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1439 [1439]

K. Henry. 8. Persecution in Calyce. Adam Damlyp.
¶ The persecution in Calice, with the Martyrdome of George Bucker, otherwise called Adam Damlyp, and others.

MarginaliaAn. 1544.
George Bucker, aliâs Adam Damlip, Martyr.
AT what 

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Persecution in Calais

Calais was the last English outpost left from the Hundred Year's War. It was governed by the King's Deputy, directly answerable to the King. Since 1533, this had been Arthur, Viscount Lisle, whose religious inclinations were conservative and who sponsored, to the best of his ability, conservative clerics and officials in Calais. Spiritual jurisdiction, however, was held by Thomas Cranmer, the evangelical archbishop of Canterbury, who used his patronage to place evangelical preachers in livings in the town. Moreover, Cranmer's commissary for Calais, John Butler, was aggressively evangelical. Supporting Cranmer, was Thomas Cromwell, the vice-gerent for Spiritual affairs and, effectively, Henry VIII's chief minister. The tensions that developed from this division of authority and confessional allegiance were exacerbated by the conservative efforts in the years 1538-43, to oust Cromwell and Cranmer from power and the energetic responses of both minister and prelate to these threats. (On the situation in Calais see A. J. Slavin, 'Cromwell, Cranmer and Lord Lisle, a study in the politics of reform', Albion 9 [1977], pp. 316-36; Philip Ward, 'The politics of religion: Thomas Cromwell and the Reformation in Calais, 1534-40', Journal of Religious Religious History 17 [1992-3], pp. 152-71 and The Lisle Letters, ed. Muriel St. Clair Byrne, 6 vols. [Chicago, 1981]). Also of significance was Henry's open enmity towards Reginald Pole, his kinsman and, since 1535, the major spokesman against the king. Henry's wrath and paranoia towards Pole would be exploited by both conservatives and evangelicals.

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Foxe's sources for the complicated, intertwined, narratives which follow were varied. The story of William Callaway and Dr. London first appeared in the Rerum, as did the account of the execution of Germain Gardiner (Rerum, pp. 143-4). The first came from Edward Hall, The union of two noble and illustre famelies of Lancastre and Yorke (London, 1550) STC 12734a, fo. 257r, the second probably was related to Foxe by John Bale. Both of these stories were repeated in all editions of the A&M. In the 1563 edition, Foxe added accounts of Adam Damplip (from unknown informants), Thomas Broke's speech against the Six Articles, accounts of the 1539 persecution of heresy in Calais, which came from informants, and accounts of the 1540 persecution of heresy in Calais, also obtained from informants, almost certainly including Thomas Broke's wife, who supplied the detailed narrative of her husband's ordeals. The 1563 edition also contained an account of an earlier heretic, William Button, who was forced to do penance in Calais sometime before 1532; Foxe states that this account was derived from informants in the town. And Foxe also added the recantations of John Athee and John Heywood, which he obtained from Bishop Bonner's register (Guildhall MS 9531/12, fos. 61r and 254v).

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In the second edition, Foxe eliminated much of the material he had printed in the 1563 edition, including Thomas Broke's oration against the Six Articles, much of the interrogations of Broke and the recantation of John Heywood. But he also added material on Adam Damplip's 1541 arrest, imprisonment and death, obtained, as Foxe declares from John Marbeck. Foxe also added material on the persecution of William Smith and also on the 1540 persecution in Calais, which was obtained, as Foxe notes, from informants in Calais, including some of those who had been persecuted. They were also the source for the account Foxe added on the persecution of an unnamed labourer and a man named Dodd. There was no change to any of this material in subsequent editions, except that John Heywood's recantation was restored in the 1583 edition.

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Thomas S. Freeman

time Ioh. Marbecke was in the Marshalsey, which was about the yeare of our Lorde. 1544. 
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In order to provide a link with the preceding narrative (on the three martyrs at Windsor in 1543), Foxe is beginning this account out of chronological order. Foxe is beginning, in 1543 (not 1544), with Damplip's execution.

there was in the sayde prison with him one George Bucker, named otherwise Adam Damlip, who hauing continued in the said prison three or foure yeares, at last by the commaundement of Winchester 
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Damplip was re-arrested in 1541 in the command of Stephen Gardiner, the bishop of Winchester. But Gardiner did not, as Foxe's wording implies, order Damplip's execution. That was done by royal command.

