and after burned. At his
degradatiō one of the blacke Fri-
ers of Paris preached, taking for
hys theme the wordes of S. Paul

1. Timo. 4. The spirite speaketh, that
in the latter dayes men shall depart frō
faith, geuing hede to lying spirites, and
doctrine of errour. &c. and in handlyng
that place, either he could not or would not
procede further in the text. Cadurc9 cryed out
to hym to procede, & reade further. The Frier
stoode dūme, and could not speake a woorde.
Then Cadurcus taking the text, did prosecute

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Persecutors.Martyrs.The Causes.

the same, as foloweth: Teachyng false doc-
trine in hypocrisie, hauing their consci-
ence marked with a whote yron, forbid
dyng to mary, and to eate meates crea-
ted of God, to be eaten with thākes ge-
uyng. &c. Ex Ioan. Crispi.


MarginaliaV. Martyrs burned.Promo-
tors of
Paris.

Barthel-
mew My-
len, a lame
creple.
Iohn Bur-
ges, Mar-
chaunt.
The recea-
uer of
Nantes.
Henry
Poille of
Couberō.
Catella a
Scholemi-
stres.
Steuen de
la Forge,
Marchaūt. An. 1533.

These fiue here specified, for
certeine Billes caste abroad and
set vp, soundyng agaynst the
abhomination of the Masse, and
other superstitious absurdities
of the Pope, were condemned &
burned in the citie of Paris. Hē-
ry of Couberon had his tonge bo-
red through, and with an yron
wyer, tyed faste to one of hys
checkes: Who likewise with the
other, was burned, as is afore-
said. Ex Ioan. Crisp.

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MarginaliaAlexander Canus, Martyr.
Alexander
Canus
Priest, o-
therwise
called Lau
rentius
crucens.
At Paris.
An. 1533.

For the syncere doctrine and
confeßion of Christes true reli-
gion, he was burned in Paris, ha
uyng but a small fire, & abydde
much torment. Ex Hen. Pant.


MarginaliaIohn Poynter Martyr.
In Fraunce the maner was that the Martyrs commyng by any Image as they went to burning, and would not worship the same, had their tounges cut out.
The
Graye
Friers in
Paris.

Iohn
Poyntet
a Surgeon.
At Paris.
An. 1533.

This Surgeon beyng detected
and accused by the Friers, and
such as hee had cured before of
the French pockes, was first con-
demned to be strangled, and then
burned: but afterward, because
he would not do homage to a cer
tein Idole at the cōmaundemēt of
a Frier that came to cōfesse him,
his sentence was turned to haue
his tongue cut of, and so to be
burned. Ex Crisp.

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