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1625 [1563]

Queene Mary. Q. Maries proclamatiō against straungers. VVinchester against Lady Elizabth.

Marginalia1554. March.thyng and thynges touchyng and concernyng the true fayth, professiō, and Religion of his Catholicke Church, both accordyng to the lawes and preceptes of almighty God, & also their bounden duetie of obedience towardes our sayd soueraigne Lady the Queene her lawes and Statutes, & her highnes most good example & gracious procedyng according to the same, & accordyng also to the right wholesome charitable & godly admonition, charge and exhortation late set forth and giuē by the right reuerend father in God the Byshop of London, our Diocesan and Ordinarie to all the Persons, Vicars, and Curates within this Dioces: but also that they and euery of them do truly without delay aduertise you of the names and surnames of all and euery person and persons that they or any of them can or may at any tyme hereafter know, perceiue, or vnderstand to transgresse or offend in any point or Article cōcerning the premisses, at their vttermost perilles. That ye immediatly after such notice therof to you giuē do forthwith aduertise vs therof, fayle ye not thus to do with all circumspectiō and diligence, as ye will aunswere to our sayd most dread soueraigne Lady the Queene, for the contrary at your like perill. Geuē at the Guildhall of the Citie of London, the v. day of March in the first of the raigne of our sayd soueraigne Lady the Queene.

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Blackwell.

And likewise doe you geue to euery of the sayd householders streitly in commaundement, that they or their wiues depart not out of the sayd Citie vntill this holy tyme of Easter be past.

 

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From Mary's Proclamation to the 'Stile'

An interesting difference occurs between 1563 and later editions over the English exiles, with 1563 emphasising divine providence and the later editions being more factual and neutral ('The great care & prouidence of God for his people' (1563); 'Englishmen fled out of the realm for religion' and 'The number of English exiles well neare 800. persons' (later editions)). Many of the glosses point to twists in the attempt by Gardiner and others to implicate Elizabeth in the Wyatt rebellion ('Lady Elizabeth and Lord Courtney vpon suspicion of Syr Thom. Wyats rising committed to the Tower', 'A poynt of practise of Ste. Gardiner agaynst the Lady Elizabeth', 'D. Weston against the Lady Elizabeth'); others imply the untruthfulness of Elizabeth's enemies, who were prone to tell 'tales' in the star chamber ('Cut prentise in Londō bronght before Ste. Gardiner', 'Ste. Gardiners tale in the starre chamber agaynst the Lady Elizabeth', 'The Lord Shandoys false report in the starre chamber, agaynst Lady Elizabeth and Lord Courtney'). The Lord Mayor's disdain for Weston is pointed to ('The Lord Mayors iudgement of D. Weston'): this was perhaps part of a wider attempt to encourage the hostility of London to Mary's reforms and reign. The approval by parliament of the queen's marriage is played down as the 'mention' of it ('Mention of the Quenes mariage in the Parlament'), perhaps reflecting Foxe's sensitivity about the complicity of parliament in Mary's reign.

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Marginalia1554.ABout the same yeare and tyme, whē Doct. Boner set forth this prescript or monitory, there came frō the Queene an other proclamation agaynst Straungers and Foriners within this Realme. The purpose and intent of which proclamatiō, because it chiefly and most specially concerned Religion and doctrine, and the true professors therof, I thought here to annexe the tenor and maner of the same.

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¶ A copy of the Queenes proclamation for the driuyng out of the Realme straungers and Forreiners. 
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Block 14: From the Proclamation against Foreigners to the 1554 Convocation

The proclamation expelling foreigners from England appeared in every edition of the Actes and Monuments (1563, pp. 926-27; 1570, p. 1587; 1576, p. 1354; 1583, p. 1425). Foxe probably derived it from a version printed by John Cawood. (For surviving copies of the proclamation see Tudor Royal Proclamations, II, pp. 31-32).