, was had to Calice by Iohn Massy, the keper of the Marshalsey, and there hāged, drawen, and quartered for treason pretensed, which was a litle before the condemnation of the Windesore men aforesayde, MarginaliaEx literis Ioan. Marbecke.as is by the letters of the sayd Iohn Marbecke to me signified. 
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Foxe is indicating that John Marbeck is his source for the description of Damplip's imprisonment and execution.

Touching which story of Adam Damlip, forsomuch it includeth matter of much trouble and persecution that happened in Calice, to digest therefore and comprise the whole narratiō thereof in order, fyrst I wyll enter (the Lorde willyng) the storye of Damlip, and so procede in order to suche as by the sayd occasion were afflicted & persecuted in the towne of Calyce.

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¶ Persecution in the towne of Calyce.
Persecutors.Persecuted.The causes.

Iohn Dooue,
Prior of the
gray Friers in
Calice. Sir Gregorye
Buttol, priest.
Steuē Gardi-
ner, bishop of
VVynchester.
D. Sāson B.
of Chichester.
D. Clarke by-
shop of Bathe.
D. Repse B. of
Norvvich.
Haruey, Com-
mißarie in Ca-
lice.
Lady Honor,
vvife to the L.
Lisle deputie of
Calice.
Sir Tho. Pal-
mer, knight.
Iohn Rooch-
wood esquier.
Richard Lōg,
souldiour of Ca
lice.
Frances Ha-
stinges souldi-
our.
Hugh Coun-
cel seruant.
Sir Rafe Eller
ker knight.
Sir Ioh. Gage.

George Buc-
ker, or els called
Adam Dālip.
A poore labou-
ring man.
W. Steuens.
Th. Lācaster.
Iohn Butler.
Commissarie.
W. Smyth
Priest.
Rafe Hayre.
Iacob a Sur-
gion.
A Fleming.
Clement Phil
pot Seruant.
Ieffrey Loue-
day.
Dodde.
Sir Edmunde,
Priest.
W. Touched,
Postmaister.
Pet. Bequet.
Anthony Pic-
kering, gentle-
man.
Henry Tour-
ney, gentlemā.
George Dar-
by, Priest.
Ioh. Shepard.
W. Pellam.
W. Keuerdal.
Iohn Whyt-
wood.
Iohn Boote.
Ro. Cloddet.
Copen de
Hane, aliâs
Iames Cock.
Math. Hoūde.
W. Crosbow
maker.

IN the yeare of our
Lord. 1539. the Lord
Cromwell beyng yet a-
lyue, there came to Ca-
lyce one George Buc-
ker, aliâs Adam Dam-
lyp, who had bene in
time past a great Papist
and chapleyne to Fisher
B. of Rochester, & after
the death of the B. hys
master had trauayled
through Fraūce, Dutch
land, 
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I.e., Germany, not the Netherlands.

and Italy, & as he
went, cōferred with lear
ned men cōcerning mat-
ters of cōtrouersie in re-
ligiō: and so procedyng
in his iourney to Rome,
whereas he thought to
haue founde all godli-
nes and syncere religiō,
in the end, he foūd there
(as hee confessed) such
blasphemie of God, con-
tempte of Christes true
religion, loosenes of life,
& aboundance of all abo-
minatiōs and filthines,
that it abhorred hys
harte and consciēce any
lōger there to remaine:
MarginaliaAdā Damlip requested by Card. Poole to tarye at Rome.althoughe he was great-
ly requested by Cardi-
nall Poole, there to con-
tinue, and to read three
Lectures in the weeke
in hys house, for the
whiche hee offered him
greate enterteinement.
Whiche he refused, and
so returning homward,
hauing a peece of money
giuen him of the Cardi-
nall at his departure, to
MarginaliaThys French crowne was dearly bought, for by the same he was peached of treason.the value of a Frenche
crowne toward his char
ges, came to Calyce, as
is aforesayd. Who as
hee was there waiting

without the gate for passage into England, and beyng there perceaued by certaine Calyce men, namely, MarginaliaW. Steuens.William Steuens, and MarginaliaTho. Lancaster.Tho. Lancaster through conference of talke to be a learned mā, and also well affected: and moreouer how that he beyng of late a zelous Papiste, was now returned to a more perfect knowledge of true religion, was by them hartely intreated to stay at Calyce a certaine space, & to read there a day or two, to the intent hee might do some good there after his paynfull trauaile, vnto the people. 

