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1248 [1248]

K. Henry. 8. Notes of Tonstalls sermon, agaynst the Popes supremacie.

which hys confession all the other Apostles did consent, and also preached the same) standeth styll. Which confession fyrst by Peter made, all other that wilbe saued, must followe also, and be taught to confesse the same. And thus the Bishop of Romes power ouer all, which he would proue by those places wrōgfully alleaged for his purpose, vtterlye quaileth, and is not proued. And thus much for the Scriptures and Doctors.

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Now farther proceding in this matter, the sayd Tonstall commeth to Councells and examples of the primitiue Church, as followeth.

MarginaliaExamples of the primitiue church against the popes supremacie.Faustinus, Legate 

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The sixth council met in Carthage between 418-9. Tunstal was here referring to the so-called African council's reaction to the claims of Pope Zozimus and the encroachments of Rome into their traditional autonomy, as presented to the council by his legate, Bishop Faustinus of the Italian province of Picenum.

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to the Bishop of Rome in the. vj. Councell of Carthage, alleaged that þe bishop of Rome ought to haue the orderyng of all great matters in all places by hys supreme authoritie, bryngyng no Scripture for hym (for at that tyme no scripture was thought to make for it) but alleageth for him, and that vntruly, the fyrst Coūcell of Nice, 
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Faustinus alleged that canons of the first council of Nicaea supported the supremacy of Rome argument. Tunstal here points out that, in fact, the sixth canon from the first council of Nicaea make the reverse argument. The sixth canon upheld the 'ancient customs' of the bishops of Alexandria (in north Africa) as well as the provincial rights of the bishops of Rome and Antioch. Faustinus and Zozimus were appealing to a corrupted form of the canon, in that certain decisions from the non-ecumenical council of Sardinia (347) had been appended to the original Nicaean text in order to give disgruntled African churchmen an outlet against their provincial superiors through appeal to Rome. Only Rome ascribed to this variant reading. The controversy, the council of Carthage and its canons are extensively discussed at http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/3816.htm.

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to make for his purpose. After this, when the booke was brought forth, & no such article founde in it, but the contrary, yet the Councell at that tyme, sent to Cōstantinople, Alexandria, and Autioche, where þe Patriarckal Sees were, to haue the true copie of the Councell of Nice, whiche was sent vnto them. And an other copie also was sent frō Rome, whether also they sent for the same purpose.

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MarginaliaThe supremacie of Rome reproued by the councel of Nice.
Vid. supr. pag. 13.
After that the copye was brought to them, and no such Article found in it, but in the fift 

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The canons of the first Council of Nicaea can be readily found on-line at http://www.piar.hu/councils/ecum01.htm. Tunstal noted here that the fifth canon was actually contrary to the legate's purposes. The fifth canon dealt with provincial problems and their necessary resolution through frequent provincial synods. This was one of the Henricians strongest arguments that matters originating within a province not be appealed to Rome but settled with the province (referring to the annulment suit).

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chap. thereof the contrary, that all causes Ecclesiasticall should either be determined within the dioces, or els, if any were greued, then to appeale to the Councell Prouinciall, and there þe matter to take full ende, so that for no such causes men should go out of their prouinces: the whole Councell of Carthage wrote to Cælestine at that time beyng Byshop of Rome, that since þe Councell of Nice had no such Article in it, MarginaliaThe councell of Nice falsified by Faustinus the popes Legate.as was vntruly alledged by Faustinus, but the contrary, they desired hym to absteine after, to make any more such demaund, denouncyng vnto hym, that they would not suffer any cause great or smal, to be brought by appeale, out of their coūtrey, and therupon made a law that no man should appeale out of the countrey of Aphrike vpon payne to be denounced accursed. Wherwith the Byshop of Rome euer after held hym content, and made no more busines with thē, seyng he had naught to say for him selfe to the contrary. And at this Councell S. Austen was present 
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St Augustine attended the Council of Carthage against his adversary Pelagius.

, and subscribed þe same, read more hereof, pag. 13.

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MarginaliaThe syxt article of Nicene councell.
The 4. chiefe patriarches equall in power.
It was determined also in the sixt Article 

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This is an accurate reading of the sixth canon.

of the said Councell of Nice: that in the Orient the Byshop of Antioche should be chiefe: in Ægypt the Byshop of Alexandria: about Rome, the Byshop of Rome, and lykewise in other countreys, þe Metropolitanes should haue their preeminence: so that the Byshop of Rome neuer had medlyng in those countreys.

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And in the next 

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This refers to the seventh canon of the council of Nicaea which refers to the authority of the bishop of Aelia (Jerusalem).

Article folowing, the Byshop of Hierusalem (whiche Citie before had ben destroyed, and almost desolate) was restored to his old prerogatiue, to be the chief in Palestine and in the countrey of Iurye.

By this ye see how the Patriarcke of Rome duryng all this time of þe primitiue Church, had no such primacie preeminent aboue other Patriarckes, much lesse ouer kynges and Emperours, as may appeare 

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The sixth ecumenical council of the church was also known as the third council of Constantinople (680-81).

by Agatho Byshop of Rome long after that, in whose tyme was the sixt Councell generall. MarginaliaPope Agatho subiected to the Emperour.Whiche Agatho 
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This refers to the delay of Agatho's consecration as pope until the approval of then emperor Constantine IV Pogonatus could be obtained.

after his election, sent to the Emperour then beyng at Constantinople, to haue his election allowed before hee would bee consecrate, after the olde custome at that tyme vsed.

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MarginaliaPope Vitalianus subiect to the Emperour.
63. Dist. Agatho.
In lyke sorte, an other Byshop of Rome called Vitalianus did the same, as it is written in the Decrees the lxiij. Distinct. cap. Agatho.

