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1253 [1253]

K. Henry. 8. The letter of Tonstall and Stokesley, to Cardinall Poole.

decres and statutes vnto the Byshop of Rome, he did not submit them to hys reformation or iudgement, but only sygnifyed hys owne sentence to lyke hym also: and yet addyng therunto, that yf any byshops (meanyng aswell of Rome, as of others) which were of the cōtrary opinions to hym, woulde otherwyse thynke or do, he woulde not then, that hys sentence shoulde bee to them preiudiciall, neyther woulde hee therby compell them to anye thyng: but would that they shoulde followe theyr owne mindes and customes: partely for that euery one of the byshops hath libertye of hys owne wyll, and partely for þt euery gouernour shall make an accompt to God of his own dede, as it appeareth plainly in hys Epistle to Stephanus and Iulianus. 

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This may refer to Cyprian's epistle 71 (to Stephen with regard to decisions of a recent council on the issue of baptism) and epistle 72 (to Jubaianus on the same subject). Stephen I was pope between 12 May 254 and 2 August 257. There is no epistle to a Julianus. [See, 'The Epistles of Cyprian', in Nicene and Post Nicene Fathers, second series, 14 vols., ed. by Henry R Percival (New York, 1890-1900), v; or The Writings of Cyprian, 2 vols., ed. by A Roberts and J Donaldson (Edinburgh, 1882)].

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And in the. iij Epistle 
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Cyprian's third epistle (Epistle 42) written to Pope Cornelius (pope between 251-3) was written in 251 and addresses the issue of Cyprian's excommunication of Felicissimus and the rejection of any appeals to Rome over his jurisdiction in the matter.

to Cornelius, towardes the ende, MarginaliaCipr. Lib. 3. epist. ad Cornelium.speakyng of the appeale that one Pelicissimus a Nouatian, after hys condemnation in Affrica, made to Rome, hee impugneth such appeales, saying: Quia singulis pastoribus portio gregis est asscripta, quam regat vnusquisque & gubernet, rationem sui actus Domino red dicurus. &c. Forasmuch as euery Pastour hath his own flocke committed to him, which euery one ought to rule and gouerne, and must geue accompt to the Lord of hys administration, it is decreed of vs all, and we thinke it both mete & iust, that euery mans cause and plee shoulde there be heard, where the crime is committed. MarginaliaAppeale to Rome forbidden.This holy and excellent clerke and Martyr S. Cypriane woulde neuer haue eyther impugned theyr appeale to Rome from theyr owne primacies, or so earnestly haue mayntayned his determinations in the Coūcels of Affrike cōtrary to the opiniō of the Byshops of Rome and to theyr customes, without any submission by worde or wryting, if the primacie ouer all, which the Byshops of Rome doo chalenge and vsurpe, had bene grounded vpō the plaine Scriptures, as you with some others do thynke: and it is to be supposed also, that he would in all hys Epistles haue called them Patres or Dominos, fathers or Lords, as Superiours, and not alwayes Fratres & collegas, brothers and fellowes in office, as but onely his equalles.

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MarginaliaConcil. Aphrican.Whiche thyng yet more playnly doth appeare by the Actes of þe Councels of Aphricke in S. Augustines tyme, by the which it is euident, that though the fayth of Christ was by the Romaines first brought into Aphricke (as S. Augustine doth confesse) MarginaliaAug. epist. 16. yet it was not read nor knowē, that the Byshops of Rome vsed or chalenged any soueraigntie in Affricke, vnto thys tyme. And yet then hee dyd not chalenge it by the ryght of Gods worde, but by the pretence of a certayne Canon supposed to bee in the Councell of Nice. Whiche Article could neuer bee founde, thoughe it were then very diligently sought for through all the principal Churches of the East & South: but only was alleged 

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The bishops are referring here to Pope Julius I (pope from 6 February 337 to 12 April 352) who, during the Arian crisis, made the earliest reference to Roman primacy.

of Iulius bishop of Rome, out of his owne Library. MarginaliaVide duas Epistolas ad Bonifacium. pp. 1. ot. conciliorum. fol. 307. 308.And you may be well assured, that if the Scriptures had made for it, neither the Byshop of Rome would haue left that certayne proufe by Scriptures, and trusted only to the testimony of an Article of that Councell, being in doubt and vnlykely to be found, nor yet S. Augustine with hys holy and learned company, would haue resisted this demaund, if it had bene either groūded vpon Scriptures, or determined in that or other Councels, or yet had stand with equitie, good order or reason. MarginaliaDist. 16. Ciginti.Howbeit the largenes and magnificence of buyldynges of that Citie, & the auncient excellencie and superioritie of the same in temporall dominions, was the only cause that in the Councels (where the Patriarchall seas were set in order) the Byshop of Rome was lotted to the fyrst place, and not by any such cōstitution made by Christ, as appeareth wel by that, that Constantinople beyng at the same tyme of thys orderyng of þe Patriarchall seas, most amply enlarged by þe Emperours, beyng before a small towne and of no renowne, and by thē most magnificētly builded & aduaūced worldly with all titles, prerogatiues and priuileges temporall lyke vnto Rome, and therfore called Noua Roma, new Rome, was therfore aduaunced also to the second Sea & place, Antiochia in the East, (where S. Peter fyrst tooke the chayre before he came to Rome, and where Christen men had fyrst theyr name geuē them) yea and Ierusalem (whiche was the fyrst mother Citie of our fayth, and where Christ hym selfe fyrst founded the fayth) and also Alexandria beyng reiected to the iij. iiij. and v. places, because at that tyme they were not in so hyghe estimation in the world, thoughe in the fayth of Christ all they were auncientes, and some of them mothers to Rome.