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MarginaliaQ. Maryes proclamatiō for driuing out of straūgers.THe Queene our soueraigne Lady, vnderstandyng that a multitude of euill disposed persons, beyng borne out of her highnes dominions in other sondry nations, flying from the obeysaunce of the Princes and rulers vnder whom they be borne, some for heresie, some for murther, treason, robbery, and some for other horrible crimes, be resorted into this her Maiesties Realme, and here haue made their demoure, and yet be commoraunt and lingring, partly to eschewe such condigne punishmēt as theyr sayd horrible crimes deserue, and partly to dilate, plant, and sow the seedes of their malicious doctrine & leude cōuersatiō among the good subiectes of this her sayd Realme, of purpose to infect her good subiectes with the like, in so much as (besides innumerable heresies, which diuerse of þe same beyng heretickes haue preached and taught within her highnes sayd Realme) it is assuredly knowen vnto her Maiestie, MarginaliaCauses laid against straūgers.that not onely their secrete practises haue not fayled to stirre, cōfort, and ayde diuers her highnes subiectes to this most vnnaturall rebellion agaynst God and her grace, but also some other of them desist not still to practise with her people eftsoones to rebell: her Maiestie therfore hauyng (as afore is sayd) knowledge and intelligence hereof, hath for remedy herein determined, and most straitly chargeth and commaundeth, that all and euery such person or persons borne out of her highnes dominiōs, now commoraunt or resiante within this Realme, of what so euer nation or countrey, beyng either Preacher, Printer, Bookeseller, or other artificer, or of what soeuer calling els, not beyng Denizen or Marchaunt knowen, vsyng the trade of Marchaundise, or Seruaunt to such Ambassadours as be liegers here from the Princes and states ioyned in leage with her grace, shall within. xxiiij. dayes after this proclamation auoyde the Realme vpon payne of most greuous punishment by enprisonment, and forfeyture & confiscation of all their goods and moueables, and also to bee deliuered vnto theyr naturall Princes or Rulers, agaynst whose persons or lawes they haue offēded: Giuyng to al Maiours, Shriues, Bayliffes, Constables, and all other her ministers, officers, and good

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Subiectes straitly also in charge, if they know any such person not borne in the Queenes highnes dominions (except before excepted) that shall after the tyme and day limitted in this Proclamation, tary within this Realme, that they shal apprehend þe same person or persons, and cōmit him or them to warde, there to remaine without bayle or mayneprise, till her graces pleasure or her Counsailes be signified vnto them for the further orderyng of the sayd person or persons: And that, if any of her sayd Officers, after the sayd xxiiij. dayes, apprehend, take, or know of any such, they shall with diligence immediatly certify her sayd Counsayle therof, to the intent order may forthwith be giuen for theyr punishment accordyng.

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In the meane while, vpon the proclamation before mencioned, not onely the straūgers in king Edwards time receaued into the realme for religion (among whom was MarginaliaPet. Martyr and Iohannes Alasco, banished the realme.Peter Martyr, Iohannes Alasco Vncle to the king of Poland) 

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The identification of John Alasco (i.e., John a Lasco or, more properly, Jan Łaski) as the king of Poland's uncle is Crowley's mistake; Laski's nephew was the chancellor of Poland.

but many English men also fled, some to Freeseland, some to Cleueland, 
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'Cleveland' is the duchy of Cleves.

some to hygh Germanie, where they were diuersly scattered into diuers companies & congregations, MarginaliaEnglish men fled out of the Realme for Religion.at Wesel, at Frankford, Emden, 
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Foxe added Emden to Crowley's list of places to which the exiles fled (cf. 1563, p. 927 with 1570, p. 1587; 1576, p. 1354; 1583, p. 1425). Crowley's failure to mention it is an indication of how isolated the Emden exiles were from their English brethren in Switzerland.

