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1254 [1254]

K. Henry. 8. The letter of Tonstall and Stokesley, to Cardinall Poole.

and also in the Gospel which Christ before his ascension commaunded his Apostles to preache throughout all the worlde, begynnyng fyrst at Ierusalem: So that the Byshop of Romes vniuersal power by hym claimed ouer all, can not by any scripture be iustified: as if you haue read þe auncient fathers expositions of the sayd Scriptures (as we suppose you haue, syth your letters sent hither concerning thys matter) and would geue more credence to theyr humble and plaine speaking, then to the latter contentious and ambicious wrytters of that hyghe and aboue the Ideas of Plato 

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This begins a section devoted to rational thinking.

hys subtilitie (whiche passeth as you wryte) the lawyers learnyng and capacitye: we doubt not, but that you perceyue and thinke the same.

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MarginaliaA Prince may bee head of hys Church, and yet not preach nor minister Sacramentes.And where you thinke that the kyng cā not be taken as supreme head of the Church, because he can not exercise the chief office of the Church in preaching and ministring of the Sacramentes: it is not requisite 

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In his Pro Ecclesiasticae Unitatis Defensione, Pole had made the argument that he could never accept any argument of supreme authority invested in a temporal ruler (or sacerdotal monarchy) making the familiar argument that; 'If the soul is superior to the body, then faith is superior to reason, thus spiritual to temporal, and church over state', and used this as evidence that popes are superior to kings [for which, see Pro Ecclesiasticae Unitatis Defensione (Rome, c.1537), sigs. xxiv-xxiirv]. The bishops respond [at Public Records Office, State Papers 1/113, fol.8v] with Plato's famous body analogy [found in Timaeus]. In essence, the 'body politic' is examined through a series of logical connections between society and the human body - society (due to the organic nature of the state) should function is a manner similar to a body.

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in euerye body naturall þt the head shoulde exercise eyther all maner of offices of the body, or the chief office of the same. For albeit the head is the highest and chiefe member of the naturall bodye, yet the distribution of life to al the members of the body, aswell to the head as to other mēbers, cōmeth frō the hart & it is the minister of lyfe to the whole body, as the chief acte of þe body. Neyther yet hath this similitude hys full place in a misticall bodye, that a king should haue the chief office of administration in the same: And yet notwithstāding the scripture speaking 
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I Samuel 15.17.

of king Saul, saith: I made thee head amongest the tribes of Israell. Marginalia1. Reg. 15.And if a kyng amongest 
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The bishops are drawing a logical conclusion.

the Iewes, were the head in the tribes of Israel, in þe time of þe law, much more is a Christian kyng head in the tribes of spirituall Israell, that is, of such as by true fayth see Christ who is the ende of the law. The office deputed to the byshops 
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Ezekiel 3.17. This carries on both the natural/political body analogy and the commonality of the authority of spiritual officers (priests/bishops) arguments. The bishops flesh this out below with comparisons between the authority of a king with that of an admiral at sea and a captain on the field of battle.

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in the mistical bodye, is to be as eies to the whole body, as almightye God sayth to the Prophet Ezechiel: I haue made thee an ouerseer ouer the house of Israell. MarginaliaEzech. 3.And what byshop so euer refuseth to vse the office of an eye in the mysticall body, MarginaliaA Byshop is an eye in the head, but not the head of the mysticall bodye.to shew vnto the body the right way of beleuyng & liuing, which appertayneth to the spiritual eye to doo, shal shew hym selfe to be a blynde eye: and if he shall take any other office in hand then appertaineth to the right eye, he shall make a confusion in the body, takyng vpō hym an other office, then is geuen to hym of God. Wherfore if the eye wyll take vpon hym the office of the whole head, it may be aunswered, it can not so do, for it lacketh brayne. And examples shewe lykewyse, that it is not necessarye alwaye that the head shoulde haue the facultie or chiefe office of administration, as you may see in a nauie by Sea, MarginaliaThe office of an head stādeth not in doing, but in commaunding.where the Admirall, who is Captayne ouer all, doth not medle with steryng or gouernyng of euery shyppe, but euery Maister particular must direct the shyppe to passe the Sea in breakyng the waues by hys steryng and gouernaunce, which the Admyrall the head of all, doth not hym selfe, nor yet hath the facultie to doo, but commaundeth the Maisters of the shyppe to do it. And lykewyse many a Captayne of great armyes, whiche is not able, nor neuer coulde peraduenture shoote or breake a speare by hys own strength, yet by hys wysdome & cōmaundement only, atchiueth the warres, & attayneth þe victory.

