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1629 [1591]

Queene Mary. Talke of B. Ridley in the Tower, about the Sacrament. Disputation at Oxford.

Marginalia1554. Decemb.True, Syr: so he doth say: and I aūswere euē þe same which once by chaūce I preached at Paules Crosse in a Sermon, for þe which I haue bene as vniustly, & as vntruly reported as any poore man hath bene.  

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In the dialogue Ridley refers to a Paul's Cross sermon he had delivered (1563, p. 930; 1570, p. 1591; 1576, p. 1357; 1583, p. 1428). The sermon was delivered in the first year of Edward VI's reign and is mentioned earlier in Foxe (1563, p. 855; not in any subsequent edition).

MarginaliaDoctour Ridley falsely reported for a sermon of hys at Paules. For there I speakyng of the Sacrament, & inueying agaynst them that estemed it no better then a peece of bread, tolde euen the same thyng of Pœnitentes, Audientes, Catecumeni, Energumeni, that I spake of before: & I bad them depart as vnworthy to heare the mystery, & then I said to those that be Sancti: Cyprian þe Martyr shall tell you how it is that Christ calleth it, MarginaliaThe place of Sainct Cyprian expounded.saying: Panis est corpus, cibus, potus, caro. &c. i. Bread is the body, meate, drinke, flesh: because that vnto this materiall substance is giuen the property of the thyng wherof it beareth the name: and this place then tooke I to vtter as the tyme would then suffer, that the materiall substāce of bread did remayne. Maister Fecknam (which as is reported to me) dyd bely me openly in the same matter at Paules Crosse, heard all this my talke (as read as skarlet in his face) and herein aunswered me neuer one worde.

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You do know well, quoth M. Secretary, that Origines and Tertullian were not Catholicke, but erred.

Syr, quoth I, there is none of all the Doctours that are holden in all pointes, MarginaliaNone of all the Doctours holdē in all poyntes.but are thought to haue erred in some thynges. But yet I neuer heard, that it was either layd to Origens charge, or to Tertullian, that euer they were thought to haue erred in this matter of the Sacrament.

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What, quoth Maister Chomley, late chiefe Iustice, doth not Christ say playnly, that it is his very flesh and hys very bloud, and we must needes eate hym, or we can haue no lyfe? Syr (quoth I) if you will heare how S. Augustine expoundeth that place, you shall perceiue that you are in a wrong boxe. And when I began to tell S. Augustines minde in hys booke De doctrina Christiana: MarginaliaS. Augustine taketh the wordes of the Sacrament figuratiuely, by Bournes owne confession.Yea, yea, quoth M. Secretary, that is true, S. Augustine doth take it figuratiuely in deede.

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Fortie yeares agoe, quoth M. Fecknam, all were of one opinion in thys matter.

Forty yeares agoe (quoth I) all held that the Bishop of Rome was supreme head of the vniuersall church.

What then? was Maister Fecknam begynning to say. &c. but Maister Secretary tooke the tale, and sayd, that was but a positiue law.

A positiue law, quoth I? No Syr, he would not haue it so. For it is in his Decrees, that he chalenged it by Christes own word. For hys Decree sayth: MarginaliaDist. 21. Quāuis.Nullis Synodicis cōstitutis, ne Concilijs, sed viua voce Domini prælata est ecclesia Romana omnibus ecclesijs in toto mundo, dicente Domino Petro, tu es Petrus. &c. i. The church of Rome was aduaunced aboue all other churches in the world, not by any Synodicall constitutions, nor yet any Councels, but by the lyuely voyce of the Lord, according as the Lord sayd to Peter: Thou art Peter. &c. And in an other place he entreateth: Tu es Cephas, id est, caput. i. Thou art Cephas, that is to say, the head.

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Tush, it was not counted an article (quoth Maister Secretary) of our fayth.

Yes, sayd I, if ye call that an article of our fayth, which is to be beleued vnder paine of damnation. For he saith: Omninò definimus, declaramus, pronūciamus, omnem creaturam subesse Romano pontifici de necessitate salutis. i.  

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The English translations of passages from patristic fathers and from the Vulgate, which appear throughout this dialogue, were introduced in the 1570 edition.

We do absolutely determine, declare, and pronounce, that euery creature is subiecte to the obedience of the bishop of Rome vpon neceßitie of saluation.