Markpurgh, Strausbrough, Basill, Arow, Zurich, Geneua,
and other places: where by the prouidence of God they were all susteyned, and there entertained with greater fauour among straungers abroade, then they coulde be in their own countrey at home, MarginaliaThe number of English exiles wel neare 800. persons.well neare to the number of. 800. persons, Students, and other together. 
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Foxe's description of the diaspora of religious exiles from England was copied in the 1563 edition from Crowley's chronicle (cf. Crowley, Epitome, sig. Ffff3v with 1563, p. 927) (This was the last borrowing Foxe made from Crowley's chronicle in Book 10). Foxe added details to it in subsequent editions (see textual variant 30).

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In the sayd moneth of March, MarginaliaMarch. 15. Lady Elizabeth and L. Courtney vpon suspition of Syr Tho. Wiats rising, committed to the Tower. the Lord Courtney Earle of Deuonshire, whom the Queene at her fyrst entring deliuered out of the Tower, and Lady Elizabeth also the Queenes Sister, were both in suspection to haue consented to Wiates conspiracie, and for the same this March were apprehended, and committed to the Tower.

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Touching the imprisonment of which Lady Elizabeth and the Lord Courtney, thou shalt note hee for thy learning (good Reader) a politicke point of practise in Steuen Gardiner bishop of Wint. not vnworthy to be considered. This Gardiner being alwayes a capitall enemie to the Lady Elizabeth, and thinking now by the occasion of Maister Wiat to picke out some matter against the Lord Courtney, and so in the ende to entangle þe Lady Elizabeth, deuised a pestilent practise of conueiance, as in the storye here following may appeare. 

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Two anecdotes follow, both centring around Sir Thomas White the Lord Mayor in 1554, and both concerning the alleged involvement of Elizabeth and of Edward Courtenay in Wyatt's rebellion. Although not named by Foxe as his source, White passes several acid tests that identify Foxe's informants: he is a witness to all the events recounted, he is a prominent figure in both anecdotes and he is consistently reported in a favourable light in both anecdotes. Both anecdotes first appear in the 1570 edition (see textual variant 31). White died in 1567.

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Is the material Foxe obtained from White accurate? Wyatt had visited Courtenay before his execution, although what was said cannot be verified. Several sources reported that Wyatt had cleared Elizabeth and Courtenay on the scaffold, over the objections of Hugh Weston (J. G. Nichols, [ed.], The Chronicle of Queen Jane and of two years of Queen Mary, Camden Society Original Series 48, [London, 1850] pp. 72-74).

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MarginaliaA poynt of practyse of Ste. Gardiner against the Lady Elizabeth.The story is this. The same day that Syr Tho. Wiat dyed, he desired þe Lieftenant to bring him to þe presence of þe L. Courtney: who there before the Lieftenant and the Shiriffes, kneeling down vpon his knees, besought the L. Courtney to forgeue him, for that he had falsly accused both the Lady Elizabeth and him, & so being brought from thence vnto the scaffolde to suffer, there openly in the hearing of all the people, cleared the Lady Elizabeth and the Lord Courtney to be free and innocent from all suspition of that commotion. At which confession MarginaliaD. Weston agaynst the Lady Elizabeth.Doct. Weston there standing by, cried to the people saying: beleue him not good people, for he confessed otherwyse before vnto the Councell.

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After the execution done of Syr Tho. Wiat, whych was the. xj. day of Aprill, word was brought immediatly to þe Lord Maior Sir Tho. White, a litle before dinner, how Maister Wiat had cleared the Lady Elizabeth and Lord Courtney, and the wordes also which Doct. Weston spake vnto the people. Whereunto the Lord Maior aunswering: Is this true, quoth hee? sayd Weston so? MarginaliaThe Lorde Maiors iudgement of D. Weston.In sooth I neuer tooke him otherwyse but for a knaue. Vpon this the Lord Maior sitting downe to dinner (who dined þe same day at the Bridge house) commeth in Syr Martin Bowes wyth the Recorder, newly come from the Parliament house, who hearing of the Maior and the Sheriffes this report of Wiates confession, both vpon the scaffolde and also in the Tower, marueyled thereat, declaring how there was an other tale contrary to this, tolde the same day in the

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