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1411 [1411]

K. Henry. 8. Barnes, Garret, and Hierome, Marytrs.

Sermons at S. Mary spitle, openly in writyng to reuoke the doctrine whiche they before had taught. At which Sermons Steuen Gardiner also hym selfe was present to heare their recantation.

First 

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Barnes was in fact the second of the three men to preach his recantation sermon, on the Tuesday of Easter week, 30 March 1540.

Doct. Barnes, accordyng to hys promise made to the kyng, solemnly and formally beganne to make hys recantation, whiche done, hee with much circumstance & obtestation MarginaliaDoct. Barnes desired Winchester at hys Sermon to holde vp hys head.called vpō the Byshop (as is aboue touched) and askyng of hym forgiuenes, required him in token of a graunt to holde vp his hand, to the entent þt he there openly declaring his charitie before þe world, þe Bishop also would declare his charitie in like maner. Which whē þe byshop refused to do at þe first, as he was required, Barnes agayne called for it, desiryng hym to shewe hys charitie, and to holde vp his hande. Which whē he had done with much ado, waggyng his finger 
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This particular claim appears to be Foxe's invention.

a litle: then Barnes entryng to his Sermon after hys prayer made, begynneth þe processe of a matter, preaching contrary to that, which before he had recanted. MarginaliaThe Maior of London readye to trouble Doct. Barnes for hys Sermon.In somuch, that the Maior, when the sermon was finished, sitting with the Byshop of Winchester, asked him whether hee shoulde from the pulpitte send him to warde, to be forth comming for that his bold preaching contrary to his recantatiō. The like also did Hierome, and Garret after hym.

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The kyng had appoynted before certayne to make reporte of þe sermons. Besides thē there was one who writyng to a frend of hys in the Court, in the fauour of these preachers, declared how gayly they had all handled the matter, both to satisfie the recantation, and also in the same Sermons to vtter out the truth, that it might spreade without let of the worlde. Wherefore partly by these reporters, and partly by the negligent lookyng to this letter, whiche came to the Lord Cromwels handes (sayth Gardiner) MarginaliaBarnes, Garret, and Hierome, committed to the Tower.Barnes with hys other fellowes were apprehended, and committed to the Tower. Steuen Gardiner in hys foresayde booke agaynst George Ioye would nedes cleare hym selfe, that hee was in no part nor cause of their castyng into the Tower, and giueth this reason for hym, MarginaliaSte. Gardiner had no accesse to the kinges Counsell a yeare and more before the L. Cromwells fall.for that he hadde then no accesse ne hadde not after, so long as Cromwels tyme lasted, to the kynges secret counsaile: yet notwithstandyng 

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This passage is a particularly clear example of how the 'black legend' of Gardiner's devious malice had come to exist quite independently of any actual evidence. See Michael Riordan and Alec Ryrie, 'Stephen Gardiner and the making of a Protestant villain' in Sixteenth Century Journal vol. 34 (2003), 1039-63.

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the sayd Gardiner can not persuade vs to the contrary, but that his priuie cōplaining to the kyng, and his secret whysperyngs in his frendes eares, & his other woorkyngs by hys factours about the king, was a great sparcle to set their faggottes a fire.

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Thus then Barnes, Hierome, and Garret beyng cōmitted to the Tower, after Easter, there remayned til the. xxx. day of Iulye, which was twoo dayes after the death of the Lord Cromwell. MarginaliaProcesse against Barnes, Hierome, and Garret.Then ensued processe agaynst them by the kings Counsel, in the Parliament 

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Barnes, Jerome and Garrett were excluded by name from the general pardon enacted by Parliament, and were subsequently condemned by an act of attainder hurried through at the end of July. Statutes of the Realm, vol. III (1817): 32o Hen. VIII c. 49, c. 60; Journal of the House of Lords, vol. I pp. 158-60.

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, to the which processe Gardiner confesseth him selfe that he was priuie amongest the rest. Whereupon all these iij. good Saintes of God, the. xxx. day of Iuly, not comming to any answere, nor yet knowing any cause of their condemnation, without any publyke hearing, were brought together frō the Tower to Smithfield, where they preparing them selues to the fire, had there at the stake diuers and sundry exhortations, amongest whom D. Barnes first beganne with this protestation following.

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MarginaliaThe protestation of Doct. Barnes at the stake.I am 

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This text, known as Barnes' Protestation, rapidly circulated in manuscript amongst London evangelicals, but the earliest witness to it surviving comes from the Catholic John Standish, whose printed rebuttal of it later in 1540 includes the full text: John Standish, A lytle treatise composyd by Johan Standysshe, against the protestacion of R. Barnes (STC 23209: London, 1540). On the tangled history of this text, see Ryrie, '"A Saynt in the Devyls Name"', p. 152.

