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1350 [1350]

K. Henry. 8. Allegations against the vj. Articles. Transubstantiation.

sayd last recantation vnder Pope Hildebrand, called Gregorie. 7. But this difference of tymes is no great matter to stand vppon. The truth of the story is this: that when Berengarius had professed the truth of the Sacrament, and had stande in the open confession therof, accordyng to the auncient veritye of the doctrine receaued in the Church before, he was so handled by certein malignaunt and superstitious monkes, that what by euyll entreaty, and what for feare of death (suche is the weake fralitye of man) he began to shrynke, and afterward dyd in deede recante the truth.

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MarginaliaLancfrācke a persecutour of Berengarius.Of these malicious enemies agaynst Berengarius, þe chiefest troubler was Lancfrāck, Abbot of Codune, afterward Archbishop of Cant: Guimund monke likewise fyrste of the Abbay of Leufrede, and afterwarde Archbishop of Auersane: Algerius also monke of Corbein: Fulbertus also monke & Bishop: and Hildebrand somtyme Monke of Cluniake, & then Archdeacon of Turon, & afterward Bishop of Rome. 

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Except for Hildebrand, all of these 'malicious enemies' of Berengar are listed and extracted in De veritate corporis et sanguinis Domini nostri Iesu Christi, ed. Johann Vlimmer (Louvain, 1561). Hildebrand's involvement is taken from William of Malmesbury, De gestis regum Anglorum, ed. R. A. B. Mynors, R. M. Thomson and M. Winterbottom, 2 vols. [Oxford, 1998-99], I, p. 515.

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By these and such other monkes of the lyke fraternitye, the errour and heresie of transubstantiation began first to be defended, and partes publickly in writyng to be taken about that matter. MarginaliaPaschasius the fyrst beginner of the faction of transubstantiation.Of the which sydes and partes, the fyrst that began to set vp that factiō by writyng, semeth to bee Paschasius, who was a lytle before Berengarius 
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Paschius Radbertus actually lived about two centuries before Berengar. Paschius's teachings on the Eucharist were strongly criticized by Ratramnus of Corbie, but they formed the basis for the doctrine of transubstantiation.

,
about the tyme of Bertrame 
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I.e., Ratrumnus of Corbie, who actually lived about two centuries before Lanfranc.

:
and likewise Lancfranck the fyrst that brought it into England. On the contrary side again, the first that was openly impugned & troubled for denying transubstantiatiō, was this Berengarius: with whō Lācfranck also was supposed at þe fyrst beginnyng to holde & take parte, but afterward to cleare hym selfe, hee stode openly against him in the Councell, and wrote agaynst hym.

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It foloweth then in the Acte of the Councell 

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This account of Berengar's career, somewhat contradicting the account based on Bullinger, just given and given in more detail below (see next comment), is derived from William of Malmesbury. (See William of Malmesbury, De gestis regum Anglorum, ed. R. A. B. Mynors, R. M. Thomson and M. Winterbottom, 2 vols. [Oxford, 1998-99], I, p. 515. For the actual course of events see first comment.

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, that when the Synode of Archbishopes, Bishops, Abbots, and other Prelates were together assembled, the greater number (sayth the story) MarginaliaEx W. Malmesb. did hold, that the bread and wyne were turned substantially into the bodye and bloud of Christ. Notwithstandinge (sayth he) diuers there were in the sayd Councell whiche helde the contrary with Berengarius, but at last were dryuē to gyue ouer. Berengarius among the rest, after hee had long stand in the constant defense of the truth, at last relented to their willes, confessinge hys errour where none was, and desired pardon of the Councel. And this was (as semeth to W. Malmesbery) his fyrst geuing ouer. Who afterward returnyng to hym self agayn after the death of Pope Leo, and prickte with the stinge of conscience, was dryuen agayne to recognise the trueth, which he before had denyed.

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MarginaliaThe storye and recantation of Berengarius declared by W. Malmesb. De gestis Anglorum. Lib. 3The Pope (sayth Malmesb.) perceauing this, would not leaue hym so, but sent into Fraunce Hildebrand hys Cardinall Chapleine (as meete a mate for such a feate, as was in al Satans courte) and made him with a wanyand to come agayne coram nobis: who so handled Berengarius, and bringing hym before the face of the Councell holden at Turon, that he made hym to say, erraui, once agayn: agaynst whom stoode vp in that Councell Lancfrancus, and Guimundus aforesayde, impugnyng hys assertion. And thus standeth the narration of W. Malmesbery. But by þe Actes of the Coūcell of Rome appeareth an other declaration, MarginaliaThe order of his recantation declared, Ex Actis Romani Concilij.which is, that this latter recantation of Berengarius shoulde be at Rome vnder Hildebrand, beyng then Pope, in the yeare of our Lord. 1076. and in the moneth of February, and that in the sayde Councell holden in Ecclesia Saluatoris, this recantatiō of, Ego Berengarius, was made, and he inioyned by the sayde Pope Hildebrand, vpon his othe, neuer hereafter to teache or dispute contrary to that fayth of the Sacrament, there holden. &c.

