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1409 [1409]

K. Henry. 8. Doct. Barnes, Garret, Hierome, Martyrs.

place in the vniuersitie with the other, they went on the contrary side of the procession bare headed, and a Bedell before them, to be knowen from the other. Diuers other there were, whose names I cannot remēber, which were forced and constrained to forsake their Colledges, and sought their friendes. Against the procession time, there was a great fire made vpon the top of Carfaxe, whereinto all such as were in the said procession, eyther conuict or suspect of heresie, were commaunded, in token of repentaunce and renouncing of their errours, euery man to cast a booke into the fire as they passed by.

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After this, Master Garret flying frō place to place 

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Which is to say, Foxe knew nothing of Garret's activities between 1528 and 1540. On these, see ODNB.

, escaped their tyranny vntyll this present time, that hee was againe apprehended and burned with D. Barnes. MarginaliaW. Hierome burned in Smithfield.With whom also Williā Hierome somtime Vicar of Stepney, was likewise drawen into Smithfield, and there together with them, constantly endured martyrdome in the fire.

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Now let vs adde also to these the story of Hierome.

¶ The lyfe and story of W. Hierome Vicare of Stepney, and Martyr of Christ. 
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The source for the short account of William Jerome, which only appears in 1570 and subsequent editions, is unclear. Almost all of information here can be substantiated from three documents in the State Papers (National Archives, SP 1 / 158 fos. 50-2, 120, 124-5 (LP XV 354.1, 411.2, 414), but these do not appear to be Foxe's sources, not least because none of them refer to Dr. Wilson's role, which is otherwise unrecorded. The account appears to be based entirely on a summary of Jerome's recantation sermon, given at St. Mary Spital on 29 March 1540, the Monday of Easter week.

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MarginaliaThe storye of William Hierome.THe thyrd companion which suffred with Barnes & Garret, was Williā Hierome, Vicar of Stepney. This Hierome beyng a diligent preacher of Gods word, for the comfort and edification of the people had preached diuers and sondry Sermons, wherein to the entent to plante in the consciences of men, the sincere truth of Christian Religion, hee laboured as much as tyme then serued, to extirpe and weede out the rootes of mens traditions, doctrines, dreames and phātasies. In so doyng, it could not otherwise be, but hee must nedes prouoke much hatred agaynst him amongest the aduersaries of Christes Gospell.

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MarginaliaThe sermon of W. Hierome preached at Paules crosse the iiij. Sonday in Lent.It so happened, that the sayd Hierome preachyng at Paules in the iiij. Sonday of Lent 

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7 March 1540.

last past, made there a Sermon, wherin he recited and mentioned of Agar, and Sara, declaryng what these ij. signified. In processe whereof hee shewed further, how that Sara & her child Isaac, & all they that were Isaakes, & borne of the free woman Sara, were freely iustified: Contrary they that were borne of Agar þe bond womā, were bound & vnder þe lawe, & cā not be freely iustified. In these wordes, what was here spoken, but that S. Paul hym self vttereth & expoūdeth in his Epistle to MarginaliaGal. 4.þe Galat. 4. 
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Galatians 4:22-28.

Or what could here be gathered of any reasonable or indifferēt hearer, but consonant to sound doctrine, and veine of the Gospell? Now see what rancour and malice armed with crafty and subtill sophistry can do. This Sermon finished, it was not long but hee was charged and conuented before the kyng at Westmynster, and there accused for erroneous doctrine. Percase thou wilt muse, (gentle reader) what erroneous doctrine here could be pyked out. Note therfore for thy learnyng: and hee that listeth to studie how to play þe Sicophant, let hym here take example. MarginaliaQuarrell picked agaynst Hieromes Sermons.The knot found in this rushe was this, for that he preached erroneously at Paules crosse, teaching the people, that all that were borne of Sara, were freely iustified, speakyng there absolutely without any condition, either of Baptisme, or of penaūce. &c. Who doubteth here, but if S. Paul hym selfe had bene at Paules Crosse, and had preached the same woordes to the Englishe men, which hee wrote to the Galathians in this behalfe, Ipso facto hee had bene apprehēded for an hereticke for preachyng agaynst the Sacrament of Baptisme and repentaunce?

