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K. Henry. 8. Matter of the kinges mariage. The Clergie in the Premunire.

MarginaliaThe searching of the kings mariage, brought moe things to light.would tende, for asmuch as men began so to dispute of the authoritie of the Court of Rome, and especially because the Cardinall of Yorke perceaued the kyng to cast fauour to the Lady Anne, whom he knew to bee a Lutheran, they thought best to winde thē selues out of that brake by tyme, MarginaliaCardinall Campeius slippeth frō the kyng.and so Cardinall Campeius dissembling the matter conueyed him self home to Rome agayne, as is partely aboue touched, pag. 1129. The kyng seyng hym selfe thus to bee differred and deluded by the Cardinals, tooke it to no litle griefe: wherupon, þe fall of the Cardinall of Yorke folowed not long after. This was in the yeare of our Lord. 1530. Shortly after it happened the same yeare, that the kyng by his Ambassadours was aduertised that the Emperour and the Pope were both together at Bononie: Wherfore he directed Syr Tho. Bulleyn late created Earle of Wiltshyre, and Doctour Stokesley (afterward Byshop of London) and Doct. Lee (afterward byshop of Yorke) MarginaliaThe kyng sendeth to the Emperour and the Pope.with his message to þe Popes Court, where also the Emperour was. Pope Clement vnderstanding the kynges case and request, and fearyng what might folow after, if learning and Scripture here should take place agaynst the authoritie of their dispensations, and moreouer doubtyng the Emperours displeasure, bare hym selfe straunge of from the matter, MarginaliaThe popes answere to the kyng.aunsweryng the Ambassadours with this delay: that he presētly would not define in the case, but would heare the full matter disputed when he came to Rome, and accordyng to right he would do iustice.

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MarginaliaThe king gaue more to the pope then he neded.Although the kyng ought no such seruice to þe Pope, to stand to his arbitrement either in this case, or in any other, hauing both the Scripture to leade him, and hys law in his own handes to warrant hym: yet for quyetnes sake, and for that he would not rashly breake order (whiche rather was a disorder in deede) he bare so lōg as conueniently he might. At length, after long delayes & much dissemblyng, when he saw no hope of redresse, he began somewhat to quicken and to looke about him, what was best both for his owne conscience, and the stablishment of his realme, to do.

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MarginaliaGods prouidence working merueilously in this matter.No mā here doubteth, but that all this was wrought not by mans deuise, but by the secrete purpose of the Lord him selfe, to bryng to passe further thinges (as afterward folowed) which his diuine prouidence was disposed to worke. For els as touchyng the kynges intēt and purpose, hee neuer meant nor mynded any such thyng as to seke the ruine of þe Pope, but rather sought all meanes contrary, how both to stablishe the Sea of Rome, & also to obteine the good will of the same Sea and Court of Rome, if it might haue bene gotten. And therfore intendyng to sue his diuorse from Rome, at the first begynnyng, his deuise was, by Steuen Gardiner his Ambassadour at Rome, to exalte the Cardinall of Yorke, MarginaliaVid. Supr. pag. 1127. (as is before shewed pag. 1127) to bee made Pope and vniuersall Byshop, to the end that he rulyng that Apostolicke Sea, the matter of his vnlawfull Mariage, whiche so troubled his conscience, might come to a quiet conclusion, without any further rumor of the world. Which purpose of his if it had takē effecte as he had deuised it, & the Englishe Cardinall had once bene made Pope, no doubt, but the authoritie of þe Sea had neuer ben exterminate out of Englād. But God beyng more mercyful vnto vs, tooke a better way then so. MarginaliaMan purposeth but God disposeth.For both without, and contrary to the kynges expectation, hee so brought to passe, that neither the Cardinall of Yorke was Pope (whiche should haue bene an infinite cost to the kyng) and yet neuertheles the kyng sped of his purpose too, & that much better then he looked for: For hee was ridde, by lawfull diuorcement 

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The final decision in England was made by Archbishop Cranmer at his tribunal at The Priory of St Peter at Dunstable on 23 May 1533 (for which, see Andrew A Chibi, Henry VIII's Conservative Scholar [Bern, 1997], pp.82-4).

, not onely from that vnlawfull mariage whiche clogged his conscience, but also from the miserable yoke of the Popes vsurped dominion, which clogged the whole realme, and all at one tyme.

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Thus Gods holy prouidence rulyng the matter (as I sayd) when the kyng could get no fauorable graunt of the Pope touchyng his cause beyng so good and honest, he was enforced to take the redresse of his right into his own handes, and seing this Marginalia* Gordium was a Citie in Asia, where there was a knotte so fast tied, & folded so many wayes, that (as the saying was) who soeuer could loose it, should haue all asia. So Alexander cōming to it, whē he could not loose it with hys handes, he cutte it asunder with hys sworde.* Gordian knotte would not bee loosed at Rome, hee was driuen euen agaynst his will (as God would) to play the noble Alexander him selfe, and with the sword of his princely authoritie knapt the knotte at one stroke cleane asunder, loosing, as it were with one solution, infinite questions. For where the Doctours and Canonistes had long disputed, and yet could neuer throughly discusse the largenes and fulnes of the Popes ij. swoordes both temporall and spirituall: the kyng with one sworde did so cut of both his swordes, that he dispatched thē both cleane out of England, as ye shal see more anone. But first the kyng lyke a prudent prince, before he would come to the head of the sore, thought best to pare away such ranke flesh and putrified places as were about it, and therefore folowyng his owne prouerbe, MarginaliaThe kings prouerbe. Loke before pag. 2153. lin. 21.lyke as one goyng about to cast downe an old rotten wall, will not beginne with the foundation first, but with the stones that lye in the toppe: so he to prepare his way better vnto the Pope, first begā with 

