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1351 [1351]

K. Henry. 8. Allegations agaynst the vj. Articles. Transubstantiation.

Popes graund Captain, in the behalfe of hys Master Pope Nicolas, went in warfare against þe Normādes. Which warre beyng finished, shortlye after, he set vpō a newe viage to fight for Pope Alexander, against Cadolus: which victorye beyng also achieued, it was not long, but he put the new Pope Alexander besyde the cusshion, and was made Pope hym self: so that duryng the busy styrre of these warres, the Popes holynes had no laysure to attend the debatyng of thys controuersye of the Sacrament.

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MarginaliaConcilium Romanū. 3.At length, when all was quieted, and Pope Hildebrand now was where he would be, his restles brayn could not be vnoccupied, but eftsoone sūmoneth a newe Councell at Rome in the Church of Laterane, to reuiue agayne the olde disceptation of Berengarius, about the yeare (as some holde) 1079.

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Thus Berengarius beynge toste by these Monkes and Phariseis, was so confoūded, and baited on euery side, that partely for worldly feare, straynyng hym on þe one side, partly for shame & griefe of conscience, that he had now twyse renyed the truth, on the other syde, that the man (as is of hym reported) after these such turbulent tragedies, forsakyng hys goods, his studies, learnyng, and former state of lyfe, became a laborer, and wrought with his handes for hys liuyng, all the residue of hys lyfe. 

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After his final retraction of his beliefs, Berengar retired to a life of solitude and contemplation on the island of St Cosme, near Tours.

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The opinion which Berēgarius susteyned touching þe Sacrament (as by his own wordes in Lancfranckes booke may appeare) was this 

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Foxe derived Berengar's opinion, as quoted by Lanfranc, from De veritate corporis et sanguinis Domini nostri Iesu Christi, ed. Johann Vlimmer (Louvain, 1561), fos. 10v-11r.

: MarginaliaThe true opinion and iudgement of Berengarius, of the Sacrament. Ex lib. Lancfranci. Archepisc. contra Bereng.The sacrifice of the church cōsisteth of ij. thinges: The one visible, the other inuisible, that is, of the Sacrament, and of the thing or matter of the Sacrament. Which thing (which is to meane, the body of Christ) if it were here present before our eyes, it were a thyng visible and to be sene: but beyng lyfte vp into heauen, and syttyng on the ryght hand of hys Father, to the tyme of restoryng of all thing (as S. Peter sayeth) yt can not be called downe from thence. For the person of Christ consisteth of God, and man: the Sacrament of the Lordes table consisteth of bread and wyne, which beyng consecrate are not chaunged, but remane in theyr substances hauyng a certein resemblance or similitude of those thynges, whereof they bee Sacramentes. &c. Ex lib. Lancfranci.

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By these wordes of Berengarius doctrine, all indifferent readers may see and iudge, that he affirmed nothing but that was agreable to the holy Scripture, beleauyng with Sainct Austen, and all other auncient elders of the Church, that in the holy supper all faythfull beleuers be refreshed spiritually, with the body and bloud of the Lorde, vnto euerlastinge lyfe. MarginaliaThe doctrine of Berēgarius falsely sclaundered.Wherefore most impudently they doo mysreporte hym (as they do many other besydes) which falsely lay to his charge, as though his teachyng should be, that in þe sacrate supper of the Lorde, nothing els were receaued of the faythfull, besydes onely the bare signes, whiche is the bread and the wyne.

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And now that you haue sene the doctrine of Berengarius, let vs also take a vewe of the contrary teaching of Lancfrancus and hys felowes, conferring and comparing together the institution of the one syde, with the institution of the other, to marke and consider whiche of them soundeth nerer to the truth of the Scripture. The wordes of Lancfrancke be these 

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This quotation from Lanfranc comes from De veritate corporis et sanguinis Domini nostri Iesu Christi, ed. Johann Vlimmer (Louvain, 1561), fo.18v.

:

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MarginaliaThe grosse opinion of Lancfrancus, and the Papistes, concerning the Sacrament.I beleue the earthlye substances, which vpon the Lordes table are diuinely sanctified, through the ministration of the Priest, to be conuerted vnspeakably, incomprehensibly, and miraculously, by the operation of Gods myghtye power, into the essence of the Lordes body, the outward formes onely of the thinges them selues, and certein qualityes reserued, and that for ij. respectes: The one lest the sight of the rawe and bloudy flesh might otherwise make mē to abhorre frō eating therof: The other, for that they which beleue the thing they see not, myght haue the greater merite for their beliefe. The conuersion of whiche earthlye substances into the essence of the Lordes body notwithstanding, yet is the self same bodye of the Lord in heauen, and there hath his essentiall beyng at the ryght hand of his father immortall, inuiolate, perfecte, vndiminished, and vncorrupted: so that truely it may be affirmed, the self same body both to be receaued of vs, and yet not the self same. The self same, I meane, as touching the essence, propertie, and vertue of his trewe nature: and yet not the self same as touching the formes of bread and wyne, and other outward qualities incurring to our outward senses. &c. And thus haue ye the cōfession of Lancfrancke, Archb. of Canterbury.

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MarginaliaThe impious and grosse opinion of Guimundus, of trāsubstantiation.From this cōfession of Lancfrancke, the opiniō and assertion also 

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This quotation from Guitmund comes from De veritate corporis et sanguinis Domini nostri Iesu Christi, ed. Johann Vlimmer (Louvain, 1561), fo. 34r.

of Guimūdus 
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I.e., Guitmund, bishop of Aversa, who was a well-known contemporary critic of Berengar's teachings on the Eucharist.