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MarginaliaW. Hierome accused for preaching agaynst Magistrates.Furthermore it was obiected agaynst him touchyng matter agaynst Magistrates, and lawes by them made. Wherunto he aunswered agayne and affirmed (as hee had before preached) that no Magistrate of hym selfe could make any law or lawes, priuate or otherwise, to bynde þe inferiour people, vnles it were by the power, authoritie, and cōmaundement of his or their Princes to him or them giuen, but onely the Prince. And more-ouer, to confirme the same hee added, saying: that if the Prince make lawes consentyng to Gods lawes, we are bound to obey them. And if he make lawes repugnant to the lawes of God, and bee an euill & wicked Prince: yet are we bound humbly to suffer hym, and not violently to resist or grudge agaynst hym.

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Also concernyng hys Sermons, one Doct. Wilson entred into disputation with hym, and defended that good woorkes iustified before God, and were necessary and auaylable to saluation. MarginaliaWorkes no part of our saluation.To whom Hierome aunswered agayn, that all workes what soeuer they were, were nothyng worth, nor no part of saluation of them selues, MarginaliaGood workes auaile not but only by imputation.but onely referred to the mercye and loue of God, whiche mercye and loue of God directeth the workers therof, and yet is it at hys mercye and goodnes to accept them. Whiche to be true Doct. Wilson neither could, nor did denye.

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And thus much concernyng the seuerall storyes of these iij. good mē. Now let vs see the order of their Martyrdome, ioynyng thē all together: what was the cause of their condemnation, and what were their protestations and wordes at their suffering.

Ye heard before how Barnes, Hierome, & Garret, were caused to preache at Easter at the Spitle. MarginaliaOut of the preface of Steuen Gardiner agaynst George Ioye.The occasion whereof as I finde it reported by Steuen Gardiner 

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What follows is based on Gardiner, A declaration, and only appeared in 1570 and subsequent editions. It is a striking example of Foxe's ability to use large amounts of material from a hostile witness to build his case. Gardiner's account is compressed, but reproduced largely faithfully, with Foxe's editorial sniping largely confined to the marginal notes.

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writyng agaynst George Ioye, I thought here to discourse more at large.

Steuen Gardiner hearing that the sayd Barnes, Hierome, & Garret should preach the Lent following an. 1541. 

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1540.

at Paules crosse, to stoppe the course of their doctrine, sent his Chaplen to the bishop of London the saterday before the first sonday in Lent 
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15 February 1540.

, to haue a place for him to preache at Paules. Which to him was graūted, & time appointed that he should preach the Sonday following, which should be on the morrow: which sonday was appointed before for Barnes, to occupye that roome. Gardiner therfore determining to declare the Gospell of that sonday, contayning the Deuills. iij. tentations, began amongest other thinges to note the abuse of scripture amongest some, as the Deuill abused it to Christ, and so alluding to the tentation of the Deuill, wherein he alledged the scripture agaynst Christ, to cast him selfe downward, and that he should take no hurt, he inferred thereupon, saying:

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MarginaliaThe effect of Steuen Gardiners Sermon at Paules crosse, the first Sonday in Lent an. 1541.Now a dayes 

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The account of Gardiner's sermon is lifted verbatim from Gardiner, A declaration, fos. 5v-6r.

(quoth he) the Deuill tempteth the world, and biddeth them to cast them selues backward. There is no foreward in þe new teaching, but all backward. Now the Deuill teacheth, come backe from fasting, come backe from praying, come backe from confession, come backe from weeping for thy sinnes, and all is backward: In somuch that men must now learne to say their Pater noster backward. For where we sayd, forgeue vs our debtes, as we forgeue our debters, nowe it is, as thou forgeuest our debtes, so I wyll forgeue my debters, and so God must forgeue first, and all I say is turned backward. &c.

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And amongest other thinges, moreouer he noted þe Deuils craft & shifte in deceiuing man: who enuying his felicitie, and therefore coueting to haue man idle, and voyde of good workes, and to be lead in that idlenes, with a wan hope to lyue merelye at his pleasure here, MarginaliaPardons procured by the deuill, quod Steuen Gardiner.and yet to haue heauen at the last, hath for that purpose procured out pardons from Rome, wherein heauē was sold for a litle money, MarginaliaGardiner agaynst friers and pardons.and for to retaile that merchandise, the Deuil vsed Friers for his ministers. Now they be gone with all their trumpery, but the deuill is not yet gone. &c. And now that the Deuill perceueth that it can no longer be borne, to by and sell heauen by the Friers, he hath excogitate to offer heauen without workes for it, so freely, that men shall not nede for heauen to worke at all, what soeuer oportunitte they haue to worke: mary if they will haue any higher place in heauen, God wyll leaue no woorke vnrewarded, but as to be in heauen, nedes no workes at all, but onely beleefe, onely onely, MarginaliaSteuen Gardiner cā not abide onely, only.and nothing els. &c.

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