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1402 [1402]

K. Henry. 8. The life and death of the Lorde Thomas Cromwell Earle of Essex.

printed and set forth, bearing diuers titles, and printed in diuers places. The first was called Thomas Mathews Bible, 

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This folio version of the English-language Bible, an amalgam of Tyndale's and Coverdale's earlier translations, was actually compiled in Antwerp in 1537 by the English clergyman John Rogers.

printed at Hambrough, MarginaliaOf thys Bible Printed at Hābrough, read before pag. 1227. about the yeare of our Lord. 1532. the correctour of whiche printe was then Iohn Rogers, of whom ye shal heare more Christ willyng hereafter. The printers were Rich. Grafton, and Whitchurch. MarginaliaThomas Mathewes Bible trāslated, by whom and howe.In the trāslation of this Bible, the greatest doer was in dede William Tyndall, who with the helpe of Myles Couerdale had translated all the bookes therof, except only the Apocripha, and certein notes in the margent, which were added after. But because the sayd William Tyndall in þe meane tyme was apprehended before this Bible was fully perfected, it was thought good to them whiche had the doyng therof, to chaunge the name of William Tyndall, because that name then was odious, and to father it by a straunge name of Thomas Mathewe, 
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Tyndale's name being now tainted with the fact of his execution for heresy, Rogers instead attributed the edition to a "Thomas Matthew," a pseudonym possibly derived from the names of the two apostles. Grafton and Whitchurch sponsored a print run of 1,500 copies of Matthew's Bible in Antwerp that was shipped to London in 1537.

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Iohn Rogers
the same tyme beyng correctour to the printe, who had then translated the residue of þe Apocrypha, and added also certeine notes thereto in the margent, and thereof came it to bee called Thomas Mathewes Bible. MarginaliaThe Bible presented to the kyng by the Lord Cromwell.Whiche Bible of Thomas Mathewe, after it was imprinted and presented to the Lord Cromwell, and the Lord Cranmer Archbyshop of Caunterbury, who lyked very well of it, the sayd Cromwell presented it to the kyng, 
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Cranmer liked it enough to pass on a copy to Cromwell in August of that same year.

and obteined that the same might freely passe to bee read of his subiectes with his graces licence: MarginaliaThe Bible put forth with the kinges priuilege.So that there was printed vpō the same booke, one lyne in read letters with these wordes: Set forth with the Kinges moste gracious licence. 
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Cromwell managed to procure royal licence for this edition pursuant to his own programme to place a vernacular Bible in all parish churches. Coverdale's Bible of 1535 boasted only of a dedication to the king; this was a further step towards the eventual authorization of the Great Bible of 1539.

The settyng forth of this booke did not a litle offende the Clergy, namely the Byshop aforesayd, both for the prologues, and specially because in the same booke was one speciall table collected of the common places in the Bible, and the Scriptures for the approbatiō of the same, and chiefly about the Supper of the Lord and mariage of Priestes, and the Masse, whiche there was sayd not to be found in Scripture. 
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Coverdale was ordered to revise these potentially heretical marginal notes the 1539 Bible.

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MarginaliaAn other Bible of the great volume printed at Paris.Furthermore, after the restreynt of this foresayd Bible of Mathew, an other Bible began to be printed at Paris, an. 1540. Whiche was called the Bible of the large Volume. 

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Here Foxe returns to his story of the abortive Paris printing, which was actually attempted in 1538 and shifted successfully to London in 1539.

The Printers whereof were the foresayd Richard Grafton & Whytchurch whiche bare the charges. A great helper therto was þe Lord Cromwell. The chiefest ouerseer was Myles Couerdale, who takyng the translation of Tyndall, conferred the same with the Hebrue, and amended many thynges. MarginaliaThe Byshops offended at the Bible translated into Englishe.In this Bible, although the former notes of Thomas Mathew was omitted, yet sondry markes and handes were annexed in the sides, whiche ment that in those places should bee made certeyne notes, wherewith also the Clergy was offended, thoughe the notes were not made.