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MarginaliaHist. tripart. Lib. 4. Cap. 6.Truth it is, that the Bishoppes of the Orient, for debates in matters of the fayth amonges them selues, made sutes to the byshop of Rome: but that was not for the superioritie of iurisdictiō ouer them, but because they were greatly diuided, and those countreis, as well Byshopes as others, much infected with the heresies of the Arrians 

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An anti-Trinitarian sect condemned at Nicaea. Arians believed that the Father, Son and Holy Spirit were not of the same substance.

, whereof the Weste was in a maner cleare, and among them of the Oriente, none were counted indifferent to decide those matters, but were all suspected of affectiō for one cause or other: wherrfore they desyred þe opiniōs of þe byshops of þe West, as indifferent, & not tangled with affections of any of those partes, neyther corrupted with any of the Arrians, as appeareth by the Epistles of S. Basyll wrytten in all theyre names for the sayd purpose. In the which also it is especially to be noted, that their sute was not to the Byshop of Rome singularly, or by name: but (as the tytles do shew) to the whole cōgregacion of þe Bishops of Italy, & Fraunce, or of the whole Weste, and sometyme preferryng the Frenche and Italian Bishops saying, Gallis & Italis, and neuer naming the Romaynes. MarginaliaThe olde fathers neuer knew the Primacie of the church of Rome.And for a cleare profe that the auncient fathers knewe not thys primacye of one aboue all, we neede none other testimonie, but theyr determination in the councell of Nyce, that Alexandria and Antiochiæ, and vniuersally all other primates, shoulde haue the whole gouernaunce of theyr consyne countreis, lyke as the byshop of Rome had of those that inhabited within his suburbes. And this determination proueth also, that your three Scriptures ment nothyng lesse, then this primacie ouer all. For God forbidde that we shoulde suspecte that Councel as ignoraunt of those plaine Scriptures, to the which sythe that tyme, all Christendome hath leaned, as the anker of our fayth. And yf you lyke to reade the auncient Ecclesiasticall histories, there you may see, that Athanasius and other Patriarkes did execute, that primacye, as in making, consecratyng, and orderyng of Churches, Byshoppes, and clerkes in theyr countries East and South, as the Byshoppes of Rome in that tyme dyd in the West and North.

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MarginaliaIn the tyme of Pope Agatho, the Sea of Rome had no rule ouer þe East and South Churches.And if you would yet any thing obiect agaynst any of these witnesses, then for to eschewe contention, and for a fynall conclusion, let the Byshop of Rome stande to hys owne confession made manye yeares past by hys predecessour Agatho, 

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The bishops refer here to Pope St Agatho of the late seventh century and to his epistles to emperors Constantine, Heraclius and Tiberius, wherein Roman supremacy was supposedly denied. These letters can be found in Agatho, 'S Agathonis Papae Epistolae', in Patrologiae cursus completus: series Latina, 221 vols., ed. by J P Migne (Paris, 1844-1903), lxxxvii, pp.1161-1260.

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to the Emperour Constantine, Heraclius, and Tyberius, in his Epistle wryttē to them in his name, & in the name of all the Synodes which he thought to be vnder the sea Apostolyke: wherin sone after the begynning of the Epistle, he comprehendeth them all vnder the name of the Byshops dwelling in þe North & West partes of theyr Empyre: So that there in his own Epistle, he confesseth all hys subiectes or obedienciaries, to be only of the North & West: and so it appeareth euidently by hys owne confession, that neyther by Gods lawe nor mans lawe he had to do with any person of the East or the South. And this hys hyghe Soueraigntie ouer all, chalēged (as you and others say) by Scripture, as by his owne confession doth appeare, is brought into a little & a straite angle. And this Agatho was not a man vnlearned, as appeareth by the actes of the vj. Synode of Constantinople in the. iiij. Acte, wherin is written at large and expressed the sayd Epistle and cōfession. MarginaliaPeters primacie hath no successours.And the primacie of Peter, which auncient doctors speake of, which was onely in preachyng and teaching the fayth of Christ, which he fyrst among all the Apostles and fyrst of al mortall men, did expresse with his mouth, did after so adhere to his own persone, that it was neuer deriued eyther to any successor, or to any other Apostle, but chiefly to hymselfe: for all other afterwardes professyng the same, spake it according vnto him, who had professed it before. More ouer, all the Apostles (as S. Iohn saith) MarginaliaApoc. 21.be foundations in the heauenly Ierusalem, and not Peter only. Also Cipriā affirmeth (as is aforesaid) that all the Apostles were of equall dignitye and power: whiche all auncient Autours likewyse do affirme. For Christ gaue 
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Matthew 28.19.

the Apostles like power in the gospell saying: Goe and teach all nations, baptizing them. &c. MarginaliaMath. 28. And S. Paul (as is sayd before) knew no other primacie geuen to Peter to preach in any place, but among the Iewes, as he hymselfe had amonge the Gentils, as he wryteth to the Galathiās. 
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The entire epistle is a vindication of Paul's apostolic authority, but especially 1.11-2.21.

Wherupō S. Ambrose wryting (as is aforesayd) affirmeth the same. And that the mother of all Churches is Ierusalem (as afore is said) and not Rome, the Scripture is plaine, both in the Prophet Esay: 
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Isaiah 2.3.

Out of Syon shall the lavve procede, and the vvord of the Lord out of Ierusalem MarginaliaEsa. 2.(Vpō the which place S. Ierome sayth: In Hierusalem primum fundata Ecclesia, totius orbis Ecclesias seminauit: Out of the Church beyng fyrst foūded in Ierusalē, sprong all other Chrches of the vvhole vvorld:)

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