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1493 [1493]

K. Hen. 8. Carder, A. Grebill, Martyrs. Husbād against the wife. Childrē against the mother.

stryng Sacramentes, saying Masse, or other Diuine seruice, more then to lay men. 

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Note how Foxe, in a marginal note, qualifies and 'explains' this charge.

MarginaliaTheir meaning was thys: that Priestes cā claime no more vertue or hye estate by their orders, then can a lay man.

4 That the solemnisation of Matrimonie is not necessarie to saluation of soule, neither was instituted of God  

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Note how Foxe, in a marginal note, qualifies and 'explains' this charge.

(for a Sacrament they ment.)

5 That the Sacrament of extreme vnction is not auayleable, nor necessarie to soules health.

6 That the Images of the Crosse, of the Crucifixe, of the blessed virgin and other Saintes, are not to be worshipped: and that they whiche worship them, do commit Idolatrie.

7 That pilgrimage to holy places and holy Reliques be not necessary, nor meritorious to soules health. 

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Interestingly, Foxe modifies the charge, which actually alleged that the defendant regarded pilgrimages and relics as damnable.

8 That Inuocation is not to be made to Saintes, but onely to God, and that he onely heareth their prayers.

9 That holy bread and holy water haue no more vertue after their consecration, then before.

10 That they haue beleued, taught and holden all and euery of the same damnable opinions before, as they did at that present.

11 That where they now haue confessed their errours, they would not haue so done, but only for feare of manifest proufes brought against them: either els but for feare to be conuicted by them, they would neuer haue confessed the same of their owne accorde.

12 That they haue commoned and talked of the sayd damnable errours heretofore with diuers other persons and haue had bookes concerning the same.

¶ The order and forme of processe vsed agaynst these v. Martyrs aforesayd, and first of William Carder. an. 1511.

MarginaliaThe processe of iudgement agaynste W. Carder, Martyr.WIlliam Carder being conuented before W. Warrham Archbishop, and hys Chauncellor Cutbert Tonstall, Doct. Siluester, Doctor Welles, Clement Browne wyth other mo, the Notaries being William Potking and Dauid Cooper, the articles and interrogatories aboue specified were layd vnto hym. Whych articles he there and then denyed, affirming that he neuer did, nor doth hold any such opinions, otherwise thē becōmeth that euery Christen man would do, ready to conforme hym self in all poyntes to their doctrine: and therefore to cleare hym selfe the better agaynst those Interrogatories obiected agaynst them, he stoode in deniall of the same. The like also dyd euery of the other iiij. Martyrs after hym.

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MarginaliaThe straite dealing of W. Warrhā Archbyshop of Canterbury.All which notwithstanding, the vncharitable Archb. seekyng all aduauntage agaynst him that he might, and more then right law woulde geue, brought in agaynst hym such wytnesses, as before were abiured, whom he knew for feare of relapse, durst do none other but disclose whatsoeuer they knew: to wyt, MarginaliaWitnesses agaynste W. Carder.Christofer Grebyll, W. Ryche, Agnes Iue, Iohn Grebyll, Rob. Hils, and Steuen Castelyn. Whose depositions being taken, and the sayd Carder being asked what he coulde say for hym selfe, he had nothing, he sayd, to produce agaynst their attestations, but submitted him vnto their mercy, saying moreouer, that if he had euer any misbeliefe of the Sacrament of the Church, contrarye to the common holding of the Catholickes, he now was sory, and repented him therof. MarginaliaW. Carder wrongfully cōdemned by W. Warrhā the Archbyshop.Which being done, the Archbishop, thys hys submission notwithstanding, and notwithstanding that the Register maketh no mention of any relapse, contrary to good lawe, at least contrarye to all Christian charitie, proceeded to the reading of hys blinde sentence, and so condemned hym: who neyther stoode stubburnly to that which he dyd holde, neyther yet did hold any thing contrary to the mynde of holy scripture, to the execution of burning. 

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Foxe exaggerates Carder's contrition. Carder did not deny the charges against him and he said that if he misunderstood anything contrary to Catholic faith, then he was sorry. He then declared that nothing he had been charged with was contrary to the Catholic faith (Kent Heresy Proceedings, 1511-12, ed.Norman P. Tanner, Kent Records 26. (Maidstone, 1997), p. 14).

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MarginaliaAgn. Grebill, Martyr.Then after hym was called for Agnes Grebyll, and examined of the sayd. xij. articles aboue recited, whych she in like maner denyed, as the other had done before, putting her aduersaries to their proofe. Then the archbishop calling for Iohn Grebyll her housband, & Christofer and Iohn Grebyll her two sonnes (who before had bene abiured) caused them vpon theyr othe to depose agaynst theyr own naturall mother, & so they did.

