Critical Apparatus for this Page
Commentary on the Text
Names and Places on this Page
Unavailable for this Edition
1386 [1386]

K. Henry. 8. Lorde Cromwell. Boston Pardons.

MarginaliaPardon for visiting our Ladies Chappell in Boston.Furthermore, that all such brethren and sisters of the sayd gylde, whiche should resorte to the chappell of our Lady in S. Botulphes Church at the feast of Easter, Whitsontyde, Corpus Christi, the Nautiuitie or Assūptiō of our Lady, or in the Octaues of them, the feast of S. Michael, and first Sonday in Lent, should haue pardon no lesse then if they them selues personally had visited the Stations of Rome.

[Back to Top]

MarginaliaThe price of Boston pardon.Prouided that euery such person, man or woman, entryng into the same gylde, at hys first entrāce should giue to the findyng of vij. Priestes, xij. Queresters, and xiij. bedmen, and to the lightes of the same brotherhode & a Grammer schole, vj. shillyngs viij. pence, and for euery yeare after, xij. pence.

[Back to Top]

And these premisses beyng before graūted by Pope Innocentius, and Pope Iulius 2. this Pope Clement also confirmed, grauntyng moreouer, that what soeuer brother or sister of the same gylde throughe pouertie, sickenes, or any other let could not resorte personally to the said chappell, notwithstanding he should be dispensed withall, as well for that, as for all other vowes, irregularities, censures canonicall what soeuer, onely the vowe of goyng the Stations of Rome, and goyng to S. Iames of Compostella excepted. &c. MarginaliaCraftye marchauntes.

[Back to Top]

MarginaliaFull remission a pœna & culpa.He also graunted vnto them power to receaue full remission a pœna & culpa 

Commentary  *  Close

I.e., 'from penalty and guilt'.

once in their lyfe, or in the houre of death.

Item, that hauyng their aultare stone, they mught haue Masse sayd in any place, thoughe it were vnhallowed. Also in the tyme of interdict, to haue Masse or any Sacrament ministred: and also beyng departed, that they might be buryed in Christē buriall notwithstandyng the interdict. MarginaliaGood stuffe I trowe.

[Back to Top]

Extendyng moreouer his graūt, that to all such brethren and sisters, in resortyng to the foresayd chappell of our Lady vpon the Natiuitie, or Assumption of our Lady, giuyng supportation to the sayd chappell, at euery such festiuall day, to haue full remission of all theyr sinnes. Or if they for any impediment could not be present at the chappell aforesayd, yet if they came to theyr owne Parishe Churche, and there sayd one Pater noster, and Aue Maria, they should enioy the same remissiō, aboue specified: or whosoeuer came euery Friday to the same chappel, should haue as much remission, as if he went to the chappel of our Lady called Scala cœli. 

Commentary  *  Close

A chapel in Rome, famous for the remission of sins granted to those who made a pilgrimage there.

MarginaliaThe chappell of Scala cœli about Rome.

[Back to Top]

Furthermore, that what soeuer Christen people, of what estate or condition so euer, either spirituall or tēporal, would ayde and support þe chamberlaines or substitutes of the foresayd gilde, should haue v. hundreth yeares of pardon.

MarginaliaThe Pope selleth egges, butter and cheese.Item, to all brothers and sisters of the same gylde was graunted free libertie to eate in tyme of Lent, or other fastyng dayes, egges, milke, butter, cheese, and also fleshe, by the counsaile of their ghostly father and phisicion, without any scruple of conscience.

[Back to Top]

Item, that all partakers of the same gylde, and being supporters therof, whiche once a quarter, or euery Friday or Saterday, either in the sayd chappell in S. Botulphes Churche, or any other chappell, of their deuotiō shall say a Pater noster, Aue Maria, and Crede, or shall say or cause to bee sayd Masses for soules departed in paynes of Purgatory, shal not onely haue the ful remission due to them whiche visite the chappell of Scala Cœli, or of S. Iohn Laterane, but also the soules in Purgatory shall enioy full remission, and be released of all their paynes.

