Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 45. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 46. John Aleworth 47. Martyrdom of James Abbes 48. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 49. Richard Hooke 50. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 51. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 52. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 53. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 54. Martyrdom of William Haile 55. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 56. William Andrew 57. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 58. Samuel's Letters 59. William Allen 60. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 61. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 62. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 63. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 64. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 65. Cornelius Bungey 66. John and William Glover 67. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 68. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 69. Ridley's Letters 70. Life of Hugh Latimer 71. Latimer's Letters 72. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed73. More Letters of Ridley 74. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 75. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 76. William Wiseman 77. James Gore 78. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 79. Philpot's Letters 80. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 81. Letters of Thomas Wittle 82. Life of Bartlett Green 83. Letters of Bartlett Green 84. Thomas Browne 85. John Tudson 86. John Went 87. Isobel Foster 88. Joan Lashford 89. Five Canterbury Martyrs 90. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 91. Letters of Cranmer 92. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 93. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 94. William Tyms, et al 95. Letters of Tyms 96. The Norfolk Supplication 97. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 98. John Hullier 99. Hullier's Letters 100. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 101. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 102. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 103. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 104. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 105. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 106. Gregory Crow 107. William Slech 108. Avington Read, et al 109. Wood and Miles 110. Adherall and Clement 111. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 112. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow113. Persecution in Lichfield 114. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 115. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 116. Examinations of John Fortune117. John Careless 118. Letters of John Careless 119. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 120. Agnes Wardall 121. Peter Moone and his wife 122. Guernsey Martyrdoms 123. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 124. Martyrdom of Thomas More125. Examination of John Jackson126. Examination of John Newman 127. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 128. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 129. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 130. John Horne and a woman 131. William Dangerfield 132. Northampton Shoemaker 133. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 134. More Persecution at Lichfield
Critical Apparatus for this Page
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1732 [1693]

Queene Mary. The Actes and history of D. Rouland Taylour, Martyr.

Marginalia1555. February.both godly and learned: they be receiued of our Maiestrate. Ten of them dwel together, the reast remain here and there with good men. Amongest the other Maister MarginaliaM. Tho. Leuer.Thomas Leuer is deare vnto me and familiar. If there bee any thing wherein I may doe any pleasure to your wife and children, they shall haue me wholy at cōmaundement: whereof I will write also to youe wyfe, for I vnderstand she abideth at Franckford. Be strong and mery in Christ, wayting for his deliueraunce, when & in what sort it shall seeme good vnto him. The Lord Iesus shew pity vpō the Realme of England, and illuminate the same with his holy spirite to the glory of hys name, and the saluation of soules. The Lord Iesus preserue and delyuer you from all euyll, with all them that call vpon his name. Farewell, and farewell eternally. The. 10. of October. 1554. From Zurich.

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You know the hand. H. B.

The history of Doctour Rowland Taylour, which suffered for the truth of Gods word, vnder the tyranny of the Romaine byshop 1555. the. 9. day of February. 
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Rowland Taylor's Life and Martyrdom

Foxe did not really have an account of Rowland Taylor in the Rerum; he had a collection of a documents: Taylor's account of his examination on 22 January 1555(Rerum, pp. 418- 20); Taylor's letter defending his beliefs on clerical marriage and the eucharist (Rerum, pp. 420-22) and Taylor's last will and testament (Rerum, pp. 422-23). Grindal's team had managed to collect some important writings by Tayor but almost no information about him.

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Foxe remedied this in his first edition, largely through the extensive use of oral sources. The account of Taylor's parish of Hadleigh, the martyr's background and behaviour as pastor of Hadleigh, Taylor's quarrel with catholic residents of the town, his refusal to flee, his arrest and journey to London, his examinations by Stephen Gardiner and Edmund Bonner, his imprisonment and his deprivation were all added to the 1563 edition. After reprinting the Rerum documents, Foxe then also added accounts of Taylor's condemnation and degradation, his encounter with his family in prison and the very detailed accounts of his final journey to Hadleigh and his execution were also added to 1563.

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The account of Taylor's initial examination by Gardiner and his examination by Bonner as well as the descriptions of his deprivation and degradation are almost certainly based on Taylor's account of these events, possibly transmitted orally or more probably in letters, sent to friends or family. The account of Taylor's condemnation is taken from a copy of the official record of this, which survives in Foxe's papers (BL, Harley 421, fos. 41v-42r). All of the other material added in this edition is drawn from oral sources.