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And here when wee spake of lawes and decrees, Maister Roger Chomley thought him selfe much wronged, that hee could not be suffered to speake, the rest were so ready to interrupte hym: and then hee vp and tolde a longe tale what lawes were of kinges of England made against the bishop of Rome, and was vehement to tell how they alway of the Cler-

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gie did flie to him. And here because he semed to speake of many thinges beside our purpose, whereof we spake before, he was aunswered of hys own fellowes, and I let them talke.

Finally, we departed in peace, and maister Secretary promised in þe end, that of their talke there should come to me no harme. And after I had made my mone for lacke of my bookes, hee sayd they were all once geuen him: MarginaliaBysh. Ridleys bookes geuen away.but sith I know (sayd he) who hath them now, write me the names of such as ye woulde haue, and I wyll speake for you the best I can.

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Vpon the articles aboue mencioned, and inquisition made vpon the same, diuers Ministers were diuorced from their wyues. MarginaliaMinisters diuorced from their wiues. Amongest whom was one Iohn Draper, and Ioane Golde hys wyfe, in the Diocesse of London, troubled and vexed for the same by Boner bishop of London, who sent forth a commission with a processe, to sequester and seperate them, inioyning also penaunce to the poore woman.

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Besides this Iohn Draper, diuers other also were diuorced the same time against their wyls, and some cōtented of their own vnconstant accord, to be seperated frō their wiues: as of Chichester one (who because he soone recouered againe, shall be here nameles) an other named Edmond Alstone, an other Alexander Bull, amongest whom also was Doctor Standish, with many other: whose names together in the end of this story of Queene Mary, we may peraduenture, by Gods grace in a generall catologue, together comprehend. 

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Foxe's comment that he planned an appendix listing priests who divorced their wives under Mary (1563, p. 931; 1570, p. 1591; 1576, p. 1358; 1583, p. 1428) explains his gathering together in his papers lists of clergy deprived for marriage (see BL Harley 421, fols. 56r-63v). Apparently Foxe decided against publishing this appendix, probably because it would have embarrassed too many Elizabethan clerics.

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¶ How Tho. Cranmer Archb. Bish. Ridley, and M. Latimer were sent down to Oxford to dispute, with the order and maner, and all other circumstances vnto the said disputation, and also to their cōdēnation appertaining. 
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Block 17: Preparations for the Oxford Disputations

The account of the disputations at Oxford in April 1554 is the heart of Book 10. Foxe took special pains both in acquiring information about the disputations and in shaping it. The number of different versions upon which Foxe was able to draw and his meticulous, almost obsessive care in editing, make the section on the Oxford disputations the most complex in Book 10, if not in the entire Actes and Monuments. The intensive rewriting and editing of Foxe's account of the disputations, while making it difficult to collate, also provide a remarkable look at Foxe's editorial goals and practices.

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Paradoxically, the lengthy account of the preparations for the disputations, which one would expect, given its relative unimportance, to be fairly straightforward, is in fact remarkably intricate. There was nothing on these preparations in the Rerum, but in the 1563 edition Foxe had two separate reports of events, both by eyewitnesses. (The first informant's account was obtained by Foxe while in exile and used, sparingly, in the Rerum, for events during and after the disputation). Both informants were staunch protestants but their accounts are quite different. The first informant's account covers all of the disputations, the second informant merely the events preceding the actual disputations; consequently the second informant's account, although shorter, is more detailed. The second informant may have been connected to Oxford University as he is much more knowledgeable about the reaction of the Oxford faculty to the disputations. In the 1563 edition, Foxe did not have the time to synthesise the two accounts and he printed them separately (pp. 932-36 and 936-38 respectively). In the edition of 1570, Foxe welded the two accounts with remarkable patience and attention to detail.

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But why did Foxe bother with this carefully crafted and detailed account of what were merely the preparations for the disputations? Partly because, as we have seen, Foxe had good sources; but particularly because this detailed account enabled Foxe to set the David versus Goliath theme of the disputations; the pomp and ceremony of the serried ranks of academia defied by three lone men.

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How Thomas Cranmer...

