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1235 [1235]

K. Hen. 8. The Clergie in the Premunire. The Popes Annates and iurisdiction cease.

Semptember beyng Friday, in the Chapter house of S. Paul. MarginaliaThe bishops policie with the priests, for payment of the kings money.At which day the Priestes appeared, and the Bishops policie was to haue onely vj. or viij. Priestes together, & by persuasions to haue caused them to graunt some portion towarde the payment of the foresayd hundreth. M. pounde. But the number of the Priestes was so great (for they were vj. hūdreth at the least 

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The figure was also taken out of Hall's Chronicle [for which, see Edward Hall, The Union of the Two Noble and Illustre Families of Lancastre & York, 2 vols., ed. by H Ellis (London, 1809), ii, p.784; L&P, v, 387]. The event is examined by Brigden [for which, see Susan Brigden, 'Tithe Controversy in Reformation London', Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 32 (1981), pp.285-301].

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, and with them came many temporal men to heare the matter) that the Byshop was disapoynted of his purpose. For when the Byshops Officers called in certayne Priestes by name into the Chapter house, with that, a great number entered, for they put the Byshops Officers that kept the doore a side. After this, the Officers gotte þe doore shut agayne. Then the Priestes without, sayd: we will not be kept without, and our felowes be within: we know not what the Byshop will doo with them. The temporall mē being present, comforted and encouraged þe Priestes to enter, so that by force they opened the doore, and one strake the Byshops Officer ouer the face, and entered the Chapter house, and many temporall men with them, & long it was ere any silence coulde bee made. At last, when they were appeased, the Byshop stoode vp and sayd: Brethren 
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The speech can be found in Hall's Chronicle (probably embellished) [for which, see Edward Hall, The Union of the Two Noble and Illustre Families of Lancastre & York, 2 vols., ed. by H Ellis (London, 1809), ii, p.783]. Although Stokesley's oration had the desired calming effect, his officers stirred up the crowd again by recording names for punishment of moral correction.

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, I meruayle not a litle, why you be so headye & know not what shall be sayd to you: therfore I pray you to keepe silence and to heare me paciently.

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MarginaliaThe bishops perswasion to the priests to helpe them to pay their forfait.My frendes all, you know well that we be mē frayle of condition and no Aungels, and by frayltie and lacke of wisedome, we haue misdemeaned our selfe towarde the kyng our soueraygne Lord and his lawes, so that al we of the Clergie were in the Premunire, by reason wherof, all our promocions, landes, goodes and cattels were to him forfaite, and our bodyes ready to be imprisoned: yet his grace moued with pitie and compassion, demaūded of vs what we could say, why hee should not extend his lawes vpō vs. Then the Fathers of þe Clergie humbly besought his grace, of mercy. To whom he aunswered that he was euer enclined to mercy. Then for all our great offences, we had litle penaunce: For where he might by the rigour of his lawe, haue taken all our liuelod, goods & cattels, hee was contented with one hundreth thousand poundes to bee payde in fiue yeares. And although that this sūme be more then we may easely beare, yet by the rigour of his lawes wee should haue borne the whole burdene. Wherfore my brethrē, I charitably exhorte you to beare your partes or your lyuelod and salary toward the payment of this summe graunted.

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MarginaliaThe priests answere to the bishop.Then it was shortly sayd to the Byshop: My Lord, 

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The response is also taken from Hall's Chronicle [for which, see Edward Hall, The Union of the Two Noble and Illustre Families of Lancastre & York, 2 vols., ed. by H Ellis (London, 1809), ii, pp.783-4; L&P, v, 387].