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After this, the Bishops bringing their purpose to passe, brought the Lord Cromwell out of fauour, and shortly to hys death: and not long after great cōplaint was made to the kyng of the translation of the Bible, and of the preface of the same, MarginaliaThe sale of the Bible stayde by the kyng, through the bishops meanes.and then was the sale of the Bible commaunded to be stayed, the Bishops promising to amend and correct it, but neuer performyng the same. Then Grafton was called, and first charged with the printyng of Mathewes Bible, but he being very fearefull of trouble, made excuses for hym self in al thinges. Then was he examined of þe great Bible, & what notes he was purposed to make. To þe which he aunswered, that he knewe none. For hys purpose was to haue retayned learned men to haue made the notes, but when he perceaued the kynges maiestie, and his Clergye not willing to haue any, hee proceded no further. MarginaliaRichard Grafton imprisoned for printing the Bible.But for all these excuses, Grafton was sent to the Fleete, 

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Grafton was imprisoned once in 1541 and twice more in 1543 on similar charges.

& there remayned vj. wekes, and before he came out, was bound in CCC. l. 
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I.e., his assurance was underwritten with a 300 pound fine.

that he shoulde neyther sell nor imprint or cause to bee imprinted any moe Bibles, vntyll the kyng and the cleargye shoulde agree vpon a translation. And thus was the Bible frō that tyme stayed, 
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No revisions nor new versions of the English Bible were commissioned or printed for the remainder of Henry's reign.

duryng the reygne of King Henry the viij.

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But yet one thing more is to bee noted, that after the imprinters had loste theyr Bibles, they contynued suters to Boner, as is aforesayd, to bee a meane for to obteyne of the Frenche king theyr bokes agayn: but so long they continued suters, and Boner euer fed them with faire woordes, promysing thē much, but dyd nothing for them, till at the last Boner was discharged of hys ambassade, & returned home, where he was right ioyfullye welcomed home by the Lorde Cromwell, who loued hym very dearely, and hade a maruelous good opinion of hym. 

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Once again, Foxe backtracks in his account.

MarginaliaEdm. Boner a great frend to the Lorde Cromwell, all the tyme of his prosperitie.And so long as Cromwell remained in authoritie, so long was Boner at his becke, and frende to hys frendes, and enemy to his enemyes: as namely at that time to Gardiner bishop of Winchester, who neuer fauoured Cromwell, and therfore Boner could not fauour hym, but that he and Winchester were the greatest enemyes that might be. MarginaliaSte. Gardiner and Boner, of enemyes made frendes.But so sone as Cromwell fell, immediatly Boner and Winchester pretended to be the greatest men that lyued, and no good woord could Boner speake of Cromwell, but the lewdest, vilest, and bitterest that he coulde speake, MarginaliaDoct. Boner altereth hys frendship and religion.callyng hym the rankest heretyck that euer lyued: and then suche as the sayd Boner knew to be in good fauour with Cromwel, he could neuer abide their sight. In somuch as the next daye after that Cromwell was apprehended, the abouenamed Grafton, who before had ben very familiar wt Boner, mette with þe said Boner sodenly, & sayd vnto him, þt he was sory to heare of þe newes þt thē was abroad. What are they, said he? Of the apprehension of the L. Cromwell, said Graftō. Are ye sory for that (sayd he?) It had bene good that he had bene dispatched long agoo. With that Grafton looked vpon hym, and knew not what to saye, but came no more to Boner. MarginaliaDoct. Boner agaynst the L. Cromwell.Howbeit afterward the sayd Grafton being charged for the imprinting of a Balet made in the fauour of Crōwell, 
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Cromwell had himself been known to employ ballad-mongering for political purchase; a number of both pro- and anti-Cromwellian ballads were circulating by the time of his execution.

was called before the Counsail where Boner was present, and there Boner charged hym with the wordes that hee spake to hym of Cromwell, and tolde out a great long tale. But the Lorde Awdeley, who then was Lorde Chauncelour, right discretly and honorably cut of the matter, and entered into other talke.