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In the second edition, Foxe's most important addition was a letter from Taylor to his wife, which was reprinted from the Letters of the Martyrs (pp. 641-45). Denunciations of individuals - Robert Bracher, Sir John Shelton and John King - are also added to 1570. Apart from some minor rewriting, especially involving John King's activities, the narrative of Taylor's martyrdom remained unchanged in the 1576 and 1583 editions.

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Rowland Taylor

A distinctive feature of this section is the relatively large number of glosses in the 1563 edition. In many cases these glosses were expanded in later editions. Several glosses, including some of those present in all editions at the start of the section, emphasise Taylor's pastoral effectiveness and the misery of the people of Hadley at his death ('Hadly towne commended'; 'D. Taylour desirous to see his flocke'; 'The carefull zeale of Doctor Taylour for Hadley'). Other glosses dwell on the pernicious influence of Taylor's successor and Taylor's concern about this ('Syr Robert Brachers cōming to Hadley'; 'A popishe Sermon of Syr Robert Bracher'; 'This packet was Syr Robert Bracher preaching popish doctrine at Hadley'; 'The Popes packeware: Iustification by workes. Corporall presence, Praying for soules, Auricular confession'). Alongside his pastoral concern, the other main feature of the presentation of Taylor in the margins is his boldness, and the robustness verging on aggression of his responses to those questioning and maltreating him ('The notable answere of Doctor Taylour to the bishop of Winchester'; 'D. Taylours prayer agaynst the pope and his detestable enormities'; 'D. Taylour prayeth a gayne agaynst the Pope and his detestable enormities'). A gloss in the 1570 edition, and later dropped, draws the reader's attention to Bonner's fear of physical reprisal at striking Taylor as part of the degradation ceremony ('Cowardly Boner durst not strike according to his Canon'). Taylor's confutation of his enemies could take the form of praying against the pope and also mocking his tormentors by joking about recantation ('D. Taylor maketh a iest of death, with a meete answere for such Doctours and Councellours'; 'D. Taylor maketh a iest of death').

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As is common in the marginal glosses concerned with the martyrs towards the end of their lives, Taylor's joy at his impending death is mentioned more than once ('D. Taylour is ioyfull in his way'; 'D. Taylour desirous to see his flocke'). His abilities in civil law are advertised in the glosses (e.g. 'D. Taylour learned in diuinitie, and also in the ciuill lawe'), and this is perhaps because of the extensive discussion of marriage. The presentation of the popish enemy follows familiar lines. Gardiner is subjected to considerable criticism, much of it concerned with his past allegiances and the contrast with his position under Mary ('The notable answere of Doctor Taylour to the bishop of Winchester'; 'Gardiners booke de vera obedientia'); he is also attacked for 'rayling', a favourite charge used by Foxe to suggest both defeat in argument and lack of self-control ('Gardiner agayne rayling'). Foxe also uses the glosses to characterise ironically the use of force by the enemies of Taylor as 'argument', which is another way of demonstrating the unreasonable nature of popery ('The Papistes argumentes wherewith they maintaine their doctrine'; 'Winchesters strong argument cary him to prison'). Other attacks on popery are concerned with cavilling, obsequiousness, the analogy between popery and darkness and errors in debate: ('Secretary Bourne cauilleth a-agaynst the religion set forth in K. Edwardes dayes'; 'A testimony of the book of seruice set out in K, Edwardes dayes'; 'Winchester belyeth the Councell'; 'Tonstall helpeth Winchester at neede'; 'Gardyner denyeth his owne Canonist and calleth it a patched lawe'; 'Christs aduersaryes worke all by darkenes'). In a gloss in all editions ('Marke how vnwillingly the people were to receiue the papacy agayne'), Foxe presents opposition to the mass as reluctance to receive the papacy again, thus demonstrating the link between ceremonial and political allegiance; in the gloss ' The Masse the Popes youngest daughter', a reference to antichrist in the text is glossed as the pope in the margin. In a gloss with resonances for Elizabethan vestarian disputes, Foxe recalls the sending of a round cap to Taylor by Coverdale ('This cap was a roūd cap sent by M Couerdale to D. Taylor by his wyfe'). In a gloss concerned with the 'Queenes proceedings' and the nature of Satan, Foxe seems to have problems deciding how to characterise and criticise the political role of the queen in the persecutions. In this gloss and the next ('D. Taylor here playeth a right Elias. 3. Reg. 18'), Foxe steers the reader's thoughts away from political realities/authority to consider a higher law, just as the martyrs exemplify a state of being which transcends the worldly.