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come hither to be burned as an hereticke, and you shall heare my beliefe, whereby you shall perceiue what erroneous opinions I hold. God I take to record, I neuer (to my knowledge) taught any erroneous doctrine, but onely those thinges which scripture lead me vnto, and that in my Sermons I neuer maintayned any errour, neyther moued nor gaue occasion of any insurrection. MarginaliaDoct. Barnes falsely sclaundered.Although I haue ben sclaundered to preache that our Lady was but a saffron bag 
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This peculiar phrase refers to an image used by English radicals, often from the Lollard tradition as well as Anabaptists, to denigrate the Virgin Mary. Such radicals argued that, like a bag of saffron, she had no merits of her own, was merely a vessel or container, and - once she was no longer carrying her precious cargo - was of no more importance than another woman. The image strongly implies, but does not necessarily require, the belief that Christ did not take flesh from the Virgin, which was anathema to Catholics and mainstream magisterial Protestants alike: hence Barnes' vigorous denial. For contemporary examples of the phrase, see Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, MS 128 p. 13 (LP XVIII (ii) 546 p. 294); British Library, Cotton MS Cleopatra E.v fo. 397r (LP IX 230, where misdated).

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, whych I vtterly protest before God, that I neuer ment it nor preached it: but al my study and diligence hath bene vtterly to confound and confute all men of that doctrine, as are the Anabaptistes, which deny that our Sauiour Christ did take any fleshe of the blessed Virgin Mary, which sectes I detest and abhorre. And in thys place there hath bene burned some of them, whom I neuer fauored, nor maintained, but with all diligence euermore did I study to set forth the glory of God, the obedience to our soueraygne Lord the King, and the true and sincere religion of Christ. And nowe harken to my fayth.

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MarginaliaD. Barnes confession.I beleue in the holy and blessed Trinitie, three persons, and one God, that created & made all the world, and that this blessed Trinitie sent downe the seconde person Iesu Christ into the wombe of the most blessed and purest virgine Mary. And here beare me record, that I do vtterly condemne that abominable and detestable opinion of the Anabaptistes, which saye that Christ tooke no flesh of the virgine. For I beleue that without mans wyll or power, he was conceiued by the holy Ghost, and tooke flesh of her, and that he suffered hunger, thirst, colde, and other passions of our bodye (synne except) according to the saying of S. Peter: He was made in all thinges like to his brethren, except sinne. 

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This appears to be a conflation of two separate verses of the letter to the Hebrews, not any work attributed to St. Peter: Hebrews 2:17, 4:15.

And I beleue that this his death and passion was the sufficient raunsome for the sinne of all the world. And I beleue that through his death, he ouercame sinne, death, and hell, and that there is none other satisfaction vnto the Father, but this his death and passion only: and that no woorke of mā did deserue any thing of God, but only his passion, as touching our iustification. MarginaliaAll mens workes vnperfite.For I know the best worke that euer I did, is vnpure & vnperfit. And with this he cast abrod his hands, and desired God to forgeue him his trespasses. For although perchaunce (said he) you know nothing by me, yet do I confesse that my thoughts and cogitations be innumerable: Wherfore I besech thee O Lord, not to enter into iudgement wt me, according the saying of the Prophet Dauid: Non intres in iudicium cum seruo tuo domine. i. 
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Psalm 143:2.

MarginaliaPsal. 143.Enter not into iudgement with thy seruaunt O Lord. And in an other place: Si iniquitates obseruaueris domine quis sustinebit? 
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Psalm 130:3.

MarginaliaPsal. 130.Lord, if thou straitlye marke our iniquities, who is able to abide thy iudgement? Wherefore I trust in no good worke that euer I did, but onely in the death of Christ. I do not doubt, but through him to inherite the kingdome of heauen. MarginaliaGood workes are to be done.Take me not here that I speake against good woorkes, for they are to be done, and verely they that doo them not, shall neuer come in the kingdome of God. We must do them, because they are commaunded vs of God to shew and set forth our profession, not to deserue or merite, for that is only þe death of Christ.

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I beleue that there is a holy Church, and a companie of al them that professe Christ: and that all that haue suffered and confessed his name, be Sainctes, and that all they do prayse and laude God in heauen, more then I, or any mans tounge can expresse, and that alwayes I haue spoken reuerently, and praised them as much as scripture willed me to doe: And that our Lady (I say) was a virgine immaculate and vndefiled, and that she is the most purest virgine that euer God created, and a vessell elect of God, of whom Christ should be borne. Then sayd M. Shiriffe, you haue said well of her before. MarginaliaD. Barnes obedient to Magistrates.And being afrayde that M. Shriffe had bene or should be agreeued with any thing that he should say, he sayd: Maister Shriffe, if I speake anye thing that you wyll me not, do no more but becken me with your hande, and I wyll strayght waye holde my peace, for I wyll not be disobedient in any thyng, but wyll obey.

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MarginaliaPraying to Sainctes.Then there was one that asked hym hys opinion of praying to Saintes. Then sayd he: Now of Saintes you shall here my opinion. I haue said before somwhat I thinke of them, how that I beleue they are in heauen with God, and that they are worthy of all the honour that Scripture willeth them to haue. But I say thorough out all Scripture we are not commaunded to pray to any Saintes. Therefore I can not nor will not

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