Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 45. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 46. John Aleworth 47. Martyrdom of James Abbes 48. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 49. Richard Hooke 50. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 51. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 52. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 53. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 54. Martyrdom of William Haile 55. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 56. William Andrew 57. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 58. Samuel's Letters 59. William Allen 60. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 61. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 62. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 63. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 64. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 65. Cornelius Bungey 66. John and William Glover 67. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 68. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 69. Ridley's Letters 70. Life of Hugh Latimer 71. Latimer's Letters 72. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed73. More Letters of Ridley 74. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 75. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 76. William Wiseman 77. James Gore 78. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 79. Philpot's Letters 80. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 81. Letters of Thomas Wittle 82. Life of Bartlett Green 83. Letters of Bartlett Green 84. Thomas Browne 85. John Tudson 86. John Went 87. Isobel Foster 88. Joan Lashford 89. Five Canterbury Martyrs 90. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 91. Letters of Cranmer 92. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 93. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 94. William Tyms, et al 95. Letters of Tyms 96. The Norfolk Supplication 97. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 98. John Hullier 99. Hullier's Letters 100. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 101. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 102. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 103. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 104. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 105. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 106. Gregory Crow 107. William Slech 108. Avington Read, et al 109. Wood and Miles 110. Adherall and Clement 111. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 112. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow113. Persecution in Lichfield 114. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 115. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 116. Examinations of John Fortune117. John Careless 118. Letters of John Careless 119. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 120. Agnes Wardall 121. Peter Moone and his wife 122. Guernsey Martyrdoms 123. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 124. Martyrdom of Thomas More125. Examination of John Jackson126. Examination of John Newman 127. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 128. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 129. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 130. John Horne and a woman 131. William Dangerfield 132. Northampton Shoemaker 133. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 134. More Persecution at Lichfield
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1788 [1749]

Queene Mary. The Martyrdome of William Flower.

Marginalia1555. Aprill.nothing at all to say. For I haue already sayd vnto you all that I haue to say: and that I haue sayd, I will not go from, and therfore do what ye will. &c.

Which when he had spoken, the Byshop proceded to the sentence, MarginaliaSentence of condemnation and degradatiō pronounced agaynst William Flower.condemnyng and excommunicating him for an hereticke, and after pronounced him also to bee disgraded, and so committed hym to the secular power. Vpon the. xxiiij. day of the foresaid moneth of Aprill, which was S. Markes euen, he was brought to the place of martyrdome, which was in S. Margarets churchyard at Westminster where the fact was committed, and there cōming to the stake where he should be burned, first he maketh hys prayer to almighty God with a confession of hys Christian fayth in maner as followeth.

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¶ The prayer and confession of William Flower.

MarginaliaFlowers Prayer.OH eternall God, most mightye and mercyfull father, who hast sent downe thy Sonne vpon the earth, to saue me and all mankinde: who ascended vp into heauen againe,

and left hys bloud here vpon the earth behinde him for the redemption of our sinnes, haue mercy vpon me, haue mercy vpō me, for thy deare sonne our Sauiour Iesus Christes sake, in whom I confesse onely to be al saluation and iustification, and that there is none other meane, nor way, nor holynes, in which or by which any mā can be saued in this world. This is my faith, which I besech all men here to beare witnes of. Then he sayd the Lordes prayer, and so made an end.

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MarginaliaTalke betwen W. Flower and Maister Cholmley.Then Maister Cholmley came to hym, willing him to recant hys heresie, whereby he might doe good to the people, or els he would be damned.

Flower aunswered as followeth. Syr, I beseech you for Gods sake, be contented: for that I haue said, I haue sayd, and I haue bene of this fayth from the beginning: and I trust to the liuing God he wyll geue me hys holy spirite to continue to the end. Then hee desired all the world to forgue him, whom he had offended, as he forgaue all the world.