twentye nobles a yeare is but a bare liuing for a Priest: for now victaile and euery thyng is so deare, that pouertie, in maner, enforceth vs to say nay. Beside that my Lord, we neuer offended in the Premunire, for we medeled neuer with the Cardinals faculties: let the Byshyops and Abbottes whiche haue offended, pay. Then the Byshops Officers gaue to the Priestes hygh wordes, whiche caused them to be the more obstinate. Also diuers temporall men which were present, comforted the Priestes, & hadde them agree to no payment. In this rumour, diuers of the Byshops seruaūts were buffeted and stricken, so that the Byshop began to be afrayde, & with fayre wordes appeased the noyse, and for all thinges whiche were done or sayd there, hee pardoned them, and gaue to them his blessing, & praied them to departe in charitie. Then they departed, thinkyng to heare no more of the matter, but they were disceiued: MarginaliaB. Stokesley complayneth to Syr. Tho. More.For the Byshop went 
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In the event, the court of Aldermen offered Stokesley their aid in the matter of this 'revolt', but Stokesley choose instead to go to More. Hall reported (and Foxe here repeated it) that the mayoral court imprisoned the leaders of the clerical and lay trouble-makers. [See, Edward Hall, The Union of the Two Noble and Illustre Families of Lancastre & York, 2 vols., ed. by H Ellis (London, 1809), ii, p.784]. According to John Noorthouck's study, Sir Thomas was supported by two sheriffs, Michael Durmer and Walter Champion.

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to Syr Tho. More then beyng Lord Chauncellour (whiche greatly fauoured the Byshop and the Clergie) and to hym made a greuous complaynt, and declared the facte very greuously. Wherupon commaundement was sent to Syr Thomas Pargitor Maior of the Citie, to attach certayne Priestes and temporall men, MarginaliaCertayne priestes and temporall men committed to prison.and so. xv. Priestes and v. temporal men were arrested, of the whiche, some were sent to the Tower, some to the Fleete and other prisons, where they remained long after.

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MarginaliaPreaching against the kings first maryage.This beyng done in the yeare of our Lord. 1532. it foloweth moreouer the same yeare, that diuers preachynges were in the realme, one contrary to an other, concernyng the kynges Mariage: and in especiall one Tho. Abell Clerke, 

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Foxe here refers to Thomas Abel (known as the Blessed Thomas Abel in Catholic circles as he was beatified on 20 December 1886 by pope Leo XIII). His book is entitled Invicta veritas, an anser to the determination of the most famous universities that by no manner of law it may be lawful for king Henry to be divorced from the Queen's grace his lawful and very wife which was published at Luneberg in 1532.

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which was þe Queenes Chaplaine, to please her withal, both preached & also wrote a boke in defense of the sayd Mariage: wherby diuers simple men were persuaded. Wherfore the kyng caused to be compiled and reduced into a booke, the determination 
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The dating is slightly off as Foxe here refers to the vernacular translation of the book written by John Stokesley, Edward Fox and Nicholas de Burgo, Gravissimae atque exactissimae illustrissimarum totius Italiae et Galliae academiarum censurae which had been published in London in April 1530. This is the work which had been prefaced by the university determinations. It was translated by Thomas Cranmer as The determinations of the most famous and most excellent universities of Italy and France and was published in London in November 1531. The two treatises have now been collected together for side by side comparison [for which, see The Divorce Tracts of Henry VIII, ed. by Edward Surtz and Virginia Murphy (Angers, 1988)].

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of the Vniuersities, with the iudgementes of great clerkes, which booke beyng printed and set abroad, did agayne satisfie all indifferent and reasonable persons, whiche were not to much wedded to their willes.

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Mention was made a litle before, of a Parlamēt begon the xv. day of Ianuary. an. 1533. in the which Parlament the commons had put vp a Supplication, complaynyng of the straite dealyng of the Clergye in their procedyng Ex officio. 

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The complaint refers to authorities claimed by the bishops 'by right of office' - including legislative and judicial authorities which were increasingly subject to anti-clerical scrutiny in this period. The supplication was presented to the king on 18 March 1532 [for which, see G R Elton, The Tudor Constitution (Cambridge, 1972), pp.324-6].

