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1285 [1285]

K. Henry. 8. The kinges Articles and Iniunctions, for reformation of religion.
¶ Ecclesiasticall matters. an. 1538.

MarginaliaAn. 1538It wilbe iudged, that I haue lyngred peraduenture to much in these outward affaires of Princes and Ambassadours. Wherfore, leauyng with these by matters perteinyng to þe Ciuill state a while, I mynde (the Lord willyng) to put my story in order agayne of such occurrentes as belong vnto the Church, first shewyng such iniunctions & Articles, as were deuised & set forth by þe king, for þe behoufe of his subiectes 

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Royal articles and injunctions

The following section consists of Foxe's presentation of several key pieces of Henrician religious legislation: The Ten Articles (1536), Thomas Cromwell's first Injunctions (1536) and the second Royal Injunctions of Henry VIII (1538). All of these sources were available to Foxe in print: the Ten Articles in STC 10033-100333.8, Cromwell's injunctions in STC 10084.7-100085 (although because the mandate that every parish priest should provide a copy of the Bible in Latin and English by 1 August 1537 does not appear in certain manuscript copies of the Injunctions or in STC 10084.7, Foxe must have drawn on STC 100085) and the 1538 Injunctions are STC 10086-10087. Foxe also obtained a copy of an act of the 1536 Convocation limiting the number of holy days to be observed, probably from a set of diocesan registers. These enactments represent, for Foxe, the high tide of Henrician Reformation and he is quick, as always, to credit Cromwell for this. (in later transcriptions of injunctions, Foxe attributes 'evil' injunctions to Stephen Gardiner). Cromwell's Injunctions were printed in the 1563 edition, and all editions thereafter; the other material in this section first appeared in the 1570 edition.

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Thomas S. Freeman

. Wherin first is to be vnderstanded, that the kyng, whē he had taken the title of supremacie from the Byshop of Rome, and had translated the same to him selfe, and was now a full Prince in his owne realme, MarginaliaThe king and his counsaile bearing with the weakenes of the people.although hee well perceiued, by the wisedome and aduise of the Lord Cromwell and other of his counsaile, that the corrupt state of the Church had nede of reformatiō in many things: yet because he saw how stubborne and vntowarde the hartes of many Papistes were to be brought frō theyr old persuasiōs and customes, and what busines he had with thē, only about þe matter of þe Popes title, he durst not by and by reforme all at once (whiche notwithstandyng had ben to be wished) but leading them faire and softely, as he might, proceded by litle and litle, to bryng greater purposes to perfection (whiche hee no doubt would haue done, if the Lord Cromwell had lyued) 
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This is another example of Foxe's tendency to attribute the progress of Henrician Reformation almost solely to Thomas Cromwell.

and therefore MarginaliaThe boke of articles deuised by the king for quietnes of the people. &c.first hee began with a litle booke of Articles (partly aboue touched) bearyng this title. Articles deuised by the kinges highnes, to stable Christen quietnes and vnitie among the people. &c. 
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What folllows is a sharply abridged version of the Ten Articles, produced in the Convocation of 1536, and the first attempt at defining the doctrines of the newly established Church of England. The total document is rather more traditional in its orientation that Foxe's version: notably it defended the real presence of Christ's body and blood in the Sacrament and it gave (an admittedly qualified) approval of prayers for the souls of the dead.

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¶ Articles deuised by the King.

JN þe contentes of which booke, first be set forth þe Articles of our Christiā Crede, whiche are necessarely and expressely to bee beleued of all men. Then with the kynges Preface going before, foloweth the declaration of iij. Sacramētes: MarginaliaOf iij. sacraments.to witte, of Baptisme, of Penance, and of the Sacrament of the Aultar. In the tractation wherof, he altereth nothyng from the olde trade receaued heretofore from the Churche of Rome. 

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The Ten Articles maintained that there were three sacraments (in contrast to the traditional seven): baptism, the Eucharist and penance, a position elaborated at considerable length in the original. It is hardly accurate to maintain that this position did not differ from that of Rome, but regarding penance as a sacrament was anathema to Foxe, and he rushes by this section of the Ten Articles as hurriedly as possible.

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MarginaliaOf iustification.Further then, procedyng to the order and cause of our iustification 

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This was the biggest indication of Protestant influence in the Ten Articles: an acceptance of the Lutheran teaching that salvation was solely dependent on justification and that justification was not dependent on good works.

, he declareth, that þe only mercy & grace of the father promised frely vnto vs for his sonnes sake Iesu Christ, and the merites of his Passion and bloud, be the onely sufficient and worthy causes of our iustifi-ficatiō: yet good workes with inwarde cōtrition, hope, and charitie, and all other spiritual graces and motiōs, be necessarily required, and must nedes concurre also in remission of our sinnes, that is, our iustificatiō: and afterwarde we beyng iustified, must also haue good workes of charitie, and obedience towardes God, in the obseruyng and fulfillyng outwardly of hys lawes and commaundementes. &c.