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MarginaliaAgn. Grebill accused of her own husband.First Ioh. Grebyl the elder her husband, examined by vertue of hys oth, to say how Agnes hys wyfe hathand doth beleue of the sacrament of the altar, of going in pilgrimage, offringes, and worshipping of Saintes, Images &c. and how long she hath so holden, thus deposed: that first about the ende of K. Edwardes dayes 

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Edward IV died in April 1483; this statement was made in 1511. Agnes Grebill and her circle were Lollards of long standing.

the fourth, in hys house, by the teaching of Iohn Iue, she was brought to that beliefe, & so forth frō thence dayly, till this tyme of detection, she hath continued. And besides that (sayd he) when my children Christofer and Iohn, being about. vij. yeares of age, were then taught of me in my house the sayd errour of the Sacrament of the altar, & by the sayd Agnes my wyfe dyuers times, she was alwaies of one mynde in the sayd misbeliefe agaynst the sacrament of the aulter, that it was not Christes body, flesh & bloud, but onely bread. MarginaliaThe catholicke Clergye of the Papistes set the husbād against the wife.Furthermore being examined how he knew that she was stedfast in þe said error, he said that she alwaies without cōtradiction affirmed thys teaching, & said, the said opinion was good, & was well contented that her chyldrē aforesayd, were of the same opinions against the sacrament of the altar. &c. 
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Foxe omits John Grebill's testimony about his wife's denial of the spiritual efficacy of pilgrimages, auricular confession, and holy bread and water. None of her statements were - from Foxe's point of view - controversial. John Grebill's deposition is printed in Kent Heresy Proceedings, 1511-12, ed. Norman P. Tanner. Kent Records 26 (Maidstone, 1997), pp. 18-20.

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Ex verbis Registri.

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MarginaliaThe catholicke Papistes set the childrē to accuse their owne mother.The bishop with his catholicke Doctors, not yet cōtented with this, to set the housband against the wyfe, proceeding further in their catholicke zeale, caused her two children Christofer and Iohn to be produced, one of the age of. xxij. the other of. xix. against their own naturall mother. MarginaliaChristofer Grebill & Iohn Grebill, witnes agaynste Agnes Grebill their mother.Who likewise being pressed wyth theyr othe, witnessed and sayd, 

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In what follows, Foxe conflates the depositions of Agnes Grebil's sons, Christopher and John (Kent Heresy Proceedings, 1511-12, ed. Norman P. Tanner. Kent Records 26 (Maidstone, 1997), pp. 20-21. Most of what follows is from Christopher's more detailed desposition. Although he abridged this material, Foxe's version of it is essentially accurate.

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that the foresayd Agnes their mother held, beleued, taught and defended, that the sacrament of the aultar was but bread, and not the very body of Christ, flesh and bloud: That Baptisme was no better in the Fount, then out of the Fount: That confirmation was of no effect: That the solemnisation of Matrimony was no sacrament: 
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Christopher actually stated that his mother believed that it was not necessary that marriage be solemnized in a church (Kent Heresy Proceedings, 1511-12, ed. Norman P. Tanner. Kent Records 26 (Maidstone, 1997), p. 20.

That confession to God alone was sufficiēt: Also that going in pilgrimage and worshipping of Saints and Images was of none effect. &c. Item, that their father and the sayde Agnes their mother held, taught, and communed of the sayde errours wythin theyr house diuers times, by the space of those three yeares past, as well on holy daies, as working daies, affirming and teaching that the sayd opinions were good and lawfull, and to be holden and mainteined, and agreement was made amongest them, that none of thē should discouer nor bewray either of these beliefes in any wyse. 
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Christopher went on to state that he was converted to these heresies, not by his parents, but by John Ive and that books that Ive loaned him (Kent Heresy Proceedings, 1511-12, ed. Norman P. Tanner. Kent Records 26 (Maidstone, 1997),p. 20).

Finally, 
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This final portion is from the deposition of Agnes Grebil's son, John (Kent Heresy Proceedings, 1511-12, ed. Norman P. Tanner. Kent Records 26 (Maidstone, 1977), p. 21).

that they neuer hearde their sayd father and mother, holding nor teaching anye other opinions, then be the sayde errours agaynst the sacrament of the altar, and pilgrimages, offerings, worshipping of Saintes and images, as farre as they coulde remember. &c. Ex verbis Regist.

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MarginaliaExample of an vnnatuall husband, and of vnnatural childrē.Here hast thou (Christian reader) before thine eyes, an horrible spectacle of a singular, yea of a double impietie, fyrst of an vnnaturall husband, wytnessing against hys own wyfe: and of as vnnaturall children, accusing and wytnessing agaynst their owne naturall mother. Which although they had so done, the cause beyng of it selfe iust and true (as it was not) yet had they done more then nature would haue led them to doo. Nowe the case being such, as whych by Gods woord standeth firme, sound, and perfect, what impietie were it for mē to accuse a poore innocent in case of heresy, which is no heresie? MarginaliaGreat impietie of the husband toward the wife.Now besides all this, the husband to come in agaynst hys own wyfe, MarginaliaGreater impietie in the childrē agaynst the mother.and the children to bryng the knyfe wherewith to cut the throte of their owne naturall mother that bare them, that nourished them, that brought them vp, what is this, but impietie vpon impietie, prodigious and horrible for all Christian eares to heare? MarginaliaGreatest impietie of all in the Clergymē the authors hereof.And yet the greatest impietie of all resteth in these pretensed Catholickes and Clergiemen, whych were the authors and causers of all this mischiefe. 

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Here, as in many other places in the A&M, Foxe's concern with family values is manifest. He is obviously appalled that a husband would testify against his wife and that children would testify against their mother. And Foxe is also appalled that the authorities would force them to do so. Typically, Foxe concludes by placing most of the blame on the Catholic clergy.

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The cause why thys good woman so stoode (as shee dyd) in the deniall of these foresayde articles obiected, was this, for that she neuer thought that her housband and her own children, who only were priuy of her religion, would testifie against her. Whom notwithstanding after she perceiued to come in, and to depose thus

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agaynst
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