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MarginaliaVnitie what it is, and wherin it consisteth.And where you thynke that vnitie standeth not only in the agreyng in one faith & doctrine of the church, but also in agreyng in one head: if you meane the 

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This is a reference to St Augustine's City of God (book 22, chapter 18). The allusion is to the church as body and Christ as head of that body. This is to counter any argument of papal supremacy.

very & onlye head ouer all the Churche our Sauyour Christe: VVhome the father hath set ouer all the churche, vvhich is his body, wherein all good Christiā men doe agree, therin you say truth. But if you meane of any one mortal mā to be head ouer all the Church, and that to be the Byshop of Rome, we do not agre with you: For you do there erre in the true vnderstandynge of Scripture, or els you must say, that the sayd Coūcell of Nice and other most auncient did erre, which diuided the administration of Churches, the Orient from the Occident, and the South frō the North, as is before expressed. And that Christ 
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Matthew 18.20.

the vniuersal head is present in euery Church, þe gospel sheweth: vvhere tvvo or thre be gathered together in my name, there I am in the myddes of them. MarginaliaMath. 18.And in an other place: 
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Matthew 28.20.

Beholde, I am vvith you, vntill the end of the vvorld. MarginaliaMath. 28.By which it may appeare Christe the vniuersall head, euery where to be with his misticall body the Church: who by hys spiryte worketh in all places (howe farre so euer they be distaunt) the vnitye and concorde of the same. And as for any other vniuersall head to be ouer all, thē Christ himself, Scripture proueth not, as it is shewed before. And yet for a further proufe, to take away the scruples, that peraduenture do to your appearaunce ryse of certain wordes in some annciēt authours, and especially in S. Cypryans Epistles, as that the vnitye of the Churche stode in the vnitye with the Byshop of Rome, though they neuer call him supreme head, if you well wey & conferre al theyr sayinges together, MarginaliaAunswere to S. Cyprian.you shal perceyue that they neyther spake nor meant otherwyse, but when the byshop of Rome was once lawfully elected and enthroned, if then any other would by factiō, might, force, or otherwise, (the other liuing and doing hys office) enterprise to put hym downe, and vsurpe the same Byshoprike, or exercise the others office hymselfe, as Nouatianus 
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The bishops are discussing the election of Novatian (elected as antipope) during the papacy of Cornelius (c.251). St Cyprian secured support for Cornelius' rightful election as bishop of Rome (not as supreme head of the church - as Pole interpreted the epistles).

dyd attempt in the tyme of Cornelius: then the sayd fathers rekoned them catholykes that dyd communicate with him that was so lawfully elected, & the custome was, one primacy to haue to doe with an other, by congratulatory letters soone after the certentye of theyr election was knowen, to kepe the vnitye of the Church: and they that dyd take parte or maintayne the vsurper, to bee Schismatickes, because that vsurper was a Schismatycke: Quia non sit fas in eadē Ecclesia, duos simul Episcopos esse, nec priorem legitimū Episcopū sine sua culpa deponi: because it was not lawfull 
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The bishops are referring to epistles 41-3 [for which, see the on-line edition at http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/0506.htm].

for two bishops to bee at once together in one Church, neither the former Bishop being lawfull, to be deposed without hys fault were proued. MarginaliaThe church of Rome hath no more prerogatiue, then any other church.And this is not a prerogatiue of the church of Rome, more then of any other cathedral, special, patriarchall, or metropoliticall Church, as appeareth in the. iij. Epistle of the fyrst booke, and in the. viij. of the second, and of the fourth booke of S. Cypriane to Cornelius. MarginaliaThe vnitie of the church standeth not in the vnitie of the bish. of Rome.Whose wordes and reasons, although peraduenture they might seme to conclude the vnitye of the Church, in the vnitye of the Byshop of Rome, because they were all wrytten to him in his owne case, maye aswell be written vnto any other Bishop lawfullye chosen, who percase should be likewise disturbed as the Bishoppes of Rome then were, by any factions of ambitious heretikes.

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And where you thinke the name 

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This refers back to the events of 1532-3 in which Henry VIII's supreme headship was recognized. The entire point of the letter was that this, and the subsequent act of royal supremacy (1534) was not innovative but merely acknowledged the existing, natural status quo.

of supreme head vnder Christ, geuen & attributed to the kynges maiestie, maketh an innouation in the Church, and perturbation of the order of the same, it can not bee any innouation or trouble to the Church, to vse the roume that God hath called hym to, whiche good Christian Princes did vse in the begynnyng when fayth was most pure, as S. Augustine 
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The quote is taken from 'Epistolarum Classis III, Epistolae Quas Scripsit Reliquo Vitae Tempore (ab anno 411 ad 450)' [see Patrologiae cursus completus: series Latina, 221 vols., ed. by J P Migne (Paris, 1844-1903), xxxiii, pp.471-1024 (at pp.704-8 (Ep. clxii))]. Augustine speaks of the imperial office as a kind of divine deputy position.

