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1494 [1494]

K. Hen. 8. Persecutiō in Kent. W. Carder, Grebill, Harrison, Brown, Walker, Martyrs.

agaynst her, denying styll (as she dyd before) that shee dyd euer hold such maner of errours, and being nowe destitute of all frendes and comfort, brast out in these wordes openly (as the Register reporteth) MarginaliaEx Regist. W. Warrhā. Fol. 177. that she repented the tyme that euer shee bare those children of her body. 

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The register states that Agnes 'penitet eam ipsos filios suos umquam peperisse' (Kent Heresy Proceedings, 1511-12, ed. Norman P. Tanner. Kent Records 26 (Maidstone, 1997), p. 18).

And thus the Archbishop wyth hys doctors, hauing now the thing that they sought for, albeit shee was ready to denye all errours, and to confirme her selfe to their religion, 
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Interestingly, there is nothing in the register that Alice recanted or that she was ready to recant. Foxe is exaggerating her compliance in order to underscore the cruelty of the Catholics.

MarginaliaAgnes Grebill condemned by the sentence of the Archb.yet notwythstanding they refusing her redynes and conformitie, proceeded to theyr sentence, and so condemned her to death.

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MarginaliaRobert Harison examined.After whose condemnation, next was brought to examination Rob. Harryson, whom in like maner, because he stood in hys deniall, contrary witnesses against hym were produced: to wyt, Christofer Grebyll, W. Rych, W. Olberd, Agnes Iue, who a lyttle before had bene abiured, & therefore were so much the more apt & appliable to serue the Bishops humour for daunger of relapse. After the deposition & conuiction of which wytnesses, although hee submitted him selfe to repentance and conformitie, 

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According to Warham's register, Harryson submitted himself to the Church but he did not recant his beliefs (Kent Heresy Proceedings, 1511-12, ed. Norman P. Tanner. Kent Records 26 (Maidstone, 1997), p. 7).

yet notwythstanding it woulde not be receaued, but sentence was read and he cōdemned with the other two aforesayd, vnto the fire. MarginaliaWilliam Carder, Agnes Grebill, Robert Harison, Martyrs.

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And thus these. iij. were condemned and burned, MarginaliaThe Byshops certificate to the kyng.& certificat geuē vp of thē together to the king frō Warrham the Archbishop vpon the same. an. 1511. Maij. 2 

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The certificate of their excommunication and transference to the secular arm would have been sent to Chancery. What Foxe is referring to is a copy of the certificate recorded in Warham's register (fos. 172v-173r). A translation of this document can be found in Norman P. Tanner, 'Pennances imposed on Kentish Lollards by Archbishop Warham, 1511-12' in Lollardy and the Gentry in the Later Middle Ages, ed. Margaret Aston and Colin Richmond (Stroud, 1997), p. 246.

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Ex Regist. Cant.

MarginaliaIohn Browne, Edward Walker, Martyrs.Ouer and besides these three godlye Martyrs aboue recited, I finde inthe foresayd Registers of W. Warrham, two other lyke godlye Martyrs also in the same yeare, and for the same. xij. Articles aboue specified, to be condemned vpon the depositions of certayne wytnesses brought in agaynst them, to wyt, MarginaliaWitnesses agaynst these two Martyrs.Tho. Harwod, Philip Harwod, Steuen Castelyn, W. Baker, Robert Reynold, Iohn Bampton, Rob. Bright, W. Rich. &c. whereupon they were adiudged lykewise for heretikes to be burned, the yeare aforesayd. 1511. the names of whych two Martyrs were Iohn Brown, and Edward Walker. 