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Many glosses are better placed in 1563 and 1570 than in 1576 and 1583 in this section. The gloss 'Gardiners booke de vera obedientia' would seem to suggest that the 1583 edition was composed with reference to the 1570 edition as well as the 1576. In line with usual practice, the glosses 'Of this memoriall cloke read before in D. Ridleys disputations' [1583]; 'Of this memoriall cloke read before in D. Ridleyes disputations pag. 1377' [1576]; 'Of this memoriall cloke, read before in D. Ridleys disputacions pag. 1615' [1570] contain references to other places in the text which are accurate in 1570 and 1576 and not specific in 1583. 'D. Taylour confesseth the truth, and confirmeth the same wyth hys bloud' [1570]; 'An other Apophthegma of Doctour Taylour' [1576] shows a correction of the gloss of 1570 in 1576. A mistaken name in 1563 is corrected in later editions ('Gardiner. Clopton. Boner. Capon. Tunstall' [1563]; 'Gardiner. Hopton. Boner. Capon. Tonstall').

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MarginaliaHadley town commended. MarginaliaThomas Bilney.THe towne of Hadley was one of the fyrst that receiued the woord of God in all England at the preaching of Maister Thomas Bilney: by whose industry the Gospell of Christ had such gracious successe, and tooke such roote there, that a great number of that parish became exceding well learned in the holy scriptures, as wel womē as men: so that a man myght haue found among them many that had often read the whole Bible thorow, and that could haue sayd a great part of S. Paules Epistles by hart, and very well and readely, haue geuen a godly learned sentence in any matter of controuersie. Their children and seruauntes were also brought vp and trayned so diligently in the right knowledge of Gods word, that the whole towne seemed rather an Vniuersitie of the learned, then a towne of Clothmakyng, or laboryng people: and that most is to be commended, they were for the more part faithful folowers of Gods word in their liuyng. 
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Recently John Craig has qualified Foxe's rosy picture of Hadleigh as a model godly town. He has demonstrated that the progress of protestantism in Hadleigh was slow and that bitter divisions existed in the town between Taylor's followers and religious conservatives (Craig, pp. 169-75). Upon a careful reading of Foxe's narrative these divisions become apparent.

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In this towne was Doct. Rouland Taylour Doctour in both the Ciuill and Canon lawes, MarginaliaDoctour Taylour, a Doctour in both lawes, and a diuine. and a right perfect Diuine, parson. Who at his first entryng into his benefice, did not, as the common sort of beneficed men do, let out his benefice to a Farmer, that should gather vp the profites, and set in an ignoraunt vnlearned Priest to serue the Cure, and so they may haue the fleece, litle or nothing care for feeding the flocke: but contrarily he forsoke the Archbyshop of Canterbury  

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The phrase 'of blessed memory' appears here in the 1563 edition. Its removal from subsequent editions may be an indication that Foxe's opinion of Cranmer was more negative in later editions.

MarginaliaThomas Cranmer Archb. of Canterb.Thomas Cranmer, with whō he before was in household, 
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Taylor was Cranmer's domestic chaplain.

and made his personall abode and dwellyng in Hadley  
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Actually Taylor was entrusted with a number of offices and assignments which necessitated his absence from Hadleigh. From at least 1552 he farmed out the rectory to two Hadleigh residents (Craig, pp. 164-65).

among the people committed to his charge. Where he, as a good Shepheard, MarginaliaA good shepheard and his cōditions.abidyng and dwellyng among his sheepe, gaue him selfe wholy to the study of holy Scriptures, most faythfully endeuoryng him selfe to fulfill that charge, which the Lord gaue vnto Peter, saying: MarginaliaIohn. 2.Peter louest thou me? Feede my Lambes, Feede my sheepe, Feede my sheepe. MarginaliaFede wyth worde.This loue of Christ so wrought in him, that no Sōday nor holy day passed, nor other tyme when he might get the people together, but he preached to them the word of God, the doctrine of their saluation.

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MarginaliaFede with example.Not onely was his word a preachyng vnto thē: but all his life and conuersation was an example of vnfayned Christian lyfe, and true holynes. He was voyde of all pride, humble and meeke, as any child: so that none were so poore, but they might boldly, as vnto their father, resort vnto him. Neyther was hys lowlynes childysh or fearefull: but as occasion, time, and place required, he would be stout in rebuking the sinfull, and euyll doers: so that none was so rich, but he would tell hym playnly his fault, with such earnest and graue rebukes, as became a good Curate and Pastor. 

