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1557 [1557]

K. Edvvard. 6. Boner depriued. Hys Appeale not receaued. Massebookes called in.

Marginalia1550.stie out of the sayd pryson of the Marshalsey.

¶ A Supplication made and directed by Edm. Boner late B. of London to the Kinges Maiestie out of the prison of the Marshalsey.

MarginaliaBoners supplication to the kyng.In the which Supplication first after the vsed forme of stile, he prayed for þe prosperous estate of the Kyng long to raigne. Then he shewed that hys faithful hart and seruice to him, hath, is, and shalbe, as it was to his father before.

Then hee declared how hee had bene belyed of euyll men, and misreported not to beare a true hart to hys Grace, but a rebellious mynde, in denying hys royall power in hys minoritie, where in dede (he sayth) hys Grace should finde him alwayes during life, both in hart, word, and deede, to do and acknowledge otherwyse, and to be most wylling to shew. &c. and to do all thinges for his Grace as wyllingly as any other Subiect, or as those that were his Denouncers, who hee thought were not sent of hys Grace, but pretensed Cōmissioners. &c.

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Further he cōplayned of hys denunciatiō by certain Cōmissioners (who said they were sent by his Grace) alleaging þe same not to be lawfull: and of hys long and sharpe imprisonment, & that þe Cōmissioners obserued neyther law nor reasonable order, but extremitye. And where he had made appeale to hys Grace, and he could not haue it: he desired to haue lawe to prosecute and sue his appeale for his remedye, and that he considering hys vocation, myght not be shut vp and put from libertye, which his meanest subiectes haue.

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Then he desired his graces letters of Supersedeas against the Commissioners, & that the matter might be heard before the Coūsell, & then he doubted not, but to be found a true faythfull man, & herein to haue wrong. So in þe end he cōcluded, this (prostratyng hym self euē to the very ground, & humbly kissing hys Graces feete) to bee the thyng onely which he humbly desired. &c.

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MarginaliaBoners appellatiō to the kyng perused and tried, and found by the lawe vneffectuall and vnreasonable.THis done, and the Supplication perused, the kyng eftsoone giueth in charge and commaundement, to certain men of honour & worship, & persons skilfull in the law, as to the Lord Rych hygh Chauncellour, the Lord Treasurer, the L. Marques Dorset, þe bishop of Ely, Lord Wentworth, Syr Antony Wingfield, Syr W. Harbert knightes, Doctor Nich. Wootton, Edward Mountague Lord chiefe Iustice, Syr Iohn Baker Knight, with Iudge Hales, Iohn Gosnolde, D. Oliuer, and also Doctor Leyson, that they scanning and perusing all such actes, matters, and munimentes of the sayd Boner by him exhibited, produced, propounded and alledged, with all & singular his protestations, rescusations and appellations, should vpon mature consideration thereof, giue theyr directed answer vpon the same, whether the appellation of the sayd Boner were to be deferred vnto, and whether the sentence defyned agaynst hym, stoode by the law sufficient and effectuall, or not. MarginaliaThe sentence of Boners depriuatiō by the Peeres & learned mē of the realme found to be iust and laufull.Who eftsoones after diligent discussion, and cōsiderate aduisement had of all and singular the premisses, gaue their resolute aunswer, that the pretensed appellation of Edmund Boner aforesayd was nought and vnreasonable, and in no wyse to be deferred vnto, and that the Sentence by the Commissioners agaynst hym, was rightly and iustly pronounced. And this was the conclusion of Boners whole matter and depriuation for that tyme.

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Thus then leauing Doctor Boner a whyle in the Marshalsey with hys keeper, we will procede (the Lord permitting) further in the course of our story, as the order of yeares and tyme requireth. MarginaliaThe first trouble of the Lord Protector was about the moneth of Octob. an. 1549.And although the trouble of the Lord Protector falleth here ioyntly with the depriuation of Doctor Boner: yet because he was shortly agayne delyuered out of the same thorough the Lordes mightye working, I wyll therefore delay the tractation thereof, tyll the tyme of hys second trouble, which was two yeares after: and so in the meanetyme returning againe into our discourse, intende by the Lordes leaue, to collecte and continue the matters begon, touching the kinges godly proceedinges for reformation of religion, in the foresayd yeare of our Lord, concurring an. 1549.

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MarginaliaDisputation of Pet. Martyr with Doct. Chadsey in Oxforde.And here fyrst a note would be made of Peter Martyr, & of hys learned trauails, & disputation in the Vniuersitie of Oxford the sayd present yeare, with Doctor Chedsey & other moe, about þe matter of þe Sacramēt: which was, that the substance of bread and wyne was not chaunged in the sacrament, and that the body and bloud of Christ was not carnally & bodily in the breade and wyne, but vnited to the same sacramentally.