[Back to Top]

MarginaliaPardon for soules in Purgatorye.Item, that all the soules departed of the brothers and sisters of the sayd gylde: also the soules of their fathers and mothers shal be partakers of all the prayers, suffragies, almoses, fastynges, Masses, and mattens, pilgrimages, and of all other good deedes of all the holy Churche militant, for euer. &c.

[Back to Top]

These indulgencies, pardons, grauntes, and relaxations, were giuen and graunted by Pope Nicolas 5. Pope Pius 2. Pope Sixtus, & Pope Iulius the second, of which Pope Iulius it semeth, that Cromwell obteyned this pardon aforesayd about the yeare of our Lord 1510 

Commentary  *  Close

Cromwell obtained the indulgences in 1518.

. Whiche pardon agayne afterward throughe the request of kyng Henry. an. 1526. was confirmed by Pope Clement the seuenth. MarginaliaEx literis Papæ Clementis 7. ad Guliel. Waramum Archiep.And thus much concernyng the pardon of Boston, renued by the meanes of Thomas Cromwell, of Pope Iulius the second.

[Back to Top]

All this while it appeareth, that Cromwell had yet no sounde taste nor iudgement of Religion, but was wilde and youthfull, without sense or regarde of God and hys worde, as he him selfe was wont ofttymes to declare vnto Cranmer Archbyshop of Cant 

Commentary  *  Close

Eadmer's works were collected by Matthew Parker and are now Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, MS 371. This is one very good indication that Foxe had the active cooperation of Matthew Parker and John Joscelyn - most probably of both of them - in compiling these 'proofs' that the Anglo-Saxon Church did not believe in transubstantation.

[Back to Top]
. shewyng what a ruffine he was in hys young dayes, MarginaliaCromwell was in the warres of the Duke of Bourbon besieging Rome.and how he was in the warres of Duke Bourbon at the siege of Rome 
Commentary  *  Close

Why Cromwell journeyed abroad is unknown and so are his movements. He may have served as a soldier in the French army and serving in Italy. This would help account for his presence in Florence (The battle of Garigliano was fought on 27 December 1503. In it the French army was defeated by the Spanish forces).

[Back to Top]
,
also what a great doer hee was with Geffray Chambers in publishyng and settyng forth the pardon of Boston euery where in Churches as he went, and so continued, till at length by learnyng the texte of the new Testament without booke, of Erasmus translatiō in hys goyng & cōmyng frō Rome (as is aforesayd) hee began to be touched and called to better vnderstādyng.

[Back to Top]

In this meane tyme Thomas Wolsey Cardinall of Yorke began to beare a great porte in England, and almost to rule all vnder the kyng, or rather with the kyng, so that the freshest wyttes, and of best towardnes, moste commonlye sought vnto hym. MarginaliaCromwell receaued into the Cardinalls seruice.Amonge whom was also Thomas Cromwell to his seruice aduaūced, where he continued a certeine space of yeares, growyng vp in office and authoritie, MarginaliaCromwell sollicitour to the Cardinall.till at length hee was preferred to bee sollicitour to the Cardinall. 

Commentary  *  Close

In the years 1520-29, Cromwell, who had branched out in the study of law, became established in London legal circles. He became an MP in 1523 and in 1524 was elected a member of Gray's Inn. He was something of a specialist in land cases and conveyancing and Wolsey recruited him in 1528 to aid in acquiring the land for his projected colleges in Ipswich and Oxford.

[Back to Top]

[Back to Top]

MarginaliaCromwell, More, and Gardiner, companions in the Cardinalls house.There was also about the same tyme, or not much different, in þe houshold of the sayd Cardinall, Thomas More, afterward knight & Chauncelour of England: and Steuen Gardiner Byshop after of Wint. and of þe kynges Coūsaile 

Commentary  *  Close

Strictly speaking, Thomas More was never a member of Wolsey's household, although Wolsey certainly fostered his rise to the royal council. And, although Cromwell worked for Wolsey, he never held a formal position in the cradinal's household. Stephen Gardiner, on the other hand, was in Wolsey's household from 1524-9, at the same time that Cromwell was employed by the Cardinal.