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Craig has pointed out that Taylor's denunciations of the wealthy residents of Hadleigh created a distance between himself and the town (Craig, pp. 168-69).

He was a man very mild, voyde of all rancour, grudge, or euyll

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wyll, ready to do good to all men, readily forgeuing hys enemies, and neuer sought to doo euyll to any.

MarginaliaFede wyth almes.To the poore that were blynde, lame, sicke, bedred, or that had many children, he was a very father, a carefull patrone, and diligent prouider: in so much that he caused the Parishoners to make a generall prouision for them: and he him selfe (beside the continual reliefe that they alway founde at hys house) gaue an honest portion yearely, to the common almes boxe. MarginaliaD. Taylours wife and his children.Hys wyfe also was an honest, discrete and sober matorne, and his children well nourtred, brought vp in the feare of God and good learning.

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To conclude, he was a right and liuely image or pattern of all those vertuous qualities described by Saint Paule in a true Bishop, a good salt of the earth sauourly byting the corrupt maners of euyll men, a lyght in Gods house set vpon a Candlesticke for all good men to imitate and follow.

Thus continued this good Shepheard among hys flocke, gouernyng and leadyng them thorow this wildernes of the wicked world, al the dayes of the most innocent and holy kyng of blessed memory, Edward the vj. But after it pleased God to take kyng Edward frō this vale of misery vnto his most blessed rest, the Papistes, MarginaliaThe Papistes and their naturall workes.who euer sembled and dissembled, both with kyng Henry the eight and kyng Edward his sonne, now seyng the tyme conuenient for their purpose, vttered their false hypocrisie, openly refusing all good reformation made by the sayd two most godly kynges, 

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The phrase '(worthye therfore [of] eternall and blessed memory)' occurs here in 1563 but was not reprinted in the later editions. The deletion of this phrasewas probably due to Foxe's increasingly critical attitude to Henry VIII. (On Foxe'scriticism of Henry VIII in the 1570 edition, see Freeman and Wall, pp. 1186-89).

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and cōtrary to that they had all these two kynges dayes preached, taught, written, and sworne, they violently ouerthrew the true doctrine of the Gospell, and persecuted with sword and fire, all those that would not agree to receiue agayne the Romaine Byshop as supreme head of the vniuersall Church, and allow all the errors, superstitiōs, and idolatries, that before by Gods word were disproued and iustly condemned, as though now they were good doctrine, vertuous, and true Religion.

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In the begynnyng of this rage of Antichrist, a certaine Petigentilman after the sorte of a Lawyer, called MarginaliaFoster a lawyer, and Iohn Clerke of Hadley, two notorious Papistes.Foster, beyng Steward and keeper of Courtes, a man of no great skill, but a bitter persecutour in those dayes, with one Iohn Clerke of Hadley, which Clerke had euer bene a secrete fauourer of all Romishe Idolatrie, conspired with the sayd Clerke to bring in the Pope and his maumentrie 

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Idolatry (OED).

againe into Hadley Church. For as yet Doct. Taylour, as a good shepeheard, had retayned and kept in his Church, the godly Churchseruice and reformation made by kyng Edward, and most faythfully and earnestly preached agaynst the Popishe corruptions, which had infected the whole Countrey round about.

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Therfore the aforesayd Foster and Clerke hyred one MarginaliaIohn Auerth a right popish priest.Iohn Auerth, Person of Aldam, a very money Mammonist, 

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A worshipper of money (see Luke 16:11 and 13-14).

a blind leader of the blynd, a Popish Idolatour, and an open Aduouterer  
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Adulterer (OED).

and whoremonger, a very fitte Minister for their purpose, to come to Hadley and there to geue the onset to begyn agayne the Popishe Masse. To this purpose they builded vp with all hast possible the Altar, entendyng to bryng in their Masse agayne, about the Palme Monday. But this their deuise tooke none effect: MarginaliaMarke how vnwillingly the people were to receaue the papacy agayne.for in the night the Altar was beaten downe. Wherfore they built it vp agayne the second tyme, and layd diligēt watch, lest any should agayne breake it downe. On the day folowyng came Foster and Iohn Clerke, bryngyng with them their Popish Sacrificer, who brought with him al his implementes and garmentes, to play his Popish Pageaunt, whom they and their men garded with swordes and bucklers lest any man should disturbe hym in his Missall Sacrifice.

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When Doct. Taylour, who ( MarginaliaD. Taylours custome to study.accordyng to his custome) sat at his booke studying the word of God, heard the bels ryng, he arose and went into the Church, supposing something had bene there to be done, according

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