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Wolsey died at Leicester Abbey on 28/9 November 1530. Cavendish kept a record of the cardinal's last days and this is generally accepted as accurate (for which, see Two Early Tudor Lives, ed. by Richard S Sylvester and Davis P Harding [Yale, 1962], pp.178-86; Peter Gwyn, The King's Cardinal [London, 1990], pp.638-9). The question of possible suicide was raised vaguely by Edward Hall (one of the reasons for Cavendish's extensive treatment) and this has been generally dismissed as exaggeration. Sybil M Jack makes no mention of the idea in her ODNB biography of the cardinal. For further details, see L R Gardiner, 'Further news of Cardinal Wolsey's end, November-December 1530', in Historical Research 57 (May 1984), pp.99-107; Edward Hall, The Union of the Two Noble and Illustre Families of Lancastre & York, 2 vols., ed. by H Ellis (London, 1809), 2, p.774.

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the Cardinall, castyng him by the law of Premunire, out of goods & possessiōs, & so at length by poysoning him selfe, he porcured his owne death: which was in þe yeare. 1530. This done, shortly after about þe yeare. 1532. the kyng to prouide by tyme agaynst mischiefes that might come from Rome, gaue forth eftsoones this proclamation, as foloweth.

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MarginaliaA restraynt of the king that nothing should be purchased from Rome.THe kynges hyghnes straightly chargeth and commaundeth that no maner of person, what estate, degree or condition soeuer he or they bee of, do purchase or attēpt to purchase from the Court of Rome, or els where, nor vse & put in execution, diuulge or publishe any thing heretofore within this yeare passed, purchased, or to bee purchased hereafter contaynyng matter preiudiciall to þe hygh authoritie, iurisdiction and prerogatiue royall of this his sayd realme, or to the let, hynderaūce or impechment of his graces noble and vertuous intended purposes in the premisses, vpon payne of incurryng hys hyghnes indignatiō and imprisonment, and further punishmēt of their bodies for their so doing, at his graces pleasure, to the dreadfull example of all other.

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MarginaliaEx Edw. Hallo.After this was done, þe king then proceding farther, caused the rest of the spirituall Lordes to bee called by proces into the kynges benche to make theyr appearaunce, MarginaliaThe whole clergye of Englād in the Premunire.for somuch as the whole Clergie of England, in supportyng and mainteynyng the power Legatiue of the Cardinall, by the reason thereof were all entangled likewise in the Premunire, and therfore were called into the kinges bench, to aunswere. But before the day of their appearaūce, the Prelates together in their conuocation concluded among them selues an humble submission in writyng, and offered the kyng for a subsidie or contribution, that he would bee their good Lord and release thē of the Premunire by acte of Parlamēt, MarginaliaThe clergye geueth to the king, 118840. pound, to be released from the Premunire.first to bee gathered in the Prouince of Caunterburye a C.M. poundes. And in the Prouince of Yorke, xviij. hundreth, and xl. pound, x. pence. The whiche offer with much labour was accepted, and their pardō promised. In this submission the Clergie called þe kyng supreme head of the Church of England, which thyng they neuer confessed before: wherupon many thynges folowed, as after (God willing) ye shall heare.

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But first 

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Foxe refers here to the agreed penalty paid by the two English convocations for their participation in the late cardinal's praemunire offence - southern and northern bought pardons at £100,000 and £18,840 respectively on 22 January and 4 May respectively [for which, see Wilkins, Concilia, iii, p.744; L&P, iv/iii, no.6047 (iii); Public Records Office, State Papers 1/56, fols.84-7v].

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, for somuch as we are in hande now with the matter, we will borow by þe way, a few wordes of þe reader, to speake of this Clergie money of a 118840. poundes & x. pence, to be leuyed to þe kyng, as is aboue touched. For þe leuying of which sūme, an order was taken among þe Prelates, þt euery Byshop in his Dioces should call before him 
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This is examined in Hall's Chronicle [for which, see Edward Hall, The Union of the Two Noble and Illustre Families of Lancastre & York, 2 vols., ed. by H Ellis (London, 1809), ii, p.783.]

all þe Priestes, Persōs, & Vicars, amongest whō D. Ioh. Stokesley B. of London, a man then coūted to be of some witte & learning, but of litle discretion and humanitie (whiche caused him to be out of the fauour of the common people) called before him all the Priestes within the Citie of London, whether they were Curates or Stipendaries, the first day of

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September
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