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1689 [1651]

Queene Mary. A Summarie of the B. of VVinchesters Sermon at Paules Crosse.

Marginalia1554. Decemb.The almighty God preserue your holynes long to continue in health, for the profite of hys Churche. From London the last of Nouember. 1554.


Your most humble seruaunt
Reginald Poole Cardinall.

 

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From Gardiner's Sermon to 1555

As occurs with other sections of text containing the words of the catholic enemy, these glosses contest and subvert the text. Thus Gardiner's 'dreaming' sermon is mocked with the implication that it is ungrounded in reason and a product of fancy. There are also examples of reworked points from the text. The finishing of Gardiner's Latin sentence in a derogatory way is unusually stark and unfounded in its criticism. The ongoing campaign to deride failed catholic prophecies continues .

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Vpon the MarginaliaDecemb. 2.Sonday followyng, beyng the. ij. of December, the bishop of Wynchester Lord Chauncelour of England preached at Paules Crosse, at whych Sermon was present þe Kyng, & Cardinall Poole. MarginaliaA Sermon of Steuen Gardiner preached at Paules Crosse.He tooke for hys Theame thys part of the Epistle of S. Paule to the Romaines the. xiij. chapt: This also we know the season (brethren) that we should now awake out of sleepe, for now is our saluation nearer, then when we beleued. &c.

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Some notes wherof as they came to my handes (faythfully gathered, as it appeareth by sundry copies) I haue here thought good to set foorth. 

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Block 35: From Gardiner's Cross sermon to 1555

Even his almost innumerable enemies conceded Stephen Gardiner's mastery of rhetoric and the Paul's Cross sermon of 2 December 1554 was one of his masterpieces. The impact of the sermon is indicated by its rapid dissemination. A detailed précis of this sermon appears in John Elder, A copie of a letter sente unto Scotlande (London, 1556), STC 7552, sigs. E6r-F1r, and the sermon was also translated into Latin: Concio reveren. Stephani episcopi Wintonien. Angliae cancellari, habita domenica prima adventus, praesentibus sereniss. rege et reverendiss. legato apost. in maxima populi (Rome, 1555). Neither was Foxe's source. Elder does not record many important details in Foxe's version; conversely Foxe does not have details in the Latin translation, especially its discussion of the queen's pregnancy. (Admittedly, this omission could be due to censorship on Foxe's part, although the reason for such censorship is obscure). Most importantly, Foxe states that his version was based on 'Some notes whereof as they came to my hands faithfully gathered (as it appeareth by sundry copyes)' (1563, p. 1018; 1570, p. 1651; 1576, p. 1408; 1583, p. 4179 [recte 1479]).

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Fyrst, he shewed how the saying of S. Paule was verified vpon the Gentiles, who had a long tyme slept in darke ignoraunce not knowyng God: MarginaliaA dreaming sermon of the B. of Winchester. therfore S. Paul (quoth he) to styrre vp theyr heauy dulnes, willed them to awake out of theyr long sleepe, because theyr saluation was nearer, then when they beleued. In amplyfying thys matter, & comparing our times with theirs: he tooke occasion to declare what differēce the Iewish Sacramentes had, from those of the Christians, wher in he vsed these wordes:

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Euen as the sacramentes of the Iewes did declare Christ to come, so do our sacramentes declare Christ to be already come: but Christ to come, and Christ to be come is not all one. For now that he is come, þe Iewes sacramentes bee done away, and ours onely remayne, which declare that he is already come, and is nerer vs, then he was the Fathers of the old law: for they had hym but in signes, but we haue hym in the Sacrament of the aultar, euen hys very body. Wherefore now also it is time that we awake out of our sleepe, who haue slept, or rather dreamed these. xx. yeares past, as shall more easely appeare by declaryng at large some of the properties and effectes of a sleepe or dreame. And first, as men intending to sleepe, do seperate them selues frō company, and desire to bee alone: euen so haue we seperated our selues from the sea Apostolicke of Rome, & haue bene alone, no Realme in Christendome like vs.

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Secondly, as in sleepe men dreame sometime of killing, sometyme of mayming, sometyme of drowning or burnyng, MarginaliaWinchest. very expert (as it appeareth) in ghostly dreames.sometyme of such beastlynes as I wyll not name, but wyll spare your eares: so haue we in thys our sleepe, not onely dreamed of beastlynes, but we haue done it in deede. For in thys our sleepe, hath not one brother destroyed another? Hath not halfe our money bene wyped away at one tyme? And agayn those that would defend theyr conscience, were slaine: and others also otherwyse troubled, besides infinite other thynges, which you all know as well as I: whereof I reporte me to your owne consciences.

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Farther, in a mans sleepe all hys senses are stopped, so that he cā nether see, smell, nor heare: euen so where as the ceremonies of þe church were instituted to moue and styrre vp our senses, they beyng taken away, were not our senses (as ye would say) stopped, and we fast a sleepe? MarginaliaWho putteth out the candell, but they which extincte gods word and forbid the Scriptures that should giue vs light?Moreouer, when a man would gladly sleepe, he wyll put forth the candell, least peraduenture it may let hys sleepe, & awake hym. So of late, all such writers as dyd hold any thyng wyth the Apostolike Sea, were condemned, & forbydden to be read, & Images (which were * Marginalia* They forbid lay mēs bookes, but you forbid the booke of God. lay mens bookes) were cast downe and broken.