Archbishop of Auersane, doth nothing differe in grossenes, and impietye, but rather passeth the same, thus affirming and defending: That the body of Christ is pressed, & torne with teethe, euen like as it was felte and touched with the handes of Thomas.

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MarginaliaThe impious opinion of Guimundus, of transubstantiation.And moreouer the sayd Guimundus (if his booke be not rather counterfeted at Louaine) 

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This is a reference to De veritate corporis et sanguinis Domini nostri Iesu Christi, ed. Johann Vlimmer (Louvain, 1561), Foxe's source for Guitmund of Aversa's writings.

in the same place 
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This quotation is from De veritate corporis et sanguinis Domini nostril Iesu Christi, ed. Johann Vlimmer (Louvain, 1561), fo. 34v.

aunsweryng to an obiection put out, that it is not lawfull for Christ to be torne in pieces with teath: doubteth not to pronounce, that whether we take tearyng for hard bytyng, or softe biting, it is not repugnant nor disagreyng, but that (by the will of God agreyng therunto) the bodye of Christe maye be touched with handes, bytten with mouth, crushed, yea and diuided in peeces, with hard or softe pressing of the teeth: and that, as he was brused vppon the crosse, according to the Prophet saying: He was brused for our iniquities. &c. MarginaliaEsa. 53.so the same bodye for the health of the faythfull, may deuoutly be torne and rent with their teath any thing to the contrary notwithstanding. &c. Guimund. lib. de Sacram. fol. 30. Iudge now all good studious readers, what is to be thought of this kind of doctrine, and how this opiniō coheareth with the infallible voice of Gods word, sayinge Exod. And of hym ye shall not breake a bone. &c.

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This rude and mishapen doctrine of these monkes concerning transubstantiatiō, as ye haue heard, when & by whom it began fyrst to be broched: MarginaliaThe great confirmation of this doctrine of transubstātiatiō, was by miracles.so if ye would nowe know, by what learning and scriptures they dyd confirme and establishe the same, ye must here thinke and vnderstand, how their chiefest groundes and substance to persuade the people, was at this tyme, certein miracles by them forged, and published both in their writinges and preachings, MarginaliaA miracle to proue transubstātiation.wherof one was the same of Odo aboue recited, which Osberne, or some other monkysh legend inuented of him, how he shoulde shew vnto certein, the hoste turned into the lykenes of fleshe and bloud dropping into the Chalice for the conuersion of those Clerkes, which before would not beleue it.

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MarginaliaEx Osberna lib. 2. De vita Dunstani.An other like miracle 

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Fascinatingly, although most of the miracles which Foxe proceeds to deride in the next few paragraphs were used to support the doctrine of transubstantiation, this one does not. Foxe appears to be repeating it for the slightly digressive purpose of undermining tales of miracles themselves.

is also told by þe said Osberne of Dunstane, in this order 
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This story is taken from Osbern of Canterbury's hagiography of Dunstan. (See 'Vita Sancti Dunstani' in Memorials of St. Dunstan, archbishop of Canterbury, ed. W. Stubbs, Rolls Series 63 (1874), pp. 135-6. One copy of Osbern's hagiography, BL, Arundel MS 16, is heavily annotated by John Joscelyn and he was probably Foxe's source for this story.

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, MarginaliaAn other miracle to proue transubstantiation.how the sayd Dunstane appeared to a certein lame crepill in þe nyght, willing him to resorte vnto his tumbe, to haue hys lymnes agayne restored. Which crepill, according as he was willed, after he had there continued praying for health a longe tyme, and could not obtayne, began to returne home agayn after long tarying, without all hope of recouerie. To whom the sayd Dunstan appearyng agayne by the way, asked frō whence he came, & whether he would. The crepil aunswering, declared, howe he came thether vpon hope of health, where he had long taried, and because he could fynde no recouerie, therfore he nowe was returnyng home. To whom then sayd Dunstane: I am (sayeth he) Dunstane the felow seruaunt of all Gods seruauntes, and haue ben occupied with certein necessary busines, for the which I could not be present there with my childrē. For Elfricke (sayd he) otherwise surnamed Bata, hath attēpted to disherite my church 
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Foxe assumes that the Aelfric mentioned here was both Aelfric of Eynsham and Aelfric, the archbishop of Canterbury. In fact, it was neither. Nor is this figure to be confused with Aelfric Bata, a Benedictine monk and author. It actually was Aelfric, the ealdorman of Hampshire and Wiltshire, who had despoiled Glastonbury Abbey, where Dunstan had been abbot.

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, MarginaliaBy thys it appeareth that Ælfrike the translator of the Saxon sermon, was Archb. of Canterb.but I haue so stopped hym, that he could not preuayle.

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Many other fabulous miracles of the like stampe are ryfe in popishe stories, conterfeyted and forged vnder diuers and sondrye names, some referred to Gregorie 

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Legends of miracles of Gregory the Great in support of the doctrine of transubstantiation are to be found in De veritate corporis yet sanguinis Domini nostri Iesu Christi, ed. Johann Vlimmer (Louvain, 1561), fo. 74v.

, some to Paschasius 
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Paschasius Radbertus lived about two centuries before Berengar and his teachings on the Eucharist were strongly criticized by Ratramnus of Corbie, but they formed the basis for the doctrine of transubstantiation.

,
& to other moe, which to recite all, would fyll a whole sea full of lies and fables. Emong many, one is thus inuēted of Paschasius. There

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