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1370 [1370]

K. Henry. 8. Allegations against the vj. Articles. Priestes Mariage.

And moreouer, it foloweth vpon þe same: Anathematizo quoq; omnes hæreses extollentes se aduersus sanctam catholicam & Apostolicam Ecclesiam, specialiter verò & nominatim Simoniacā hæresin: deinde Nicolaitarū æquè abominabilem hæresin, quæ impudenter latrat, sacri altaris ministros debere vel posse licenter vti coniugibus, quomodo & laicos, &c. MarginaliaIbidem.As much to saye in Englishe, as: MarginaliaThe Synode of William against priestes mariage.
¶ 1067.
I doe accurse all heresies extollyng them selues agaynst the holy catholicke and Apostolicke Church, but especiallye and namely the heresie of Symonye: and in lyke maner, the abominable heresie of the Nicolaitans, whiche impudentlye barketh, that the Ministers of the holy aultar maye and ought to vse wyues lawfully, as well as lay men. &c. And thus much concernyng the Synode of Millane, vnder Pope Alexander 2. an. 1067.

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MarginaliaPope Hildebrand the greatest enemye to priestes mariage.Next  

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This material on Gregory VII, down through and including the quotation from Ralph Diceto, is from John Bale, Scriptorum Illustrium maioris Brytanniae Catalogus (Basel, 1557), p. 167.

after this Alexander, rose vp Pope Hildebrand, of all other, the chiefest and most principall enemy agaynst Priestes Mariage. For where as all other approued Canons and Councels were contented, that any Clergyman hauing a wife before his entring into hys ministery, myght enioy þe liberty of his mariage, so that he maryed not a wydow, or a knowen harlotte, or kept a cōcubine, or were twise maryed, now commeth in Pope Hildebrand, makyng Priestes Mariage to be heresie, and further enactyng: that what soeuer Clerke, Deacon, or minister had any wife, what soeuer she was (maide or other) either before his orders, or after, should vtterly put her from hym, or els forsake his ministery. &c. Although notwithstādyng the greatest part of Ecclesiasticall Ministers seyng this straunge doctrine and procedyngs (which S. Paule expresly calleth the doctrine of deuils) Marginalia2. Tim. 4.dyd what they could, to withstand the same. Of whom Lambertus Schafnaburgensis thus writeth: Aduersus hoc Decretum protinus vehementer infremuit tota factio clericorum, hominem planè hæreticū & vesani dogmatis esse clamitans, qui oblicus sermonis Domini, quo ait: Non omnes capiunt hoc verbum: Qui potest capere capiat. &c. & Apostoli: Qui senon continet, nubat: Melius est nubere, quam viri, Violenta exactione homines viuere cogeret ritu angelorum. Quod si pergeret, malle se sacerdotium, quā coniugium deserere. &c. MarginaliaEx Lamberto Schafnaburgensi.In Englishe thus: Agaynst this Decree, the whole number of the Clergie dyd vehemently storme and grudge, crying out vpon him, as a pernicious hereticke, and one that maynteined phantasticall doctrine: who forgettyng what the Lord sayth: All mē cā not take this worde: He that can take it, let hym take it. MarginaliaMath. 19.And also what þe Apostle sayth: Who so can not otherwise cōteyne, let hym mary: Better it is to mary, then to burne. &c. yet notwithstandyng would bynde men to lyue lyke Aungels. Who if he continued as he began, they would (they sayd) sooner forsake þe order of Priesthode, then their order of Matrimony, &c. MarginaliaThe Coūcell of Rome agaynst Priestes mariage vnder Pope Hildebrand.
¶ 1074.
Whiche Hildebrand, all thys notwithstandyng, yet ceased not still to call vpon them, and to send to the Byshops euery where to execute hys commaundement with all seueritie, threatnyng to lay the Apostolicall censure vppon them, if otherwise they shewed not their diligence therin to the vttermost: Ex Lamb. This was an. 1074. Of the same Hildebrād, Radulphus de Diceto also writing, hath these wordes:

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Gregorius Papa 7. Hildebrādus, celebrata Synodo, Symoniacos anathematizauit, vxoratos sacerdotes a diuino remouit officio, & laicis Missam eorum audire interdixit, nouo exemplo, & (vt multis visum est) incōsiderato præiudicio, contra sanctorū patrū sententiā. &c. MarginaliaEx Radulpho de Diceto.The English is this. Pope Gregory 7. called Hildebrand holdyng a Synode, accursed such as cōmitted Symony, and remoued maryed Priestes from saying seruice, forbyddyng also the laye men to heare theyr Masse, after a newe and straunge example, and as many thought, after an vnconsiderate preiudice, agaynst the sentence of holy fathers.

