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1322 [1322]

K. Henry. 8. The disputation of Iohn Lambert before to the king.

which was rapte into the thyrde heauen, I knowe not, whether in the body or without, God knoweth. Wherby, euen by the testimony of S. Paul, a man shall easely gather, that in this reuelation hee was taken vp in sprite into the heauens, and did see those thinges, rather then that Christ came down corporally from heauen, to shew thē vnto him: especially, for that it was sayd of the Aungell: That euen as he ascended into heauen, so he shoulde come agayn. And S. Peter sayeth, whome it behoueth to dwell in the heauens. And moreouer appoynting the measure of time, he addeth: Euē vntill that al thinges be restored. &c. Here agayne, Lambert beynge taunted and rebuked, could not be suffered to prosecute his purpose.

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MarginaliaTonstall Bishop of Durisme agaynst LambertAfter the Bishop of Winchester had doone, Tunstall Bishop of Durham tooke hys course, and after a longe preface, wherin hee spake much of Gods omnipotēcye, at the last he came to this poynt, saying: that if Christe could performe that which hee spake touching the conuerting of his body into bread, without doubt he would speake nothing, but that he would performe.

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MarginaliaThe aunswere of Lambert to Tunstall.Lambert aunsweared, that there was no euidente place of Scripture, wherin Christ doth at any time say, that he would chaunge þe bread into his body: and moreouer, that there is no necessity why hee shoulde so do. MarginaliaThe figuratiue phrase of the scripture to be marked.But this is a figuratiue speach, euery where vsed in the Scripture, when as the name and appellatiō of the thing signified, is attributed vnto þe signe. By which figure of speach, circumcision is called the couenaunte, the Lambe, the passeouer: beside vj. hūdreth such other. Nowe it remayneth to be marked, whether we shall iudge all these after the wordes pronounced, to be straight waye chaunged into an other nature. Then agayne beganne they to rage a freshe against Lambert, so that if he could not be ouercome with argumentes, hee shoulde be vanquished with rebukes and tauntes. What shoulde he doe? He might well holde his peace lyke a lambe, but bite or barke agayne he could not.

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MarginaliaThe wycked boast of Stokesley.Next orderlye stepped forth the valiaunt champion Stokesley Bishop of London, who afterward lying at the poynt of death, reioysed, boasting, that in hys lyfe time he had burned 50. heretikes. This man amonges the residue, intending to fight for his belly, with a long protestation promised to proue, that it was not onely a worke of a diuine miracle, but also that it dyd nothinge abhorre nature. For, it is nothinge dissonant from nature (sayth he) the substances of like thinges to be often tymes chaunged one into an other: So that neuerthelesse, the accidentes do remaine, all be it the substance it selfe, and the matter subiect be chaunged. MarginaliaThe waterish cold argumēnt of Stokesley.Then he declared it by the example of water boilinge so long vpō the fire, vntill all the substaunce therof be euaporate. Now (sayeth he) it is the doctrine of the Philosophers, that a substance can not be chaunged, but into a substance: MarginaliaOne substance may be chaūged into an other, but then the accidentes chaunge also with it.wherefore we do affirme the substaunce of the water, to passe into the substance of the ayre. Notwithstāding the qualitye of the water, which is moistnesse, remayneth after the substance is chaunged, for the ayre is moiste, euen as the water is.

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MarginaliaThe byshops tryumph before the victory.When this argumēt was heard, the Bishops greatly reioysed, and sodenlye theyr contenaunce chaunged, as it were assuringe themselues of a certayne triumph and victory by thys Philosophical transmutation of elementes, and like as it hadde bene of more force, then Crisppus argumēt, which passed al maner of solution.