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Agayn, Henry Bullinger in his booke, De origine erroris, folowing 

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This long account of Berengar's ordeals, culminating in the inaccurate report that Berengar became a labourer, is taken (virtually word-for-word) from Heinrich Bullinger, De origine erroris libri duo (Zurich, 1568), fos. 122v-123r. For the correct sequence of events see first comment.

belyke some other author, expresseth þe order of the forsayde recantation after this sorte, MarginaliaThe order of the sayd recantatiō reported out of Henr. Bulling. De origine erroris. ca. x.and sayeth, that in the tyme of Pope Leo. 9. Anno. 1051. there was a Romane Councell holden at Vercellense, in the which Councell Lancfrancke beyng then pre-sent, the booke of Ioh. Scotus was openlye read, and there condemned. MarginaliaConcilium Vercellense.Also Berengarius was sent for, who seing the preiudiciall procedyng of that Councell, refused hym selfe to come, but sent. ij. Clerkes, whiche openly there defended hys cause and quarell, and were for the same cōmitted vnto prison. Such is the freedom of the Popes generall Councels, with prisons and violence to defend their verities. Agaynst the doynges of this Councell notwithstanding, the French men stoode styffe, both at Angew, and Turon, 
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ioynyng and consentyng with Berengarius.

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Not long after this, died Pope Leo, and after hym succeded Pope Victor, by whō MarginaliaConcilium Florentinū.an other Synode was keepte at Florence, where the Actes and doyngs of the forsayd Councell of Vercellense, were confirmed, and a Legate also apoynted to bee sent to Turon in Frāce. MarginaliaConcilium Turonense.This Legate was Hildebrand aboue mētioned, who callyng the Clergye of France together in a Synode, fell there in hand with the cause of the Sacrament. Berengarius not beyng ignoraunt of these Romaine Councels, so keepte hym selfe, that in all hys action, he would gyue none other answere, but that hee beleued & consented with the fayth of the Catholyke Churche: and so for that tyme dyd frustrate the purpose of that Coūcell, rather deludyng the pretenses of his enemies, then frely confessing the simple trueth.

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MarginaliaConcilium Romanum sub. Nicol. 2.Agyne, after Victor came Pope Nicolas. 2. who congregating an other Councell at Rome, An. 1058. sent for Berengarius there to appeare, who beyng present, argued what he could, for the iustnes of his cause, but all would not serue: MarginaliaMyght beareth downe ryght.In the Popes generall Councels, such a stroke and mastershype beareth authoritye aboue veritye. Berengarius beyng thus borne downe on euery syde by might and superioritye, when no remedy would serue, MarginaliaThe last recantation of Berengarius.but he muste needes recant agayne, (for þe law of relapse was not yet in season) he desired to knowe what other confession of the Sacrament the Pope woulde requyre of hym, besydes that whiche he had there confessed. Then Pope Nicolas committed that charge to MarginaliaHumbertus author of the decree, Ego Berengarius.Humbart a Monke of Lotharinge and after a Cardinall, that he should drawe out in formable wordes, the order of his recantion, after the prescription of Rome, which he should reade and publickely professe before the people. The forme of whiche wordes is registred in the Decrees, MarginaliaDe consecra. Dist. 2. cap. Ego Berengarius.De consecrat. dist. 2. Ego Berengarius. &c. The effect wherof is this: MarginaliaThe effecte of Berengarius recantation.That he pretendeth with hart and mouth, to professe, that he acknowledgyng the true, catholyke, and apostolicall fayth, doth execrate all heresy, namely that, wherwith he hath lately bene infamed, as holdyng that the bread and wyne vpon the Altar, after the consecration of the Priest, remayne onely a Sacrament, and are not the very self bodye and bloude of our Lord Iesu Christ, neyther can be handled or broken with the Priestes handes, or chewed with the teathe of the faythfull, otherwise then only by maner of a Sacrament. Consentyng now to the holy and Apostolicall Churche of Rome, he professeth with mouth and hart, to hold the same faith touching the Sacramentes of the Lordes masse, which the Lord Pope Nicolas, with his Synode here present doth holde, and commaundeth to be holden by hys Euangelicall and Apostolicall authority, that is, that the bread and wyne vpon the Altar, after consecration are not only a Sacrament, but also are the very trew and selfe body and bloud of our Lord Iesu Christ, & are sensibly felte & broken with handes, & chewed with teethe: swearing by the holy Euangelistes, that who so euer shall hold or say to the cōtrary, he shall hold them perpetually accursed, and if he him self shal hereafter presume to preach or teach agaynst the same, he shall be content to abyde the seuerity and rigor of the canons. &c.

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MarginaliaTransubstantiation in hys triumphe.This cowardly recantation of Berengarius, as it offended a great number of the godly sort: so it gaue to the contrary part no litle triumphe, whereby euer synce they haue taken the greatter courage to treade down the truth.

It happened shorthly after this, that Hildebrand the

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