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And thus much for the antiquitie of bryngyng in the single lyfe of Priestes, whiche first spryngyng from the tyme of Pope Nicolas, and Alexander 2. began first with a custome, & afterward was brought into a lawe, chiefly by Pope Hildebrand, and so spread from Italy into other countreys, and at length into England also, albeit not without much adoe, as ye shall heare, the Lord willyng.

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In the meane while 

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This account of Lanfranc's council at Winchester is taken from Epistolae duae D. Voulusiani…(London, 1559), pp. 101-102.

, as Pope Nicolas and Hildebrand were busie at Rome, so Lanfranck Archbyshop of Canterbury lykewise was doyng here in England about the same matter, although hee began not altogether so roughly as Pope Hildebrand dyd, for so it appeared by his Councel holden at Winchester: MarginaliaLanfranckes lawe for priestes not to marye.Where though he inhibited such as were Prebēdaries of Cathedrall Churches to haue wyues, yet dyd he permitte in his Decree, that such Priestes as dwelt in townes and villages, hauyng wyues, should reteyne them still, and not to be compelled to be separate from them: and they whiche had none, should be inhibited to haue: In ioynyng moreouer the Byshops thus, to forsee hereafter, that they presumed not to admitte into orders, any priests or Deacons, vnlesse they should first make a solemne profession to haue no wyues.

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The wordes of the Councell be these: Decretumq̀ est vt nullus Canonicus vxorem habeat, sacerdotū vero in castellis & in vicis habitantium habentes vxores, non cogantur vt dimittant, non habentes interdicantur vt habeant: & deinceps caueant Episcopi, vt sacerdotes vel Diaconi non præsumant ordinare nisi profiteantur vt vxores non habeant. &c. MarginaliaEx actis Concilij Wintoniensis sub Lanfranco.

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And here to note by the waye of the sayd Lanfrancke, for all hys glorious gay shew of hys monkyshe virginitie & single lyfe, yet he eschaped not altogether so vnspotted for hys part, but that the story of Mathew Paris writyng of Paulus Cadonensis, whō Lāfrancke preferred so gladly to bee Abbot of S. Albans, thus reporteth of him 

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Matthew Paris, Gesta abbatum monasteri Sancti Albani, ed. H. T. Riley, 3 vols., Rolls Series 28 (1867-9), I, p. 49.

: Paulus (inquit) monachus Cadonensis Archiepiscopi Lanfranci nepos, iure, aliquorum relationibus, cōsanguinitate propinquior. &c. MarginaliaEx Math. Parisiens.that is, MarginaliaLanfrancke supposed not to bee a pure virgine.Paul a Monke of Cadune, & nephew of the Archbyshop Lanfrācke, yea & as some say further, more nere in bloud to hym then so. &c.

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MarginaliaAnselme Archb. of Canterbury & constant doer agaynst priestes mariage.Then after Lāfrancke came Anselme into the Sea of Canterbury, who takyng to him a stouter stomacke, more fiercely and egerly laboured this matter in abrogatyng vtterly the Mariage of Priestes, Deacōs, Subdeacons, and of the vniuersall Clergy, not permittyng, as Lāfrancke dyd, Priestes that had wyues in villages and townes, to kepe them still, but vtterly commaunding, and that vnder great payne, not onely Priestes & Deacons but Subdeacons also (whiche is agaynst the Councell of Laterane) MarginaliaConcil. Lateran. Can. 14. De Clericis matrimonio copulatis. which were already maryed, to be separated, & that none should be receaued into order hereafter, without profession of perpetuall chastitie.

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And yet notwithstandyng, for all thys great blusteryng and thunderyng of this Romishe xxx, the Priestes yet still holdyng theyr owne, as well as they could, gaue not much place to his vnlawful Iniunctiō, but kept still their wyues almost 200. yeares after, refusing and resistyng of long tyme, the yoke of that seruile bondage, to kepe still their fredome frō such vowing, professyng, and promising: as may well appeare by those Priestes of Yorke, of whō Gerardus Archb. of Yorke MarginaliaOf thys Gerardus, read before pag. 147.speaketh, writyng to Anselme in these wordes 

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Gerard's letter is printed in Epistolae duae D. Volusiani…(London, 1559), pp. 103-6. This quotation is formed from separate sentences being pieced together. Moreover the sentences are not always rendered accurately.

: Sitio clericorum meorum integritatem, sed præterquā in paucis admodum, vel aspidis surditatem, vel fabulosi cuiusdam prothei mutabilitatem inuenio. Varijs linguarum aculeis, minas. modò conuitia in fligunt. Sed hoc facilius in his qui remotiores sunt, tolero. Illud omninò graue genus mali est, quod hi qui quasi in sinu meo sunt, qui Canonicorum nomine gaudent, canones aspernant, aduersus Cōcilij nostri statuta, quasi sophistici disputatores argumentantur: professiones verò mihi penitus abnegāt Canonici illi, qui sine professione ad sacros or-

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