Many of this section's glosses are concerned with the preparations for and early skirmishes in the Oxford disputations. Some of the glosses malign the papists, and Foxe seems quick to highlight the pomp (and the pride implicit in it) of the papists ('The Doctors in theyr scarlet robes', and 'Procession in Oxford. The aray of the solemne procession'). For other attacks on the papists, see 'A grace for Articles', 'A grace for the Cambridge Doctours to dispute agaynst Cranmer, Ridley & Latimer', 'D. Cranmer closed in by the Mayor and Aldermen for running away'.

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MarginaliaAprill. 10:ABout the tenth of Aprill, Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury, Ridley Bishop of Lōdon, and Hugh Latimer bishop also somtime of Worcester, were conueyed as prisoners from the Tower to Wyndsore: MarginaliaD. Cranmer D. Ridley, & M. Latymer, sent downe to Oxford to dispute.and after from thence to the Vniuersitie of Oxford, there to dispute with the Diuines and learned men of both the Vniuersities, Oxford and Cambridge, about the presence, substance and sacrifice of the Sacrament. The names of þe vniuersitie Doctors and Graduates, appointed to dispute agaynst them, were these: MarginaliaThe Vniuersitie Doctors appoynted to dispute against the Archb. and hys fellowes.Of Oxford Doct. Weston Prolocutor, D. Tresham, D. Cole, D. Oglethorp, D. Pie, M. Harpsfield, M. Fecknam. Of Cambridge Doct. Yong Vicechauncellour, Doct. Glinne, D. Seton, D. Watson, D. Sedgewycke, D. Atkinson. &c.  
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In the 1563 edition, Foxe began with a list of the disputants (drawn from his first informant) appointed to debate with Cranmer, Ridley and Latimer, which was quite inaccurate. William Chedsey and Richard Smith were incorrectly listed as disputants, while William Tresham, Owen Oglethorpe, William Glyn and Thomas Sedgwick, who were disputants, were not listed. A 'Thecknam' was listed as one of the disputants; this is probably an error for John Feckenham (or Fecknam), although 'Thecknam' is listed as representing Cambridge, whereas Feckenham represented Oxford (1563, p. 932). This informant did better with the list of those who actually participated in the debate (1563, pp. 933-34), confirming that he was a spectator at the disputations. (It is to be noticed how easily he might have made the mistake in identifying Feckenham, if he only heard the name and did not read it).

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Moreover, Foxe compiles a correct list of the disputants (with one exception) in the 1570 edition (1570, pp. 1591-92; 1576, p. 1358; 1583, p. 1428-29). It might be thought that he drew on two letters which survive in his papers, firstly a letter from John Young, the Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge and the Senate, authorising seven Cambridge theologians to participate in the disputations (BL Harley 416, fol. 39r); and secondly a letter from Young and the Senate to Hugh Weston, notifying that the disputants were being sent (BL Harley 422, fol. 101r). Although Alban Langdale was one of the disputants appointed by Cambridge (and listed in both letters) Foxe does not mention him. (Langdale said nothing during the disputations and Foxe's other sources do not mention him). This omission suggests that Foxe acquired the letters but that he did not consult them.

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The articles or questions whereupon they should dispute, were these.

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MarginaliaThree questions.1 Whether the naturall body of Christ bee really in the sacrament after the words spokē by the Priest, or no?

2 Whether in the sacrament, after the wordes of consecration, any other substance do remaine, then the substance of the body and bloud of Christ?

3 Whether in þe Masse be a sacrifice propiciatory for the synnes of the quicke and the dead?

Touching the order and maner of all which thinges there done, with þe notes, Argumētes, & all circumstancies therunto perteinyng, to deduce the matter from the begynnyng, leauyng out nothyng (as nere as we may) that shall seme necessary to be added, first here is to be vnderstand that vpon Saterday, the vij. day of Aprill, the heades of the Colledge in Cambridge beyng congregate together, MarginaliaLetters sent downe from Ste. Gardiner to Cambridge.letters commyng downe from Steuen Gardiner Lord Chauncellor, were read with Articles therewith annexed, that should be disputed vppon at Oxford: the contētes of which three Articles are sufficiently expressed before. Wherupon in the sayd cōgregation of the aforesayd Vniuersitie of Cambridge, there was graunted first a grace in this forme proposed by the Seniour Proctour: Placet vobis vt instrumētum fiat, quòd horum iam prælectorum, articu-

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