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1243 [1243]

K. Henry. 8. The censure of the Vniuersitie of Cābrige agaynst the Popes supremacie.

regentium Academiæ Cantabrigiensis, salutem in omnium saluatore Iesu Christo. Cū de Romani Pōtificis potestate. &c.

In Englyshe.

MarginaliaA letter of the Vniuersitie of Cambrige.TO all and singular children of þe holy mother church, to whose handes these presentes shall come, the whole societie of Regentes and not Regentes of the Vniuersitie of Cambrige, sendeth greeting in our Sauiour Iesu Christ. Where as now of late it hath rysen vp in question among vs, concerning the power of the Byshop of Rome, which he doth doth claime to him selfe by the holy Scripture ouer all prouinces and nations in Christendome, and hath now of longe tyme exercised in thys realme of England: and for asmuch as our censure concerning the cause is required, to witte: whether the Byshop of Rome hath any power or authoritie in thys kingdome of England alotted to hym by God in the Scripture, more then any other forreine byshop, or no: we thought it therefore good reason and our duetie, for the searching out of the veritie of the sayd question, that we should employe therin our whole indeuour and studye, wherby we myght render and publish to the world, what our reason and censure is, touching the premisses. For therefore we suppose, that Vniuersities were fyrst prouided and instituted of princes, to the end that both the people of Christ might in the lawe of God be instructed, and also that false errours, if any dyd ryse, myght through the vigilant care & industrye of learned diuines, be discussed, extinguished, and vtterly rooted out. For the which cause, we in our assembles and conuocations (after our accustomed maner) resorting and conferring together vpon the question aforesaid, and studiously debating and deliberating with our selues, how and by what order we myght best proceede for the findyng out the truth of the matter, and at length choosing out certain of the best learned Doctours and Batchelers of diuinitie, and other Maisters, haue committed to them in charge, studiouslye to ensearch & peruse the places of holy Scripture, by the viewing and conferryng of which places together, they myght certifye vs what is to be sayd to the question propounded.

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MarginaliaThe censure of the vniuersitie of Cambridge agaynst the popes supremacie.For asmuch therefore, as we hauyng heard, and well aduised, and thorowly discussed in open disputations, what may be sayd on both partes of the foresayd questiō, those reasons and argumentes doe appeare to vs more probable, stronger, truer, and more certayne, and foundyng much more neare to the pure and natiue sense of Scripture, which do denye the Byshop of Rome to haue any such power geuen him of God in the Scripture. By reason and force of which arguments, we being perswaded and conioyning together in one opinion, haue with our selues thus decreed to aunswere vnto the question aforesayd, and in these writynges thus resolutely do aūswere in the name of the whole Vniuersitie, and for a cōclusion vndoubted, do affirme, approue, and pronounce, MarginaliaThe Byshop of Rome hath no more state in England, then hath any other forreine Byshop.that the Byshop of Rome hath no more state, authoritie, and iurisdiction geuen hym of God in the Scriptures, ouer thys realme of England, then any other externe bishop hath. And in testimonye and credence of thys our aunswere and affirmation, we haue caused our common seale to be put to these our foresayd letters accordingly.

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At Cambrige in our Regent house. an. domini. 1534.

Steph. Wint. De Vera obedientia.

MarginaliaSteph. Wint. agaynst the mariage of the king with his brothers wife, in his boke De Vera obedientia.YOu haue heard before of Steuen Gardiner, of Lee, of Tonstall, and of Stokesley, how of their voluntarye mynde, they made theyr profession to the kyng, euery one seuerally, taking and acceptyng a corporall othe, vtterly and for euer to renounce and reiecte the vsurped superioritie of the Bishop of Rome. Now for a further testimonie and declaration of their iudgementes and opinions whiche then they were of, folowing the force both of truth and of tyme then present, ye shal heare ouer and beside their othes, what the forsayd Bishopes in their own bookes, prologes, and sermons do write, & publishe abrode in printe touching the sayd cause of the Popes supremacie.