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¶ The hystory of Robert Barnes, Thomas Garet, and William Hierome, Diuines. 
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Barnes, Garrett and Jerome

This lengthy section narrates the lives and deaths of the three most prominent evangelicals executed for heresy by Henry VIII after the break with Rome, on each of whom see the ODNB. It is also a section which was extensively rewritten by Foxe between the 1563 and 1570 editions, although after 1570 only one, very minor change was made to the text. The account of Barnes in the 1563 edition drew principally on three sources. First was Barnes' autobiographical account in his A supplicacion vnto the most gracyous prynce H. the .viij. (STC 1471: London, 1534), sigs. F1r-I3r. This was extended, and slightly altered, from the account given in the 1531 edition of the Supplication, a text which Foxe apparently did not know. Alongside this was Edward Hall and Richard Grafton, The vnion of the two noble and illustrate famelies of Lancastre & Yorke (STC 12721: London, 1548), part II, fos. 241v-243r; and Barnes' protestation from the stake, found in John Standish, A lytle treatise composyd by Johan Standysshe, against the protestacion of R. Barnes (STC 23209: London, 1540) and reproduced in full by Foxe. In the 1570 rewriting, a new section was added, based on the detailed narrative in Stephen Gardiner, A declaration of such true articles as George Ioye hath gone about to confute as false (STC 11588: London, 1546).The main source for the account of Thomas Garret is a lengthy testimony of events in 1528 written by Anthony Dalaber, apparently specifically for Foxe's use. As Foxe tells us (1583, p. 1197), Dalaber died in Salisbury diocese in 1562, leaving his account unfinished. His text is reproduced apparently in full in 1563. There are some minor abridgements of Dalaber's account in 1570 and subsequent editions, mostly to omit digressions, lists of names or personal details apparently irrelevant to Garret's case. The remainder of Foxe's account of Garret is far sketchier and is assembled from the accounts of unnamed 'auncient and credible persones'.The source for the short account of William Jerome, which only appears in 1570 and subsequent editions, is unclear. Almost all of the information here can be substantiated from three documents in the State Papers (National Archives, SP 1 / 158 fos. 50-2, 120, 124-5 (LP XV 354.1, 411.2, 414), but these do not appear to be Foxe's sources, not least because none of them refer to Dr. Wilson's role, which is otherwise unrecorded. The account appears to be based entirely on a summary of Jerome's recantation sermon, given at St. Mary Spital on 29 March 1540, the Monday of Easter week.Alec Ryrie

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MarginaliaRob. Barnes. Tho. Garret, W. Hierome, Martyrs. Ike as in foreine battailes the chief point of victory cōsisteth in the safetie of þe Generall or Captain: euen so when the valiaunt standerd bearer and stay of the Churche of England, Tho. Cromwell I meane, was made away, pitie it is to beholde, what miserable slaughter of good men and good wemen ensued thereupō, wherof we haue now (Christ willing) to entreat. For Winchester hauing now gotten his full purpose, and free swynge to exercise his crueltie, wonder it was to see that Aper Calydonius, or (as the scripture speaketh) that Ferus singularis, MarginaliaPsal. 40.what troubles he raised in the Lordes vyneyard. And lest by delayes hee might loose the occasion presently offered, he straight wayes made his first assaultes vpō Robert Barnes, Thomas Garet, and William Hierome, whō in the very same moneth within ij. dayes after Cromwels death 

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This corrects the chronological error in the 1563 edition.

, he caused to be put to execution. Whose histories seuerally to comprehende, first of all we will somewhat speake of Barnes, Doctour of Diuinitie, whose particular story here foloweth.

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MarginaliaRob. Barnes Prior of the house of Augustines in Cambridge.This Barnes, after he came from the Vniuersitie of Louaine, went to Cambridge, where hee was made Prior, and Maister of þe house of þe Augustines. At that tyme the knowledge of good letters was scarsely entred into the Vniuersitie, all thinges beyng ful of rudenes and barbaritie, sauing in very few, which were priuye and secret. Wherupon Barnes hauing some feling of better learnyng and authors, began in his house to

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