[Back to Top]
. All these iij. were brought vp in one houshold, & all of one stādyng almost together. MarginaliaA comparison betwene Cromwell More, and Gardiner.Whose ages as they were not greatly discrepāt, nor their wittes much vnequall: so neither was their fortune & aduauncemētes greatly diuerse, albeit their dispositiōs & studies were most contrary. And though perauēture in More & in Gardiner there was more arte of letters, & skill of learning: yet notwithstādyng there was in this man a more heauenly light of minde, and more prompt and perfecte iudgement, eloquence equall, and as may be supposed, in this man more pregnant: and finally in hym was wrought a more heroicall and princely disposition, borne to greater affayres in the common wealth and to the singular helpe of many.

[Back to Top]

It happened that in this meane season, as Crōwell was placed in this office to be sollicitour to the Cardinall, the sayd Cardinall had then in hand the buyldyng of certein Colledges, namely his Colledge in Oxford, called then Frideswide, now Christes church. MarginaliaSmall Monasteryes suppressed by the CardinallBy reason whereof certeine small Monasteries and Priories, in diuers places of the Realme, were by the sayd Cardinall suppressed, and the landes seased to the Cardinalls handes. The doyng wherof was committed to the charge of Thomas Cromwell. In the expedition wherof hee shewed hym selfe verye forward, and industrious, in such sorte as in the hādlyng therof he procured to him selfe much grudge with diuers of the superstitious sorte, and with some also of noble calling about the king. MarginaliaCromwell first set a worke by the Cardinall, to suppresse religious houses.And thus was Cromwell first set a worke by þe Cardinall, to suppresse religious houses. Which was about þe yeare of our Lord. 1525. 

Commentary  *  Close

Cromwell was at work on these projects by 1524.

[Back to Top]

As this passed on, it was not long, but the Cardinall which had gotten vp so high, began to come downe as fast, first from the Chauncelorshyp (in which rowme was placed Syr Tho. More, as is aforesaid) thē he fell into a Premunire: 

Commentary  *  Close

In 1529, Henry VIII claimed that Cardinal Wolsey and the English clergy had violated the statute of Praemunire of 1353, which forbade the appealing overseas of cases which should be decided in English courts. The penalty was heavy fines and Henry used this to blkackmail Convocation into accepting the Royal Supremacy.

[Back to Top]
So that his houshold beyng dissolued, Tho. Cromwell amongest other, laboured also to be reteyned into the kynges seruice.

[Back to Top]

MarginaliaSyr Christopher Hales helper of Cromwell to the kyng.There was at the same tyme 

Commentary  *  Close

How Cromwell entered the king's service is unclear.although it was apparently Christopher Hales, (who was the attorney general, not the Master of the Rolls) who introduced Cromwell to Henry. Sir John Russell's role is less clear and there is no record of his being in Bologna when Cromwell might have been there. It is quite possible that Foxe heard this story from Francis Russell, the second earl of Bedford. The second earl had numerous ties with Foxe and would have been anxious to glorify his father. But Cromwell suceeded in entering royal service and was a member of the Privy Council by the end of 1530.

[Back to Top]
one Syr Christofer Hales Knight, Maister of the Rolles, who notwithstādyng was then a mighty Papiste, yet bare he such fa-

uour
OOO.iij.
Go To Modern Page No:  
Click on this link to switch between the Modern pagination for this edition and Foxe's original pagination when searching for a page number. Note that the pagination displayed in the transcription is the modern pagination with Foxe's original pagination in square brackets.
Find:
Type a keyword and then restrict it to a particular edition using the dropdown menu. You can search for single words or phrases. When searching for single words, the search engine automatically imposes a wildcard at the end of the keyword in order to retrieve both whole and part words. For example, a search for "queen" will retrieve "queen", "queene" and "queenes" etc.
in:  
Humanities Research Institute  *  HRI Online  *  Feedback
Version 2.0 © 2011 The University of Sheffield