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MarginaliaLamberts aunswer to Stokesley.Lamberts aunswere was longe loked for here of all men. Who, as sone as he had obtayned silence & liberty to speake, first of all denied the Bishoppes assumpte, that the moisture of the water dyd remayne after the substance was altered. For albeit (sayth he) that we do graunt with the Philosophers, the ayre to be naturally moiste, notwithstandinge it hath one proper and a diuers degree of moisture, and the water an other. Wherfore, whē as the water is conuerted into the ayre, there remayneth moisture, as you do saye, but that is not the moisture of water, but the proper & naturall moisture of the ayre. Where vppon there is an other doctrine amonges the Philosophers, as a perpetuall rule, that it can by no meanes be, that the qualityes and accidentes in naturall thinges should remayne in their owne proper nature, without theyr proper subiect. MarginaliaTauntes and raging agaynst Lambert. Then agayne the king and the Bishops raged against Lambert, in so much that he was not onely forced to silence, but also myghte haue beene driuen into a rage, if hys eares had not bene acquaynted with suche tauntes afore. After this the other Bishops, euery one in his order, as they were appoynted, supplied their places of disputation.

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MarginaliaTen disputers agaynst Lambert.There were appoynted ten in number, for the performyng of this tragedy, for his. x. Arguments, whiche, (as before we haue declared) were deliued vnto Tailor þe preacher. It were to long in this place, to repeate the reasons and argumentes of euery bishop: and no lesse superfluous were it so to doe, speciallye for so much as they were all but cōmon reasons, and nothing forceable, & such as by the long vse of disputation haue beene beaten, and had litle in them, eyther worthy the hearer, or the reader.

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MarginaliaLambert in great perplexitie.Lambert in the meane tyme beynge compassed in with so many and greate perplexities, vexed on the one side with cheecks and tauntes, and pressed on the other side, with the authority and threates of the parsonages, and partlye beinge amazed with the maiestie of the place in the presence of the king, and speciallye beinge weryed with longe standyng, whiche continued no lesse then fiue houres, from twelue of the clocke, vntill fyue at nyght, MarginaliaLambert kepeth silence when speaking would do no good.being brought in despair that he shoulde nothyng profite in this purpose, and seyng no hoope at all in speaking, was at this poynte, that he chose rather to holde his peace. Wherby it came to passe, that those Byshops, whiche laste of all disputed with hym, spake what they lusted without interruption, saue onely that Lambert now and then, woulde alledge somewhat out of S. Augustin for the defence of his cause, in whiche Author he semed to be very prompt and ready. But for the most parte (as I sayd) being ouercome with werynesse and other griefes, hee helde his peace, defending himselfe rather with silence, then with argumentes, which he sawe would nothing at all preuayle.

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At the last, when the day was passed, and that torches began to be lyghted, the kyng mindyng to breake vp this pretensed disputatiō, sayd vnto Lambert in this wise: MarginaliaThe kinges wordes to Lambert.What sayest thou now (sayd hee) after all these great labours which thou hast taken vpon thee, & all the reasons and instructions of these learned mē, art thou not yet satisfied? Wilt thou lyue, or dye? What sayest thou? Thou hast yet free choise. Lambert aunswered: I yeld and submit my selfe wholy vnto the wil of your Maiestie. Then sayd the kyng. Commit thy selfe vnto the handes of God, and not vnto myne.

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Lambert. I commende my soule vnto the handes of God, but my body I wholy yeld and submit vnto your clemency. MarginaliaThe king condemneth the Martyr of Christ, Iohn Lambert.Then sayd the kyng, if you do commit your selfe vnto my iudgement, you must dye, for I will not be a patrone vnto heretickes, and by and by, turnyng him selfe vnto Cromwell, he sayd: MarginaliaL. Cromwell commaunded by the king to reade the sentence.Cromwell, read the sentence of condēnation agaynst him. This Cromwell was at that time þe chief frend of the Gospellers. And here is it much to bee maruayled at, to see how vnfortunatly it came to passe in this matter, that through the pestiferous and craftye counsaile of thys one Byshop of Winchester, Sathan (which oftentymes doth rayse vppe one brother to the destruction of an other) dyd here perfourme the condemnation of this Lambert, by no other ministers, then Gospellers them selues, Taylor, Barnes, Cranmer & Cromwell, who afterwardes in a maner all, suffred the lyke for the Gospels sake: of whō (God willing) we wil speake more hereafter.

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The crafty fetch of Steph. Wint.This vndoubtedly was the malicious and crafty subtiltye of the Byshop of Winchester, which desired rather, that the sentence might be read by Cromwell, thē

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