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MarginaliaOf images.As touchyng Images, hee wylleth all Bishops and preachers to teach the people in such sorte, as they may know, how they may vse them safely in Churches, and not abuse them to Idolatry, as thus: that they be representers of vertue & good example, and also by occasion, may be styrrers of mens myndes, and make thē to remember them selues, and to lament their sinnes: and so farre he permitteth them to stand in Churches. But otherwise, for auoiding of Idolatrie, he chargeth all byshops and preachers diligently to instructe the people, that they committe no Idolatrie vnto them, in sensing of them, in knelyng and offeryng to them, with other lyke worshyppynges, whiche ought not to be done, but onely to God.

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MarginaliaOf honoring of Saintes.And likewise for honoryng of Saintes, the Bishops and preachers be commaunded to informe the people, how Saintes hence departed ought to bee reuerenced and honored, and how not. That is, that they are to bee praysed and honored as the elect seruauntes of Christ, or rather Christ to be praysed in them for their excellēt vertues plāted in them, & for their good example left to vs, teachyng vs to lyue in vertue and goodnes, and not to feare to dye for Christ, as they did: and also as aduauncers of our prayers, in that they may, but yet no confidence 

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This lengthy clause is Foxe's insertion into the original document.

, nor any such honour to be giuen vnto thē, which is onely due to God: And so forth chargyng the sayd spiritual persons to teach their flocke that MarginaliaNo mediation but by Christ.all grace & remission of sinnes, & saluation, can no otherwise be obteined, but of God only, by þe mediation of our Sauiour Christ, who is onely a sufficient mediatour for our sinnes: and that all grace and remission of sinne must procede onely by mediation of Christ and no other.

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MarginaliaOf rites and ceremonies.From that, he commeth further to speake of rites & ceremonies in Christes Church, as in hauyng vestiments vsed in Gods seruice, sprinklyng of holy water, giuyng of holy bread, bearing of cādles on Candlemas day, takyng of ashes, bearyng of Palmes, crepyng to the Crosse, settyng vp the Sepulcher, hallowyng of the founte, with other lyke customes, rites, & ceremonies. All whiche old rites and customes, the foresayd booke doth not by and by repeale, but so farre admitteth them for good and laudable, as they put men in remēbraunce of spirituall things: but so, that the people withall must be instructed, how the sayd ceremonies conteyne in them no such power, to remitte sinne, but onely that to be referred vnto God, by whom onely our sinnes be forgiuen vs.

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MarginaliaOf purgatory.And so concludyng with Purgatory, hee maketh an end of those Articles, thus saying therof: that because the booke of Machabees aloweth praying for soules departed, he therfore disproueth not that so laudable a custome, so long continued in the Church. But because there is no certeine place named, nor kynde of paynes expressed in Scripture, he therfore thinketh necessarie such abuses clearely to be put away, whiche vnder the name of Purgatory, haue bene aduaunced: as to make men beleue, that by the Byshop of Romes pardons, or by Masses sayd, at Scala cœli, 

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Literally, 'Ladder to Heaven' - i.e. places in churches where rote prayers could be said for the sake of souls in Purgatory.

or other where, in any place or before any Image, soules might clearly be deliuered out of Purgatory, and from the paynes therof to be sent straight to heauē, and such other like abuses. &c.

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And these were the contentes of that booke of Articles deuised, and passed by the kynges authoritie, a litle before the styrre of Lyncolnshyre & Yorkeshyre 

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I.e., the Pilgrimage of Grace and the Lincolnshire rebellion of 1536.

. Wherin, although there were many & great imperfections & vntrouthes not to bee permitted in any true reformed Church: MarginaliaMilke for new wainlings.yet notwithstandyng, the kyng and his counsaile to beare with the weakelynges, which were newly weyned frō their mothers mylke of Rome, thought it might serue somewhat for the tyme, in stede of a litle begynnyng, till better might come.

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MarginaliaIniunctions for abrogating certen holy dayes.And so consequently, not long after these Articles thus set forward, certeine other Iniunctions were also giuen out about the same yeare. 1536. wherby a nūber of holy daies were abrogated, and specially such as fell in the haruest time: the kepyng of whiche redounded greatly to the hynderaunce of gatheryng in theyr corne, hay, fruite, and other such like necessarie commodities. The copie and tenour of whiche Iniunctiōs I haue also hereunto annexed, as vnder foloweth.

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¶ The kinges Iniunctions.

MarginaliaIniunctions by the kyng.FOrasmuch 

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What follows is an act made in the Convocation of 1536 abolishing many of the traditional holy days, particularly those occurring at the economically inconvenient periods of harvest time or during the legal terms.

as the nomber of holy dayes is so excessiuely growen, & yet dayly more and more by mēs deuotion, yea rather superstition, was lyke further to increase, that the same was and should be not only preiudiciall to the common weale, by reason that it is occasion aswell of much slouth and idlenes, the very nourse of theeues, vagaboundes, and of diuers other vnthriftines and inconueniences, as of decay of good misteries & Artes profitable and necessarie for the common wealth, and losse of mans foode, many times being cleane distroyed through the superstitious obseruance of the sayd holydayes, in not takyng the oportunitie of good and serene weather, offered vpō the same in tyme of haruest, but also pernicious to the soules of many men, which (beyng entised by the licencious vacation and libertie of those holydayes) do vpon the same, commonly vse and practise more excesse, riot, and superflui-

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tie,
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