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See Kent Heresy Proceedings, 1511-12, ed. Norman P. Tanner. Kent Records 26 (Maidstone, 1997), pp. 43-58. John Browne was a martyr whose daughter gave a substantial account of his torture and execution. In the 1570 edition, Foxe had first printed a description of the proceedings against John Browne, drawn from Archbishop Warham's register (1570, pp. 1453-1455). Further on in the same edition, Foxe also printed the longer account of this narrative (1570, p. 1480). This narrative was derived not from official records, but as Foxe notes, was related to him by Browne's daughter Alice. Both of these accounts, the one from the register and the one from Alice Browne, were inserted into Foxe's book as it was being printed, consequently neither account appears in 1511, when Browne's trial and execution actually took place. They were reprinted, in the same chronologically inaccurate locations in Foxe's text, in the next two editions (1576, pp. 1239-41 and 1255; 1583, pp. 1276-7 and 1292-3). However, Foxe then added a shorter version of Alice Browne's narrative, without, however, removing the longer version. This probably happened because Foxe decided to move the account of John Browne to its proper chronological place and decided to shorten it in the process. But for some reason, he neglected to remove the long version and also, more understanably, overlooked the account derived from Warham's register. As a result, there are three separate accounts of John Browne scattered across the pages of the 1583 edition (1583, pp. 805, 1276-77 and 1292-3) and all subsequent unabridged editions.

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Ex Regist. W. Warrh. Fol. 179.

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Now, as you haue heard the names of these blessed Martyrs, with their articles recited, let vs also heare þe tenor of the Bishops sentence, by which they were condemned one after an other. Their sentence conteyneth one vniforme maner of words in forme as followeth. 

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Cf. Kent Heresy Proceedings, 1511-12, ed. Norman P. Tanner. Kent Records 26 (Maidstone, 1997), pp. 6-7, 14-15, 23-24, 49 and 57-58. The sentence against Robert Harryson is translated in Norman P. Tanner, 'Pennances imposed on Kentish Lollards by Archbishop Warham 1511-12' in Lollardy and the Gentry in the in the Later Middle Ages, ed. Margaret Aston and Colin Richmond. (Stroud, 1997), pp. 245-6.

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¶ The tenour of the Sentence.

MarginaliaThe Sentence of cōdemnation agaynst the beforesayd Martyrs.IN nomine dei. Amen. Nos Willielmus permissione diuina Cantuariensis Archiepis. totius Angliæ primas & Apostolicæ sedis Legatus, in quodam negocio hereticæ prauitatis contra te Willielmum Carder de Tenterden nostræ Cant. Dioceseos laicum ac nostro imperio notoriè subditum & subiectum coram nobis in iudicio personaliter comparentem, nobis super hærerica prauitate huiusmodi detectum & delatum, ac per nostram diocesim Cantuariæ antedictæ notoriè & publicè in ea parte apud bonos & graues diffamatum, ex officio mero ritè & canonicè procedentes, auditis & intellectis, visis & cognitis, timatisq; ac matura diliberatione discussis & ponderatis dicti negocij meritis, seruatisq; in omnibus & per omnia in eodem negocio de iure seruādis, ac quomodolibet requisitis pro tribunali sedentes, Christi nomine inuocato & solū Deū præ oculis habētes: Quia per acta actitata, deducta, probata & exhibita corā nobis in eodē negocio inuenimus te per probationes legitimas corā nobis in hac parte iudicialiter factas, nonnullos & varios errores, hæreses, & dānatas opiniones, iuri diuino & ecclesiastico obuiātes, cōtrarios, & repugnātes, cōtra fidē orthodoxā, determinatā et obseruatam, tenuisse, credidisse, affirmasse, prædicasse, & dogmatizasse, & præsertim contra Sacramenta altaris, seu eucharistiæ, penitentiæ, ordinis, & alia Sacramenta, & sanctæ matris ecclesiæ dogmata: Et quamuis nos Christi vestigijs inhærēdo qui non vult mortem peccatoris, sed magis vt conuertatur & viuat, sepenumero conati fuimus te corrigere, ac vijs & modis licitis, & canonicis quibus potuimus aut sciuimus, ad fidem orthodoxam per vniuersalem Catholicam & Apostolicam Ecclesiam, determinatam & obseruatam, ac ad vnitatem eiusdem sanctæ matris Ecclesiæ reducere, tamen inuenimus te adeo duræ ceruicis quòd tuos errores & hæreses huiusmodi nolueris sponte & incontinenti confiteri, nec ad fidem catholicam & vnitatem sanctæ matris ecclesiæ antedictas debitè reuerti & redire, sed tanquam iniquitatis & tenebrarum filius in tantū indurasti cor tuum, vt non velis intelligere vocem tui pastoris tibi paterno compatientis affectu, nec velis pijs & paternis monitionibus allici, nec salubribus reduci blandicijs: Nos vero nolentes quod tu qui iniquus es fias nequior, & gregē dominicum in futurum tuæ hereticæ prauitatis labe (de quo plurimū timemus) inficias, idcirco de cōsilio Iurisperitorum nobis in hac parte assistentium cum quibus communicauimus in hac parte, te Willielmum Carder prædictū de meritis atq; culpis per tuam, damnabilem pertinaciam aggrauatis, de & super huiusmodi detestabili hereticæ prauitatis reatu conuictum & ad Ecclesiæ vnitatem pœnitentialiter redire nolentem, hæreticum heretricisq; credentem ac eorum fautorem & receptatorē prætextu præmissorum fuisse & esse, cum dolore & amaritudine cordis iudicamus & declaramus finaliter & diffinitiuè in his scriptis, relinquētes te ex nūc tāquā hereticū iudicio siue curiæ seculari, teq; Willielmū Carder predictū (vt præsertur) hereticum nihilominus in maioris excommunicationis sententiam occasione præmissorum incidisse & incurrisse, necnon excommunicatum fuisse & esse pronunciamus, decernimus, & declaramus etiam in his scriptis.

