Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 45. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 46. John Aleworth 47. Martyrdom of James Abbes 48. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 49. Richard Hooke 50. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 51. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 52. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 53. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 54. Martyrdom of William Haile 55. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 56. William Andrew 57. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 58. Samuel's Letters 59. William Allen 60. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 61. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 62. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 63. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 64. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 65. Cornelius Bungey 66. John and William Glover 67. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 68. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 69. Ridley's Letters 70. Life of Hugh Latimer 71. Latimer's Letters 72. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed73. More Letters of Ridley 74. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 75. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 76. William Wiseman 77. James Gore 78. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 79. Philpot's Letters 80. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 81. Letters of Thomas Wittle 82. Life of Bartlett Green 83. Letters of Bartlett Green 84. Thomas Browne 85. John Tudson 86. John Went 87. Isobel Foster 88. Joan Lashford 89. Five Canterbury Martyrs 90. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 91. Letters of Cranmer 92. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 93. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 94. William Tyms, et al 95. Letters of Tyms 96. The Norfolk Supplication 97. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 98. John Hullier 99. Hullier's Letters 100. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 101. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 102. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 103. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 104. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 105. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 106. Gregory Crow 107. William Slech 108. Avington Read, et al 109. Wood and Miles 110. Adherall and Clement 111. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 112. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow113. Persecution in Lichfield 114. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 115. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 116. Examinations of John Fortune117. John Careless 118. Letters of John Careless 119. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 120. Agnes Wardall 121. Peter Moone and his wife 122. Guernsey Martyrdoms 123. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 124. Martyrdom of Thomas More125. Examination of John Jackson126. Examination of John Newman 127. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 128. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 129. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 130. John Horne and a woman 131. William Dangerfield 132. Northampton Shoemaker 133. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 134. More Persecution at Lichfield
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1713 [1674]

Quene Mary. Letters of M. Laurence Saunders. B. Hooper, Martyr.

MarginaliaAn. 1555. February.wonder at the hastines of the sodayne health, and shall say with them selues, hauing inward sorrow and mourning for very anguish of mynde: These are they whom wee sometyme had in derision and iested vpon: we fooles thought theyr liues to be very madnes, and their ende to be without honour, but loe how they are accompted among the children of God. The blessyng of God be with you all. &c. 

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Foxe deleted a final paragraph from this letter: cf. Letters of the Martyrs, p. 195.

Laurence Saunders.

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To his wife a litle before his burning. 
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First in Letters of the Martyrs, p. 205.

MarginaliaA letter of Laurence Saunders to his wife.GRace & comfort in Christ, Amē. Deare wife be mery in the mercies of our Christ, & ye also my deare frēds. Pray, pray for vs euery body. We be shortly to be dispatched hence vnto our good Christ, Amen, Amen. Wife I would you sent me my shirte which you know wherunto it is consecrated. MarginaliaHe writeth for his shirte wherin he should be burned. Let it be sowed downe on both the sides & not open. Oh my heauenly father looke vpon me in the face of thy Christ, or els I shall not be able to abide thy coūtenaunce: such is my filthines. He will do so, and therefore I will not be afraid what sinne, death, hell, and damnation can do against me. O wife alwayes remember the Lord. God blesse you, yea he will blesse thee good wife and thy pore boy also: onely cleaue thou vnto hym and he will geue thee all thinges. Pray, pray, pray.

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¶ An other letter to M. Robert and Iohn Glouer, 
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There is another letter, which Foxe did not print, from Saunders to Robert and John Glover (Letters of the Martyrs, pp. 206-07). The ties between Saunders and the Glover brothers casts light on the martyrdom of Joyce Lewes. Her road to her martyrdom began with her witnessing Saunders' execution and she would be supported on that journey by her friend and spiritual mentor, John Glover.

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written the same morning that he was burnt. 
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First in Letters of the Martyrs, pp. 207-08.

GRace and consolation in our sweete Sauiour Christ.