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This slepe hath continued with vs these xx. yeares, and we all that while without a head. For when kyng Henry did first take vpō hym to be head of the Church, it was then no Church at all. After whose death, kyng Edward (hauyng ouer hym Gouernours and Protectours, which ruled as them lysted) could not be head of the Church, but was onely a shadow or signe of a head: and at length it came to passe, that we had no head at all, no, not so much as our ij. Archbyshops. For on the one side, the Queene being a woman could not be head

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of the Church, and on the other side they both were cōuicted of one crime and so deposed. Thus, while we desired to haue a supreme head amōg vs, it came to passe that we had no head at all. MarginaliaThen belike Christ is no head at all to geue lyfe to his Church, vnlesse the Popes head also be clapt on the Churches shoulders. When the tumult was in the North in the tyme of kyng Henry the viij. (I am sure) the kyng was determined to haue geuen ouer the supremacie agayne to the Pope: but the houre was not then come, and therfore it went not forward, lest some would haue sayd, that he did it for feare.

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After this M. Keneuet and I were sent Embassadours vnto the Emperour, to desire him that he would be a meane betwen the Popes holynes and the kyng, to bryng the kyng to the obediēce of the Sea of Rome: but the time was neither yet come. For it might haue bene sayd, þt it had bene done for a ciuill policie. Agayn, in the begynnyng of kyng Edwardes raigne, the matter was moued, but the tyme was not yet: for it would haue bene sayd that the kyng (beyng but a child) had bene bought and solde. Neither in the begynnyng of the Queenes raigne was the houre come. For it would haue bene sayd that it was done in a tyme of weakenes. Likewise when the king first came, if it had bene done, they might haue sayd it had bene by force and violence. But now, euē now, * Marginalia* Imo potestas tenebrarum hora est, the houre is come, when nothyng cā be obiected, but that it is the mere mercy and prouidence of God. Now hath the Popes holynes, Pope Iulius the iij. sent vnto vs this most reuerend father, Cardinall Poole, MarginaliaSte. Gardiner claweth the Cardinall. an Ambassadour from his side. What to do? not to reuenge the iniuries done by vs against his holynes: sed benedicere maledicentibus, to geue his benedictiō to those which defamed and persecuted hym.

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And that we may be the more meete to receaue þe said benediction, I shall desire you that we may all acknowledge our selues offenders agaynst his holynes. I do not exclude my selfe forth of the nomber. I will flere cum flentibus, & gaudere cum gaudētibus, that is: wepe with them that weepe, and reioyce with them whiche reioyce. MarginaliaNote how the meaning of S. Paules wordes is here applyed.And I shall desire you, that we may differre the matter no lenger, for now hora est, the houre is come. The kyng and the Queenes Maiesties haue already restored our holy father the pope to hys supremacy: and the three estates assembled in the Parliament, representyng the whole body of the Realme, haue also submitted them selues to his holynes and his successours * Marginalia* For euer Winchester a false prophet. for euer. Wherfore let not vs any lenger stay. And euē as S. Paul sayd to þe Corinthians, that he was their father, MarginaliaS. Paul though he was the father of many Churches in Christ Iesu: yet was he neuer so arrogant to take vpon hym to be supreme head of any Church, but left that soly to Christ, and laboured to bryng all vnder hym. so may the Pope say that he is our father: for we receiued our doctrine first from Rome, therfore may he chalenge vs as his owne. We haue all cause to reioyce, for his holynes hath sent hether, and preuented vs before we sought hym: such care hath he for vs. Therfore let vs say, Hæc est dies quam fecit Dominus, exultemus & lætemur in ea. Reioyce in this day which is of the Lordes workyng: that such a noble mā of byrth is come, yea such a holy father (I meane my Lord Cardinall Poole) which can speake vnto vs, as vnto brethren, and not as vnto straungers: who hath a long tyme bene absent. And let vs now awake, which so long haue slept, and in our slepe haue done so much naughtynes agaynst the Sacramentes of Christ, denying the blessed Sacrament of the Altar, and pulled downe the * Marginalia* So Ezechias pulled down the hill altars, which Manasses afterward dyd set vp: and yet we cōmend the doinges of Ezechias, and disproue the fact of the other. altars, which thyng Luther hym selfe would not do, but rather reproued them that did, examinyng them of their belief in Christ.

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This was the sūme of his Sermon before hys prayers, wherin he prayed, first for the Pope, Pope Iulius the iij. withall his Colledge of Cardinals, the B. of Lōdon with the rest of that order: then for the Kyng and Queene, and the Nobilitie of this realme, & last for the cōmons of the same, with the soules departed, lying in the paines of Purgatory. This ended (the tyme beyng late) they began in Paules to ryng to their Euenyng sōg, wherby þe preacher could not well be heard, which caused him to make a short end of this clerkly Sermō.

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