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MarginaliaSteph. Wint. De Vera obedientia.And first (God wyllyng) to begyn with Steuen Gardiners booke, De vera obedientia, 

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Published in 1535 and available as STC 11587. Modern editions (translations) can be found in Obedience in Church and State. Three Political Tracts by Stephen Gardiner, ed. by Pierre Janelle (Cambridge, 1930), pp.67-171 and Bishop Gardiner's Oration on True Obedience, ed. by B A Heywood (London, 1870)].

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we will briefly note out a fewe of his owne wordes, wherin with great Scriptures and good deliberation he not only cōfuteth the Popes vsurped authoritie, but also proueth the mariage betwene þe kyng & Queene Katherine his brothers wife, not to be good nor lawfull, in these wordes:

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MarginaliaSt. Wint. De Vera obediētia.Of the whiche morall 

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Foxe quotes Gardiner (on the annulment issue), from De vera obedientia, sigs.C.vja-vija (or see Janelle, True Obedience, pp.85-7).

preceptes in the olde lawe, to speake of some (for to rehearse all it needeth not) the Leuiticall preceptes 
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The marriage prohibitions are found in Leviticus 18.6-18.

touching forbidden and incestuous Mariages, as farre as they concerne chaste & pure wedlocke, wherin þe Original of mans increase consisteth, ar alwayes to be reputed of suche sorte, that although they were fyrst gyuē to the Iewes: yet because they apperteyne to the law of nature, and expound the same more plainly vnto vs, therfore they belong as well to all maner of people of the whole world for euer more. MarginaliaSt. Wint. agaynst the kings mariage with hys brothers wife.In which doubtles, both the voyce of nature and Gods commaundement agreyng in one, haue forbidden that which is contrary and diuers frō the one, and from thother. And among these, sythe there is a commaundement that a man shall not mary hys brothers wyfe 
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A paraphrase of Leviticus 18.16.

, what could the kynges excellent maiestye doo otherwyse, then he dyd by the whole consent of the people, and iugement of his church, that is, to be diuorced from vnlawful mariage, and vse laufull and permitted copulation, and obeyng (as mete it was ) conformably vnto the commaundement, caste of her whom neither lawe nor ryght permitted hym to retayne, and take him to chaste and lawfull mariage? wherin althoughe the sentēce of Gods word (wherunto al thinges ought to stoupe) myght haue sufficed: yet his Maiestie was content to haue the assistyng consentes of þe most notable graue men, and the censures of the most famous vniuersities of the whole world: and al to þe entent, þt mē should see he dyd that, both that he myght doe & ought to do vpryghtly, seyng the best learned and most worthye men haue subscribed vnto it, shewing therin such obedience, as Gods word requireth of euery good and godly man: so as it may be said, that both he obeyed God, and obeyed hym truly. Of which obedience forasmuch as I am purposed to speake, I coulde not passe this thyng ouer with silence, wherof occasion so commodiously was offered me to speake.

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¶ Winchesters reasons agaynst the Popes supremacie.

MarginaliaSt. Wint. a mere Lutherane in his boke De Vera obediētia.Moreouer, the sayd Gardiner in the fornamed boke De vera obedientia, what constancie hee pretendeth, what argumentes he inferreth, how earnestly and pythely hee disputeth on the kynges syde agaynst the vsurped state of the Bishop of Romes authoritie, by the wordes of his booke it may appeare: wherof a briefe collection here foloweth.

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MarginaliaThe sword of the church, how far it extendeth.In the processe of hys foresayd booke hee alledgyng the old distinction of the Papistes, wherein they gyue to the Prince 

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These are selections from De vera obedientia, sigs.D.vjb-viija, showing where temporal authority figures (mostly biblical figures) had exercised authority over the church (mostly with regard to the appointment of priests or the setting of doctrine).

the regiment of thyngs temporall, & to the Church of things spiritual, comparyng the one to the greater light, the other to the lesser light, he confuteth and derideth the same distinction, declaryng the sworde of the Churche to extende no farther then to teachyng and excommunication, and referreth all preheminence to the sworde of the Prince, alledgyng for this the Psal. 2. 
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Quote from Psalms 2.10 [found at De vera obedientia, sig.D.viija].