Oh my deare brethren whom I loue in the Lord, being loued of you also in the Lord, be mery and reioyce for me, now ready to go vp to that myne inheritaunce, which I my selfe in deede am most vnworthy of, but my deare Christ is worthy, who hath purchased the same for me with so deare a price. Make hast my deare brethren, to come vnto me, that we may bee mery, eo gaudio quod nemo tollet a nobis. i. with that ioy which no man shall take frō vs. Oh wretched synner that I am, not thankefull vnto this my father, who hath vouched me worthy to be a vessell vnto hys honour. But O Lorde, nowe accept my thankes, though they procede out of a not enough circumcised hart. Salute my good sisters your wiues, and good sisters feare the Lord. Salute al other that loue us in the truth. Gods blessing be with you alwaies, Amen. Euen now towardes the offeryng of a burnt sacrifice. O my Christ helpe, or els I perish. Laurence Saunders.

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After these godly letters of M. Saunders diuersly dispersed and sent abroad to diuers of the faythfull congregation of Christ, as is afore to be sene, now in the later end we will adioyne ij. other letters written not by M. Saunders the Martyr, but by M. Ed. Saunders the Iustice, his brother, sent to thys our Saunders in prison, although conteynyng no great matter worthy to be knowen, yet to thys intent that the reader may see in these ij. brethren so ioyned in nature, and so diuided in Religiō, the word of the Lord verified, truly saying: MarginaliaMath. 10.Brother shalbe agaynst brother &c. as by þe cōtentes of these two letters folowyng may appeare. 

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Edward Saunders' letters are not in the Letters of the Martyrs, but first appear in 1570. How Foxe acquired them is mysterious; perhaps they came from a member of the Saunders family. These letters must be genuine; Edward Saunders, a staunch catholic, lived until 1576 and he would have had every incentive to impeach the letters if he had grounds for doing so.

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A Letter of Iustice Saūders, to hys brother Laurēce.

MarginaliaA letter of Iustice Saunders to Laurence Saunders his brother.AFter my most harty commendations, these ben to asserteine you that I haue spoken with M. Basset, 

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This is James Basset, Laurence Saunders' successor as prebend of Botevant (York). Bassett held the living from 27 April 1554, which indicates that this letter was written between that date and Saunders' execution on 8 February 1555. It was highly unusual for deprived clergy to draw their final year's profits from their livings (Bassett apparently made this point); undoubtedly Edward Saunders' good offices secured generous treatment for his brother.

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who hath shewed me that iiij. l. (all deductiōs being allowed) is the whole that hath come to his handes of the profite of the Prebendary at Yorke, the which you shall haue, although, as he thinketh, it was not due vnto you by the reason of your depriuation: before it was due. As cōcerning your conscience in Religiō, I besech God it may be lightned by the holy Ghost, and that you may haue the grace of the holy Ghost to folow the counsell of S. Paul to Timothe. 2. Recte tractare verbum veritatis. That is. To handle rightly the word of truth. Wherin your dissentyng frō many holy and Catholicke men, especially in the Sacrament, maketh me in my conscience to condemne yours. MarginaliaIustice saith, audi alterā partem.For although I haue not hetherto fansyed to read Peter Martyr and other such. &c. yet haue I had a great desire to see Theophilacte and diuers others of his sorte and opinion both notable and holy Fathers (if any credite be to be giuē to the writyngs of our auncient Fathers before vs) and surely the sentences and Iudgementes of ij. or iij. of them hath more confirmed my consciēce then iij. C. of the Zuinglians or as many of þe Lutherians cā or should do. Thus in hast willyng to reliefe you to the end you might conuert, if you shall nede towardes your findyng, if you shal require it of me, you shall vnfaynedly find my money ready, as knoweth our Lord, who send vs all thynges good for vs. Scribled this Thursday by your brother and petitioner to God. Ed. Saunders.

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¶ An other letter of Iustice Saūders to his brother wherein he seeketh to wyn him to popery.

