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1337 [1337]

K. Henry. 8. Allegations against the vj. Articles. Transubstantiation.

vpon hym the earnest defense of the truth oppressed in that Parlamēt, three dayes together disputyng agaynst those sixe wicked Articles, bryngyng foorth such allegations and authorities, as might easely haue helped the cause, nisi pars maior vicisset, vt sæpe solet, meliorē. Who in þe sayd disputation behaued hym self with such humble modestie, and with such obedience in woordes toward hys Prince, protesting the cause not to be his, but the cause of almightye God, that neither his enterprise was misliked of the kyng, and agayne, his reasons and allegations were so strong, that well they could not be refuted. MarginaliaCranmer willed to depart out of the Parlament house for hys conscience.Wherfore the king (who euer bare speciall fauour vnto hym) well lykyng his zelous defense, only willed hym to depart out of the Parlament house, into the counsaile chamber, for a time (for sauegarde of his conscience) till the Acte should passe and bee graunted: MarginaliaCranmer refused to go out of the Parlament for matter against his conscience.whiche he notwithstandyng, with humble protestation refused to doe.

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After the Parlament was finished, and that matter concluded, the kyng consideryng the constant zeale of the Archbishop in defense of his cause, and partly also weying the many authorities and the reasons, whereby he had substantially confirmed the same, sent the Lord Cromwell, (which within few dayes after was apprehēded) the ij. Dukes of Northfolke and Suffolke, and all the Lordes of the Parlament, to dyne with hym at Lambeth, MarginaliaCranmer comforted agayne by the kyng.where they signified to hym that it was the kynges pleasure, that they all should in his highnes behalfe, cherishe, comforte and animate hym, as one, that for his trauaile in that Parlamēt had declared him selfe both greatly learned, and also a man discrete and wise: and therfore they willed hym not to bee discouraged in any thyng that was passed in that Parlament contrary to his allegations. He most humble thanked first the kynges highnes, of his singular good affectiō towardes him, and them all for their paynes, addyng moreouer that he so hoped in God, that hereafter hys allegations and authorities should take place to the glory of God, and cōmoditie of the Realme. Whiche allegations and authorities of his, I wyshe were amongest vs extant to be sene & read. No doubt but they would stand in tyme to come, in great good steade, for the ouerthrowe of the wicked and pernicious Articles aforesayd.

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¶ Allegations agaynst the vj. Articles.

MarginaliaAllegations agaynst the vj. Articles.IN the meane while, for somuch as the sayd heretical articles are not so lightly to be passed ouer, wherby the rude and ignoraunt multitude hereafter may be deceaued in the false and erroneous doctrine of them any more, as they haue bene in tyme past, for lacke of right instruction, and experience of the auncient state & course of tymes in our forelders daies: I thought therfore (the Lord therunto assistyng) so much as antiquitie of stories may helpe to þe restoryng agayne of truth and doctrine decayed, to annexe hereunto some allegatiōs, out of auncient recordes, whiche may giue some light to the conuincing of these newfangled Articles and heresies aboue touched. 

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Allegations against Six Articles

As Foxe states in his introductory sentences, this section is an appeal to history to demonstrate that the beliefs and practices prohibited by the Six Articles were those of the Church from the time of the Apostles, and that Catholic beliefs and practices were, on the other hand 'newfangled' innovations. To make these points, Foxe drew on a wide range of sources. In his section attacking the doctrine, Foxe drew on Heinrich Bullinger's De origine erroris libri duo (Zurich, 1568) and a collection of medieval works defending the doctrine of transubstantiation, De veritate corporis et sanguinis Domini nostri Iesu Christi, ed. Johann Vlimmer (Louvain, 1561). Foxe also utilized both William of Malmesbury's De gestis Pontificium Anglorum and his De gestis regum Anglorum. And Foxe reprinted the sermon of Aelfric Grammaticus from A testimonie of antiquitie, ed. Matthew Parker and John Joscelyn (London, 1566?), STC 159.5. For the section on the marriage of priests, Foxe relied heavily on John Bale's Scriptorum Illustrium maioris Brytanniae…Catalogus (Basel, 1557) and Matthias Flacius, Catalogus testium veritatis (Basel, 1562). And Foxe also reprinted much of Matthew Parker, Epistolae duae D. Volusiani Episcopi Carthaginensis (London, 1569), STC 24872. Foxe also printed medieval charters supplied to him by friends and supporters. Nevertheless, the most crucial aid Foxe had in writing the 'allegations' against the Six Articles was from Matthew Parker and his Latin secretary, John Joscelyn (Foxe probably had the active cooperation of Matthew Parker and John Joscelyn, since he commented on Eadmer's works and these works were collected by Matthew Parker. Moreover, his comments on the life of Oda probably came from John Joscelyn, who informed Foxe of its contents and supplied him with material).