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This verbose denunciation of the papacy was omitted after the first edition of the A&M.

To this request Adam gladly consented, so as he might bee licenced by such as were in authoritie, so to do.

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MarginaliaAdam brought to the Lord Deputie of Calice.Wherupon the sayd Steuens at the openyng of the gates, brought him vnto the Lord Lisle the kinges Deputie of the towne and marches of Calice, vnto whō he declared thoroughly what conference and talke had ben betwene Adam Damlip & him. Which knowen, the sayd Lord Deputie instantly desired the said Damlip to stay there and to preache three or foure dayes or more at his pleasure, saying that hee should haue both his licence and the Commissaries also (whiche thē was Syr Iohn Butler) so to do.  

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Lord Lisle was Lord Deputy of Calais, the governor of the city and representative of Henry VIII. John Butler was Thomas Cranmer's commissary for Calais and represented the archbishop.

MarginaliaAdam well lyked of the Deputie, and the Counsaile of Calice.Where, after he had preached iij. or iiij. tymes, hee was so well liked both for hys learning, his vtteraunce, and the truth of his doctrine, that not onely the souldiours and commoners, but also the said Lord Deputie and a great part of the Counsell, gaue him maruelous great prayse and thankes for it, and the sayd Lord Deputie offered vnto him a chāber in his owne house, to dyne and sup euery meale at his owne messe, to haue a man or ij. of his to waite vpō him, and to haue what soeuer it were that he lacked, if it were to be had for money, yea and what he would in his purse to bye bookes or otherwise, so as hee would tary there among them, and preache onely so long as it should seeme good to him selfe. Who refusing his Lordshyps great offer, most hartly thāked him for the same, and besought him to be onely so good vnto him, as to appointe him some quiet and honest place in the town where hee might not bee disturbed nor molested, but haue oportunitie to geue him selfe to his booke, and would dayly once in the fornoone, and agayne by one a clocke at after noone, by þe grace of God, preach among them according vnto the talent that God had lent him. MarginaliaAdam receaued of W. Steuēs by the lorde Deputies request.At whiche aunswere the Lord Deputie greatly reioysed and therupon sent for the foresaid Williā Steuens, whom hee earnestly required to receiue and lodge the sayd Damlip in his house, promising what soeuer hee should cōmaund, to see it payd with the most: and more ouer did send euery meale from his one messe a dish of the best vnto them, and in deede so did: albeit the sayd Damlip refused that offer, shewyng his Lordshyp that thinne diet was most cōueniēt for students. Yet could not that restraine him but that euery meale he sent it.

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MarginaliaAdam Damlip preacheth agaynst transubstātiation and the Romish masse.This godly mā by the space of xx. daies or more, once euery day at vij. of the clocke preached very godly, learnedly and playnly, the truth of the blessed Sacrament of Christes body and bloud, mightely inueying against all Papistrie and confutyng the same, 

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In other words, Damplip preached against the Real Presence of Christ in the Sacrament. Henry VIII would have regarded such sermons as heresy.

but especially those two most pernicious errours or heresies, trifling Transubstātiation, and the pestilent propitiatorie Sacrifice of the Romishe Masse, by true conferēce of the Scriptures, and applying of the auncient Doctours, earnestly therewith oftentimes exhortyng the people to returne from their Poperie, declaring how Popish hee him selfe had bene, and how by the detestable wickednes that he did see vniuersally in Rome, he was returned so farre homeward, and now became an enemy through Gods grace, to al Papistrie: shewing therwith, that if gayne or ambition could haue moued him to þe contrarie, he might haue bene enterteined of Cardinall Poole (as you haue heard before) but for very conscience sake ioyned with true knowledge, grounded on Gods most holy woorde, hee nowe vtterly abhorred all Papistrie, and willed them most earnestly to do the same.

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