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MarginaliaThe wicked act Ex officio, broken by the kyng.This complainte, although at the first it semed not greatly to be tendered of þe king, yet in prorogatiō of the Parlament, þe tyme so wrought withall, that the kyng hauyng more cleare vnderstandyng of the abuses and enormities of the Clergie, and in especial of the corrupt authoritie of þe Sea of Rome, prouided certeine actes agaynst þe same: MarginaliaStatut. an. 25. Reg. Henr. 8.First as cōcerning 
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Parliament was prorogued on 14 May 1532.

the lawes, decrees, ordinaunces and constitutions made and stablished by the pretensed authoritie of the Byshops of Rome, to the aduauncemēt of their worldly glory: MarginaliaAn act concerning the popes lawes.that who so did or spake any thyng either agaynst their vsurped power, or against the sayd lawes, decrees, or constitutions of theirs not approued nor grounded vpon holy Scripture or els beyng repugnāt to the kynges prerogatiue royall, should therfore stand in no daunger nor be impeachable of heresie. And likewise touching such cōstitutions 
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Those canons acceptable to the majority of the committee would be given royal assent. [See, Public Records Office, State Papers 6/6, fols.108-9].

ordinaunces & canons prouinciall or Synodall, whiche were made in this realme in þe cōuocation of Byshops, beyng either preiudiciall to the kynges prerogatiue, or not ratified before by the kinges assent, or being otherwise onerous to the kyng and his subiectes, or in any wise repugnaunt to the lawes and statutes of this realme, MarginaliaDecrees and constitutions prouinciall of this realme, committed to examination.they were committed to the examination and iudgement of xxxij. persons chosen by the king, out of þe higher & lower house, to bee determined either to stand in strength, or to be abrogate at their discretions: and farther that all the Clergie 
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This is from the text of the 1534 'Act for the submission of the clergy to the King's Majesty' (25 Henry VIII, c.19).

of this realme submittyng them selues to the kyng, should and did promise in verbo Sacerdotij, neuer hereafter to presume to assemble in their conuocations without the kynges writte, nor to enacte or execute such constitutions without his royall assent. &c. Ex Statut. Henr. 8.

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MarginaliaNo man to appeale to Rome.Farther, 

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These are details from the 1533 'Act of Appeals' (24 Henry VIII, c.12).

in the same Parlament was enacted and decreed, that in causes and matters happenyng in contention, no person should appeale, prouoke, or sue, out of the kyngs dominions, to the Court of Rome, vnder payne of prouisours, prouision, or Premunire.

Item, in the same 

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These are details from the 1534 'Act for first fruits and tenths' (26 Henry VIII, c.3) and 'Act restraining the payment of Annates etc'

Parlament was defined and concluded, that all expectation of Annates and first frutes of Archbishoprickes & byshoprickes Marginalia* Boner in his prologue before De vera Obedientia, sayth: that this rauinous pray of the pope commeth to as much almost, as the kings reuenues.out of this realme to the Sea of Rome, for any bulles, breues, or palles, or expedition of any such thyng, should vtterly cease.

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MarginaliaThe maner of Inuesting by the king.Also for the inuestyng 

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These are details from the 1532 'Act concerning restraint of payment of Annates to the see of Rome' (23 Henry VIII, c.20), bishops and other higher clergy would from this point on be appointed through royal letters patent.

of Archbishops, Byshops, or other of any Ecclesiasticall dignitie, such order in the sayd Parlament was taken, that the kyng should send a licence vnder the great seale, with a letter missiue, to the Priour and Conuent, or to the Deane and Chapter of those Cathedrall Churches where the Sea was vacant: by the vertue of whiche licence or letters missiue, they within xij. dayes, should chose the sayd person nominated by the kyng, and none other, and that election to stand effectuall to all intentes. Whiche election beyng done, then the partie electe, making first his othe & fealtie to the kyng, if it were a Bishop þt was electe, then þe king by his letter patētes, to signifie þe said election to þe Archb. of that prouince, & ij. other Byshops, or els to iiij. Byshops within this realme, to be assigned to

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that
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