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Thomas S. Freeman.

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And first, as touching the Article of transubstantiation, wherin this parlament doth enacte that the Sacrament of the Altar is the verye naturall body of Christ, the selfe same which was borne of the virgin Mary: and that in such sorte, as there remaineth no substance of breade and wyne, after the Priestes consecration, but onely the body and bloud of Christ, vnder the outward formes of bread and wyne: fyrste here is to be noted, þt this monstrous article of theirs, in that forme of wordes as it standeth, was neuer obtruded, receaued, or holden, either in the Greke church, or in the Latin church vniuersallye, for a Catholike, that is, for a generall opinion, or article of doctrine, before the tyme of the Lateran Councell at Rome, vnder Pope Innocent the. 3. an. 1216.

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MarginaliaThe article of transubstantiation.And for so much as it hath bene a common persuasion amongest the most sort of people, that this Article in the forme of wordes as here standeth, is and hath bene euer since Christes tyme, a true, Catholike, and generall doctrine, commonlye receaued and taught in the Church, being approued by the scriptures, and doctors, and consent of all ages vnto thys present tyme: to the entent therefore, that the cōtrary may appeare, and the people may see, how farre they haue ben herin beguyled: we will here (Christ willing) make a little stay in our story, and examine this forsayd Article, by true antiquitie, and course of historyes, to trye whether yt be a doctrine old, or new.

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MarginaliaThe article of the sacrament, consisteth in two partes.Now therfore, for the better discussyng of the matter, let vs fyrst orderly and distinctly aduise the words of the Article: the contentes of whiche Article consiste in. ij. partes or membres. In the first wherof, is noted to vs a presence of a thinge whiche there was not before. In the second is noted a priuation or absence of a thing which there before was present.

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The presence is noted by these wordes, of the article, where is sayd, that in the blessed Sacrament, by the words pronunced, is present the natural body and bloud of our Sauiour, vnder the formes of bread and wyne: MarginaliaTwo thinges present in the Sacrament: the thyng that representeth, and the thyng represēted.so that in these wordes, both the sacrament, and the naturall bodye is imported necessarely to be present. For els, how can the naturall body of Christe be present in the Sacrament vnder the formes of bread and wyne, if the Sacrament there were not present it self? or how cā a thing be sayd to be in that, which is not there? Wherfore, by these wordes, both the Sacrament, and also the bodye must necessarilye haue their beyng and presence, the one beynge in the other. And this presence both of the Sacrament, and of the body, beyng ryghtly taken, may ryght well stand together, the Sacrament to the outwarde eyes and mouth of man, the bodye of Christ, to the inward eyes of fayth and mouth of the soule.

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And therfore, touchinge these prepositions in thys Article, (In) and (Vnder) if question be asked in what is the body of Christe? MarginaliaIn.it may be well aunswered, in the Sacrament, to the eyes of our fayth, lyke as the outward sacrament is also present to the outward eyes of the body. Agayne, if the question be asked, vnder what is the body of Christe? MarginaliaVnder.it may be well aunswered, vnder the formes of bread and wyne, so as the Doctors do take the formes, to meane the outward elementes and natures of the Sacrament, and not the accidences.

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MarginaliaThe presence of the naturall body of Christ well expounded may be graunted in the Sacrament.And thus, to the first part of the Article beyng well expounded, we do assent, and confesse the same to haue ben the true Catholicke opinion approued by the auncient Doctours, and cōsent of all tymes, euen from the first institution of the Sacrament.

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MarginaliaAbsence of bread in the Sacrament.But as cōcernyng the second member or part of the Article, whiche taketh away all presence and substance of bread from the Sacrament: to that we say, that first it standeth not with their own Article. Secondly, that it standeth not with the doctrine of Scripture. Thirdly, that it standeth not with antiquitie, but is merely a late inuention.

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MarginaliaThe article of the Sacrament, agreeth not with it selfe.And first, that it agreeth not with their own Article, it is manifest. For where as in the former part of theyr Article, they say that the naturall body of Christ is present in þe blessed Sacramēt, vnder the formes of bread and wyne, how can the naturall body of Christ be present in the Sacrament, if there remaine no Sacramēt? or how can any Sacramēt of the body remaine, if there remaine no substance of bread which should make þe sacrament? For how cā þe body of Christ be in that thing, which is not? or how can þe Sacrament of þe body haue any beyng, where the substāce of bread hath no beyng?

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MarginaliaThe body of Christ can not be the Sacrament of hys body.For first, that the body it selfe can not be the Sacrament of the body, it is euident of it selfe.

MarginaliaThe accidences of the body can not be the Sacrament of Christes naturall body.Secondly, that the accidences of bread without the substāce of bread, can not be any Sacramēt of Christes

body,
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