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Moreouer, besides these v. blessed Saintes of God, whom they so cruelly by their sentence did condemne to death, we finde also in the same Registers of Williā Warrham, a great number of other, whom they for the same doctrine and like Articles caused to be apprehended and put to open recantation: the names of whiche personnes in the Catalogue here folowyng, bee these. 

Commentary  *  Close

See Kent Heresy Proceedings, 1511-12, ed. Norman P. Tanner. Kent Records 26 (Maidstone, 1997), pp. 61-124. Foxe seems to have overlooked Simon Piers of Waldershare (Kent Hersey Proceedings, pp. 59-60).

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¶ Here foloweth a Table contayning the names of them which were abiured the same tyme vnder W. Warrham Archbishop, in the Dioces of Cant. anno. 1511.
MarginaliaA Table or Catalogue of them which were caused to abiure vnder W. Warrhā.
Note what doctrine here reigned in England before the tyme of Luther.

Iohn Grebyll the elder
of Benynden.
Christofer Grebyll his
sonne.
Iohn Grebyll, sonne of
Iohn þe elder of Be-
nynden.
W. Ryche of Benyndē.
W. Olbert the elder of
Godmersham.
Agnes Iue of Canter.
Agnes Chytenden of
Canterbury.
Thomas Mannyng of
Benynden.
Ioane Colyn of Ten-
terden.
Rob. Hilles of Tenter-
den.
Alice Hilles hys wyfe.
Tho. Harwod. of Ro
Ione Harwod wen-
hys wyfe. den.
Phil. Harwod.
Steuen Castelin of Tē-
derden.
W. Baker of Crābroke.
Margaret Baker hys
wyfe.
W. Olbert the yonger,
of Godmersham.
Rob. Reynold of God-
mersham.
Agnes Reygnolde of
Crambroke.
Tho. Field of Boxley.
Ioane Olbert wyfe to
W. Olbert the elder,
of Godmersham.
Elizabeth Whyte of
Canterbury.

Tho. Church of great
Charte.
Vincent Linch of Hal-
den.
Iohn Rych of Wytti-
sham.
Ioane Lynch of Ten-
terden.
Thomas Browne o
Crambroke.
Iohn Franke of Ten-
terden.
Ioyce Bampton, wife
of Iohn Bamptō of
Bersted.
Rychard Bampton of
Boxeley.
Rob. Bryght of Maid
stone.
Wil. Lorkyn of East
forley.
Iohn Bans of Boxley.
1512.
Iohn Bukherst of Sta-
pleherst.
Ioane Dodde, wyfe of
Iohn Dodde.
Iohn Benet of Staple-
herst.
Rebecke Benet hys
wyfe.
Ioane Lowes, wyfe of
Thomas Lowes of
Crambroke.
Iulian Hylles wyfe of
Robert Hylles of
Tenterden.
Rob. Franke of Ten-
terden.
The
ZZZ. iij.
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