Marginalia63. Dist. cum longe.The lyke did S. Ambrose 

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This refers to St Ambrose and St Gregory … Tunstal discusses this at p. 55 of the 1823 edition of the sermon.

, and S. Gregory, before them, as it is written in the chap. Cum longe, in the same Distinct. Duryng all whiche tyme, the Byshops of Rome folowed well the doctrine of S. Peter and S. Paule left vnto them, to bee subiectes and to obey their Princes.

MarginaliaBishop Tonstall a right Lutheran.Thus, after that Bishop Tonstal playing the earnest Lutheran, both by scriptures and auncient Doctours, also by examples sufficiēt of the primitiue church, hath proued and declared, howe the Byshops of Rome ought to submitte them selues to theyr higher powers, vnder whom God hath appoynted euery creature in this world to obey: nowe let vs lykewyse see how the sayd Bishop Tonstal describeth vnto vs his disobedience intolerable, his pride incomparable, and his malignant malyce most execrable.

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The disobenience, the pride, and the malice of the pope described.And first speaking 

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Tunstal takes up the discussion of disobedience at p. 44 of the 1823 edition of the sermon (referring to the events of Genesis 3).

of the disobedience of Adam and Eue, then of the pride of Nabugodonosor, 
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Tunstal here discusses Isaiah 14.12-16, referring to the Babylonian king Nabuchodonosor II. At verse 12 he is called the 'bright morning star' which also alludes to Lucifer (also the 'morning star').

and of Lucifer, 
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In essence, Christian identification of Lucifer, the fallen angel (thrown out of Heaven for disobedience), Satan, the Devil and the serpent of Eden, draws upon interpretation of Revelation 12 (verses 4, 7, and 9 in particular).

at length he compareth the Bishopes of Rome to them all. Who fyrst for disobedience refuse to obey Gods commaundement, but contrary to his word, will be aboue their gouernours in refusing to obey them.

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MarginaliaThe pride of the pope described.Secondlye, besyde 

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Foxe paraphrases much of the text of pp. 50-2 of the 1823 edition.

this rebellious disobedience in these Bishopes of Rome not sufferable, their pride moreouer so farre exceadeth all mesure, that they wyll haue their Princes, to whom they owe subiection, prostrate vpon the grounde, to adore them by godly honour vpon the earth, and to kysse their feete, as yf they were God, where as they be but wretched men, and yet they loke that their Princes should do it vnto them, and also all other christen men owing them no subiection, should do the same.

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MarginaliaThe pope compared to Lucifer.And who be these I pray you, that men may knowe them? Surely (saith he) the Bishops of Rome be those whom I do meane. Who folowyng the pride of Lucifer their father, make themselues felowes to God, and do exalte their seate aboue the starres of God, and do ascende aboue the cloudes, and will be lyke to almyghty God. The starres of God be mente the Aungels of heauen, for as starres do shewe vnto vs in parte, the lyght of heauen, so do Aungelles sente vnto men, shewe the heauenlye lyghte of the grace of God, to those to whome they be sente. And the cloudes sygnified in the olde Testament the Prophetes, and in the newe do signifie the Apostles and prechers of the word of God. MarginaliaThe pope exalted aboue the cloudes and the starres of heauen.For as the cloudes doo conceaue and gather in the skye moysture, which they after poure down vpon þe groūd to make it therby more fruitefull: so the Prophetes in the olde testament, and the Apostles and preachers in the newe, doo poure into our eares the moysture of their heauenly doctrine of the worde of God, to make therwith by grace, our soules being seere and drye, to bryng forth fruite of the spirite. Thus do all auncient expositours, and amonge them 

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The psalm, which is set in the scene of a wedding, is generally considered an analogy for the church and Christ or subjects and king (for bride and bridegroom).

S. Augustine, interprete to be ment in Scripture, starres and cloudes, in the exposition of the. xlv. Psalme.

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MarginaliaApoc. 19. 22.But S. Iohn 

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Tunstal here refers to Revelation 19.10 & 22.9 (the reaction of John to the appearance of the angel).

þe Euangelist writeth in the. xix. chap. of the Apocalips, and in the. xxij. also, that whē he would haue fallen downe at the Aungells foote that did shew hym those visions there written, to haue adored hym with godly worshyp, the Aungell sayd vnto hym: See thou doe not so, for I am the seruaunt of God as thou arte. Gyue adoration and godly worshyppe to God, and not to me. Here it appeareth, that the Bishops of Rome sufferyng all men prostate before them to kysse their feete (yea þe; same Princes, to whom they owe subiection) MarginaliaThe pope exalted aboue Angels.doe clyme vp aboue the starres and Aungels too, offeryng their feete to bee kyssed, with shooes and all. For so I sawe my self 
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This claim appears at p. 51 of the 1823 edition. Tunstal studied law at the university of Padua (earning his doctorate there) so the claim is not unlikely.

beyng present. xxxiiij. yeare ago, when Iulius then Bishop of Rome stode on hys feete, and one of his chamberlaynes helde vp hys skyrt because it stode not (as he thought) with his dignitye, that he should doe it hymselfe, that his shoo myght appeare, whyles a noble man of great age did prostrate hymselfe vppon the grounde, and kyssed his shoo: which he stately suffered to be doone, as of duetie. Where me thinke I sawe 
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Acts 10.25-6. Tunstal is making a juxtaposition between the Cornelius-Peter interaction from the bible story and the real life scenario of Peter (as embodied by pope Julius II) receiving visitors.

Cornelius the Centurion, Captayne of the Italions bande, spoken of in the tenth Chapiter of the Actes, submittyng hymselfe to Peter, and muche

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