AS nature and brotherly loue with godly charity requireth, MarginaliaGreting with protestation. I send you by these letters (quantum licet) most harty cōmēdatiōs, being sory for your fault & your disobedient handling of your selfe towardes my Lord Chauncellor, who I assure you, mindeth your good and preseruation, if you can so consider and take it. I would be glad to know whether you haue not had wyth you of late some learned men to talke with you by my Lord Chaūcellors appointment, and how you can frame your selfe to reforme your errour in the opinion of the most blessed and our most comfortable Sacrament of the aultar: Wherein I assure you I was neuer in all my lyfe more better affected than I am at this present, vsing to my great comfort hearing of Masse, MarginaliaHe meaneth peraduenture, when the Sanctus is singing, for then the Organs pipe merely and that may geue some comfort. & somewhat before the sacring time, the meditation of S. Barnard, set forth in the thyrd leafe of this present booke. The accustomable vsing whereof I am fully professed vnto during my lyfe, and to geue more fayth vnto that confession of holy Barnard, then to Luther. &c. or Latimer. &c. for that the antiquity, the vniuersalitie of the open Church, and the consent of al holy Saintes and Doctors do confirme the same, assertening you that I haue bene earnestly moued in myne own conscience these. x. or. xij. dayes past, and also betwene God and my selfe, MarginaliaThe meditations of S. Bernard sent by Iustice Saunders to his brother.to moue you to the same, most earnestly desyring you, and as you tender my naturall, godly, or friendly loue towardes you, that you woulde read ouer this booke this holy tyme, at my request, although you haue already seene it, and let me know wherein you cannot satisfye your own conscience. Thus fare ye well for this time.

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By yours, from Seriants Inne. E. Saunders.

The lyfe and Martyrdome of M. Iohn Hooper B. of Worcester, & Glocester, 
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Hooper's Martyrdom

There are two striking features about the life and martyrdom of Hooper in the Rerum. The first is how little information Foxe has on the martyr's life before Edward VI's reign. There are only two sentences stating that Hooper studied at Oxford and was forced to flee due to the emnity of Dr Richard Smith and that he stayed in Basel until Edward VI's reign (Rerum, p. 279). Surprisingly neither Bullinger nor Zurich are mentioned. One can only conclude that Bullinger did not supply any information about Hooper while Foxe was in exile. (J. F. Mozley argues that Bullinger supplied Foxe with Hooper's writings which Foxe published in theRerum, [John Foxe, p. 125] but he supplies no evidence for this and, in the light of Bullinger's silence at this time on his friendship with Hooper, this must remain doubtful). Hooper's meteoric rise under Edward VI, his struggle with Cranmer and Ridley over vestments (the Rerum account is markedly more hostile to bishops in general than the Acts and Monuments versions would be), his arrest over this issue and release after a grudging capitulation are all recounted in the Rerum (pp. 279-81). The Rerum also contains the praise of Hooper as a bishop, the detailed description of his arrest and examinations, and the very detailed account of his journey to Gloucester and his execution, which would be reprinted without major changes in all the editions of theActs and Monuments. This is the work of Grindal's team and reflects their editorial priorities: detailed accounts, drawn from eyewitnesses, of the final journeys and deaths of themartyrs are very much a feature of the Rerum. (The accounts of Laurence Saunders and Rowland Taylor provide excellent examples of this).

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The 1563 edition provides little new material. Hooper's marriage is mentioned for the first time, but that is all that is added about his exile. Two interesting documents are added, both concerning the quarrel over vestments in Edward VI's reign: Edward VI's dispensation for Hooper to be ordained as bishop without wearing vestments and Ridley's later letter to Hooper holding out an olive branch on the subject. The first edition also adds an account of Hooper's degradation and a poem by Conrad Gesner memorializing Hooper.

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The 1570 edition saw the inclusion of much new detail on Hooper's early years and his friendship with Heinrich Bullinger. (The farewell to Bullinger and Hooper's prediction of his own martyrdom, now added for the first time, almost certainly came from Bullinger; it is possible that Henry Bull opened the floodgates for this information.) The Earl of Warwick's letter to Cranmer on behalf of Bullinger was also added in this edition. There was no change to this account in the second or third editions of the Acts and Monuments.

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burnt for the defence of the Gospell at Glocester. Anno. 1555. Febr. 9.