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MarginaliaAugust. Epist. 162.ad Glorium & Eleusium sayth: Ait enim quidā: non debuit Episcopus pro consulari iudicio purgari. &c. 
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Foxe here removed part of the quote (the full quote was used in the 1563 edition).

One there is whiche sayth, that a Byshop ought not to haue bene put to hys purgation before the iudgement seate of the deputie, as thoughe he hym selfe procured it, & not rather the Emperour hym selfe caused this inquirie to be made, to whose iurisdiction (for the whiche he must aunswere to God) that cause did especially pertayne. Chrisostome writeth 
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Chrysostom had written extensively on imperial authority. [For a discussion, see I Barrow, A Treatise of the Pope's Supremacy (Cambridge, 1859), pp.66-8.]

of that Imperiall authoritie thus: MarginaliaThe imperiall authoritie is next vnder God.Læsus est qui non habet parem vllum super terrā: summitas & caput est omniū hominū super terram. He is offēded that hath no peere at all vpon the earth, for hee is the hyghest Potentate, and the head of all men vpon earth. And Tertullian ad Scapulam, sayth: 
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This refers to Tertullian, Liber Ad Scapulam. [See, Patrologiae cursus completus: series Latina, 221 vols., ed. by J P Migne (Paris, 1844-1903), i, pp.697-706 (at p.700)]. The argument being that all due honour and reverence is due to an emperor (whose authority is inferior only to God's).

Colimus ergò & Imperatorem sic, quomodo & nobis licet, & ipsi expedit, vt hominem a Deo secundum. &c. We honor and reuerence the Emperour in such wise, as is lawfull to vs & expediēt to him, that is to say, as a man next and the second to God: frō whom he hath receiued all the power he hath: and also inferiour to God alone, whose pleasure it is so to haue it: For thus is he greater then all men, whiles he is inferiour but to God alone.

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And the sayd Tertullian in hys booke 

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The bishops here refer to Tertullian's treatise entitled Apologeticus (which can be found in Patrologiae cursus completus: series Latina, 221 vols., ed. by J P Migne (Paris, 1844-1903), i, pp.257-536]. The argument comes in the middle of the treatise [see, p.441 (ca.30)].

Apologeticall speakyng of Emperours, sayth: MarginaliaTertul. in Apologet.Sciunt quis illis dederit imperium. &c. They know who hath gyuen to them theyr gouernement: they know that God is he alone, vnder whose onely power they be, and take them selues as second to God, after whom they be the chief before all other. Theophilacte 
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The bishops are referring to Theophylactus Lecapenus, who was Patriarch of Constantinople in the mid-10th century. The quote is taken from his treatise, Chronographia. [For which, see Patrologiae cursus completus: series Graeca, 161 vols., ed. by J P Migne (Paris, 1857-1866). cviii, pp.1038-1164]. The quote, which carries on below, can be found late in the treatise at pp.1134-5.

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also to the Rom. vpon this place: MarginaliaTheophil. in Rome.Omnis anima potestatibus sublimioribus subdita sit, sayth: The Apostle there teacheth euery mā, Siue sacerdos ille sit, siue Monachus, siue Apostol9, vt se principibus subdat: that whether he be a Priest or a Monke or an Apostle, hee should subiecte him selfe to Princes. That is, 
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Foxe has expanded the quote from the 1563 edition.

although thou bee an Apostle, an Euangelist, a Prophet, or what so euer thou arte, bee subiecte. Non enim (sayeth hee) subuertit pietatem hec subiectio: For this subiection ouerthroweth no godlynes. And the Apostle sayth not onely, let hym obey: but let hym be subiect. And if the Apostles be subiect to Princes, much more all Byshops & Patriarkes, yea the Byshops of Rome and all other.

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It is written also in the Chronicles: 

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These quotes are I Chronicles 28.11-13; II Chronicles 19.8, 31.2, 34.3-7. Foxe refers to these under their Greek title, Paralipomenon.

Marginalia1. Paral. 28.Dauid sayd to Salomon: behold the Priestes and Leuites diuided in companyes, to do all maner of seruice that perteyneth to the house of God. 
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Foxe has removed the Latin verse that he included in the 1563 edition.

Also: Marginalia2. Paral. 16.Dauid did appointe chiefly to thanke the Lord, Asaph and his brethren. &c. 
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I Chronicles 16.7.

And, Marginalia2. Paral. 19.Iosaphat the king did constitute Leuites and Priestes, 
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This refers to Jehoshaphat, king of Judah (873-49BC), who is mentioned at II Chronicles 17.7-9.

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and
CCC.iij.
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