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MarginaliaEcclesiasticall lawes by Acte of Parlament to be compyled by 32. persons.
Statut. an. 3. Edou. 6.
In lyke manner some touch or mention here also would be made of the Ecclesiasticall lawes, for the gathering and compiling wherof. 32. persons were assigned by acte of Parliament the sayd present yeare 1549. But because these be rather matters of tractation, then historicall, I meane (God willing) to deferre the further consideration thereof vnto the ende of the history of thys kinges dayes, and so to passe forward to other matters in the meane whyle.

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¶ Bookes of Latine seruice called in and abolished. 
Commentary  *  Close
Ridley's reforms

The campaign against altars followed naturally from the abolition of the mass in the Prayer Book of 1549. One of the standard methods of evasion practiced by conservative clergy was to continue the use of traditional altars for the administration of the communion, where, by speaking the words of the rite sotto voce, they could persuade their congregations (and perhaps themselves) that nothing had changed. Cranmer' s campaign was preluded by a sede vacante visitation of Norwich diocese following the resignation of William Rugge in January 1550. This was conducted by Rowland Tayor and William Wakefield, and one of their principal targets was the survival of 'massing'. Cranmer then took advantage of a similar vacancy in London, where Bonner had been deprived on the 1st October 1549 and Nicholas Ridley was not translated from Rochester until 1st April 1550. Thereafter Ridley took up the campaign with enthusiasm. (See Diarmaid MacCulloch,. Tudor Church Militant, 1999, pp.96-9)

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David Loades
University of Sheffield

MarginaliaEuill disposed people thinking to haue their latin seruice againe, after the apprehension of the Lord Protector.IT foloweth then in story, that certaine of the vulgar multitude, hearyng of the apprehension of the Lord Protectour, and supposing the alteration of publicke seruice into English, and administration of the Sacrament and other rites lately appointed in the Church, had bene the acte chiefly or onely of the sayd Lord Protectour, begā vpon the same to noyse and brute abroad, that they should now haue their olde Latine seruice, with holy breade and holy water, and their other like superstitious ceremonies agayne. MarginaliaThe kinges commaundement to the Byshops.Wherupon the kyng with the body and state of the priuye Counsaile then beyng, directed out his letters of request and straite cōmaundement to the Bishops in their Dioces, to cause and warne the Deane and prebendaries of their Cathedrall Churches, all Persons, Vicares, and Curates, with the Churchwardens of euery Parish within their Dioces, MarginaliaBookes of Latine seruice called in.to bring in and deliuer vp all Antiphoners, Missalles, Grailes, Processionals, Manuals, Legendes, Pies, Portuasies, Iournals, and Ordinals after the vse of Sarum, Lincolne, Yorke, Bāgor, Herford, or any other priuate vse, and all other bookes of seruice, the hauyng wherof might be any let to the seruice now set forth in Englishe: chargyng also and cōmaundyng all such as should bee founde stubborne or disobedient in this behalfe to bee cōmitted vnto warde.

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And because the kyng moreouer was aduertised, that there was a slackenes & a frowardnes among the people, refusing to pay toward the findyng of bread and wyne for the holy Cōmunion, by reason wherof þe Cōmunion in many places was omitted, þe Bishops in lyke maner had giuen in charge, to prouide for redresse therof and to punish them which should refuse so to do. MarginaliaCōmon bread vsed in the holy Cōmunion.Whereby it may appeare to vs now, that no wafer cakes but common bread was then by the kynges appoyntemēt ordinarely receaued and vsed in Churches. This was about the latter end of Decemb. an. 1549.

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¶ Takyng downe of aultars, and settyng vp of the Table in stede therof.

MarginaliaTakyng down of Altars.
An. 1550.
FVrthermore in the yeare next folowyng. 1550. other letters likewise were sent out for the takyng downe of aultars in Churches, and settyng vp the Table in stede of the same, vnto Nicolas Ridley, who beyng Byshop of Rochester before was then made Byshop of London, in Boners place. The copie and contentes of the kinges letters, are these as foloweth.

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¶ The kinges letters to Nicholas Ridley bishop of London. &c. 
Commentary  *  Close

The Council letter instructing the removal of Altars is not in the Privy Council Register. It must have been in the Letter Book (now lost) to which Foxe was given privileged access. The order to call in and destroy all Latin service books (1576, 1583) was a proclamation issued on 25 December 1549, and printed in P.L.Hughes and J.F. Larkin, Tudor Royal Proclamations, I, p.485. Hughes and Larkin printed it from Edward Cardwell, Documentary Annals of the Reformed Church (1844), I, p.85. The 'reasons why the Lordes boorde should rather be after the forme of a table…' may be Foxe's own compilation. It does not correspond to any other document found.

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MarginaliaThe kinges letter to Nic. Ridley then Byshop of London.RIght reuerend father in God, right trusty and welbeloued, we greete you well. And where it is come to our knowledge, that being the aultars wythin the more part of the Churches of thys realme, already vpon

good
DDDd.j.
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