 

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Hooper

Material similar to the glosses of the previous section can be found in the margins of this section, although they also perhaps reflect what seems to be Foxe's sense that Hooper was a somewhat grander, more confident figure than Saunders (as in the gloss 'Discretion how ministers and preachers ought to behaue themselues' which comments on Hooper's austere manner, framing the point in terms of the difficulties this presented for those who sought spiritual comfort from Hooper). Thus there are glosses linking catholicism and insanity ('This Morgan shortly after fel into a phrensy, and madnes and dyed of the same') and pointing out the catholic reliance on 'force and extremitie' ('The popes religion standeth onely vpoon force and extremitie'). Hooper endures a somewhat more thoroughgoing examination than Saunders and, as a result, some glosses in this section fulfill a similar function to those found in the Oxford disputations section; thus Foxe takes Hooper's point that the Council of Nice ruled that no minister should be separated from his wife as proving that the Council permitted clerical marriage, a rather wider point ('The coūcel of Nice permitteth Priests mariage'); also 'Gardiner exhorteth M. Hooper to returne to the Popes church', (Gardiner says 'Catholique Church' in the text), 'Queene Mary will shew no mercy but to the Popes friendes' (the text says, 'the Queene would shew no mercy to the Popes enemies'). A repetition of the term 'care' in two glosses ('The diligent care of B. Hooper in his Dioces'; 'The care of M. Hooper in instructing his family') show how the marginalia could be used to make a point with economy and subtlety; in this that there was a profound analogy between Hooper's godly governance of his home and his concern for his pastoral flock, a point which made the catholic opposition to marriage appear all the more destructive and misguided. There are also some glosses which are badly positioned in editions after 1570.

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Marginalia1555. Febr. 9. MarginaliaThe story, lyfe, and Martyrdome of M. Iohn Hooper, Martyr.IOhn Hooper student and graduate in the Vniuersitye of Oxford, after the study of other sciences, wherein he had aboundantly profited and proceded, thorough Gods secrete vocation was styrred wyth a feruent desire to the loue and knowledge of the scriptures. In the reading and searching whereof, as their lacked in him no diligence, ioyned with earnest prayer: so neither wanted vnto him the grace of the holy Ghost to satisfie his desire, and to open vnto hym the light of true diuinity. Thus M. Hooper growing more and more by Gods grace, in ripenes of spirituall vnderstanding, and shewing withall some sparckels of his feruent spirite, being then about the begynning of the. vj. Articles, in the time of king Henry. viij. fell eftsones in to displeasure and hatred of certayne Rabbines 
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Foxe is using rabbis as a prejorative term for catholic scholars. It suggests, at least to sixteenth-century Christians, a blind adherance to law and tradition, combined with an emnity to the gospel.

in Oxford, who by and by began to styrre coles against him, whereby, and especially by the procurement of D. Smith, he was compelled to voyde the Vniuersity,  
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This is extremely unlikely. Hooper apparently left Oxford in 1519 and entered the Cistercian monastery at Cleve, Somerset. One of the commissioners in charge of suppressing Cleve was Sir Thomas Arundel, who visited the house in 1537. David Newcombe suggests that this was when Hooper entered Arundel's service. Newcombe also points out that Hooper was rector of Lidington, Wiltshire, from 1537 to 1550, a living which was in Arundel's gift. (Newcombe, pp. 12-18). Richard Rex has suggested that Hooper was a friar (Rex, p. 47); in the weight of Newcombe's evdence this seems lesslikely, but it still involves Hooper having left Oxford well before Richard Smith's heyday there.

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and so remouing from thence, was retained in the house of Syr Thomas Arundell, and ther was hys Steward, till the time that Syr Tho. Arundell hauing intelligence of his opinions and religion, which hee in no case did fauour, and yet exceedingly fauoring the person and conditions of the man, found the meanes to send him in a message to þe Bishop of Winchester, MarginaliaMaister Hooper sent to the Byshop of Winchest. writing his letter priuely to the Bishop, by conference of learning to do some good vpon him, but in any case requiring him to send home his seruaunt to him agayne.

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Winchester after long conference with M. Hoper iiij. or v. dayes together, when he at length perceaued that neither he could do that good, which he thought, to him, nor that he would take any good at his hand, accordyng to M. Arundels request, he sent home his seruaunt agayne, right well cōmendyng his learnyng and wytte, but yet bearyng in his brest a grudgyng stomacke agaynst M. Hoper still.

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It folowed not long after this (as malice is alwayes workyng mischief) that intelligēce was giuē to M. Hoper to prouide for him selfe, for daunger that was wor-

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