And novv you kinges bee vvise, and bee learned you that iudge the earth. &c. MarginaliaPsal. 2.

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Also the example 

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Quote from II Chronicles 8.14 [found at De vera obedientia, sig.D.viija (or see Janelle, True Obedience, p.109)].

of Salomon: vvho beyng a king, accordyng to his fathers appointement ordeined the offices of the Priestes in their ministeries, and Leuites in their order, that they might giue thankes, and minister before the Priestes, after the order of euery day, and porters in their diuisions gate by gate. &c. Marginalia2. Par. 28.

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And speakyng more of the sayd Salomon, he saith: 

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Quote from II Chronicles 8.15 [found at De vera obedientia, sig.D.viijb (or see Janelle, True Obedience, p.109)].

For so cōmaunded the man of God, neither dyd the Priestes, nor Leuites omitte any thyng of all that he had commaunded. &c.

Beside this he alledgeth also the example 

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Quote from II Chronicles 29 3-5 [found at De vera obedientia, sig.D.viijb (or see Janelle, True Obedience, p.109)].

of kyng Ezechias 2. Paralip. 28. He alledgeth moreouer the example & facte 
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The example of emperor Justinian (527-65) was used by all the Henrician apologists as the prime example of the ruler as both 'king and priest' or 'supreme head' of both church and state. Foxe here quotes Gardiner at De vera obedientia, sig.E.iiija (or see Janelle, True Obedience, p.117), but the interested scholar could also see the work of Edward Fox, De vera differentia regiae potestatis et ecclesiasticae, et quae sit ipsa veritas ac virtus utrusque (1534) [which was translated by Henry, Lord Stafford as The true dyfferis between y regall power and the ecclesiasticall power, etc. (1548)].

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of Iustinian, whiche made lawes touchyng the faith, Byshops, Clerkes, heretickes, and such other.

Aaron, (sayth he) obeyed Moses. 

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The source is Exodus 32. Aaron 'the Levite' (brother to Moses) represented the priestly functions of the Levite tribe and was high priest to the Hebrews while Moses was a judge, military and temporal leader. Foxe here quotes Gardiner at De vera obedientia, sig.Fa (or see Janelle, True Obedience, p.129).

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MarginaliaExod. 32.Salomon gaue 
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The source is I Kings 22. Solomon, son of David, was a great king (or sometimes emperor) and ruled a vast kingdom centred on Israel in the 10th century B.C. Foxe here quotes Gardiner at De vera obedientia, sig.Fa (or see Janelle, True Obedience, p.129).

sentēce vpon Abiathar the hygh Priestes. Marginalia1. Reg. 22.

Alexander the kyng 

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The source is I Maccabees 10. Another example of a military leader and temporal ruler appointing priests (in this case Jonothas) and establishing canon. Foxe here quotes Gardiner at De vera obedientia, sig.Fa (or see Janelle, True Obedience, p.131).

in the first of Machabies, writeth thus to Ionathas: Novv haue vve made thee this day the hyghe Priest of thy people. &c. Marginalia1. Mach. 10So did Demetrius to Simon. 
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The source is I Maccabees 14 and refers to the works of Demetrius I (Soter). Foxe here quotes Gardiner at De vera obedientia, sig.Fa (or see Janelle, True Obedience, p.131).

Marginalia1. Mach. 14

Then commyng to the wordes of Christ spokē to Peter, MarginaliaMath. 16.Mat. 16. vpon whiche 

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The source is Matthew 16.18. Gardiner echoed the standard Henrician understanding of the famous quote that Christ's words do not refer to Peter, the man, specifically. Foxe here quotes Gardiner at De vera obedientia, sig.Fijb (or see Janelle, True Obedience, p.133).

wordes the Pope pretendeth to builde all his authoritie: to this he aunswereth, that if Christe by those wordes had limited vnto Peter any such speciall state or preheminence aboue all Princes, thē were it not true, that is written, Cæpit Iesus docere & fa-

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cere.
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