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MarginaliaThe Martyrdome of W. Flower, who suffred at Westminster in Saint Margarets churchyeard. An. 1555. Aprill 24. vpon Saint Markes euen.The burnyng of William Flower at Westminster, the. 24. of Aprill. an. 1555.

woodcut [View a larger version]

Commentary on the Woodcuts  *  Close
The illustration of William Flower, among those that show the moment just before the pyre was lit, portrays the horrific detail of the martyr praying after his right hand, impaled on a pike, was cut off as he stood at the stake. The witnesses present who 'credibly informed' the martyrologist about this are not shown. The circle standing round the stake (with some indication of the density of the urban setting) seems to consist only of ecclesiastical and secular officials - apart from two heads looking out of a window in the distance. The banderole containing Flower's last words retained its framing line intact until 1583, when the text (still in the roman lettering it had in all four editions) was reset.

This done, first his right hand being held vp against the stake, was stroocken of, hys left hand being stayed behynde hym. At the which strikyng of hys hand, certayne that were present beholders of the matter, and purposely obseruing the same, credibly enfourmed vs, that he in no part of his body did once shrincke at þe striking thereof, but once a litle hee sturred his shoulders. 

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Once again, Foxe is concerned to emphasize the stoicism of his martyrs, even when they were undergoing excruciating physical pain. This is also the reason for Foxe's detailed, graphic, even disgusting, account of Flower's death. On the polemical importance of the stoicism of the martyrs see Collinson (1983) and Freeman (1997).

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And thus fire was set vnto hym, who burning therin, cryed with a lowd voyce: Oh the Sonne of God haue mercy vpon me, Oh the Sonne of God receaue my soule, 

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Curiously Foxe gives a different version of these words in the 1563 edition than he does in later editions. Presumably he altered these words but why he did so remains unclear.

three tymes, and so hys speech being taken from hym, he spake no more, liftyng vp notwithstanding hys stump wyth hys other arme, as long as he could.

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And thus endured thys constant wytnes and faithfull seruaunt of God, the extremitye of the fyre, beyng therein cruelly handled by reason that to his burning lytle wood was brought, so that for lacke of fagots there not sufficient to burne hym, they were fayne to strike hym down into the fyre. Where he lying along (which was doulfull to beholde) vpon the ground, hys neather

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part was consumed in the fire, whilest hys vpper part was cleane without the fyre, hys toung in all mens sight still mouing in hys mouth. 

Commentary  *  Close

Once again, Foxe is concerned to emphasize the stoicism of his martyrs, even when they were undergoing excruciating physical pain. This is also the reason for Foxe's detailed, graphic, even disgusting, account of Flower's death. On the polemical importance of the stoicism of the martyrs see Collinson (1983) and Freeman (1997).

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The burnyng & Martyrdome of Iohn Cardmaker and Iohn Warne vpholster, which suffered both together in Smithfield. Anno. 1555. May. 30. 
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The Martyrdoms of Cardmaker and Warne

The executions of Cardmaker and Warne mark a point at which the Marian persecution began to go wrong in two ways. In the case of Cardmaker, the effort to secure a recantation from a prominent evangelical was initially succesful, only to backfire and produce a martyr instead. In the case of Warne, the persecution was beginning to turn away from prominent clerics to ordinary layfolk, although admittedly in Warne's case, layfolk with long-standing heretical views which were outspokenly expressed. Foxe does not say exactly what brought Warne to the attention of the authorities in Mary's reign, although the articles brought against Warne suggest he publicly derided the Marian religious reforms.

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In the Rerum, Foxe printed an account of Cardmaker's arrest with William Barlow, of Barlow's refusing to recant, thanks to the persausive influence of Laurence Saunders, Cardmaker's debates in prison with Thomas Martin and of Cardmaker's execution along with John Warne, a citizen of London (Rerum, pp. 442-43). This material was reprinted, with only minor changes, in all editions of the Acts and Monuments. It was derived from a narrative account of these events which was probably sent from a protestant in London to a co-religionist in exile and which was obtained by Grindal or one of his associates. This narrative - or more accurately, a copy of it - survives among Foxe's papers as BL, Harley 425, fol. 68r-v. There was also a passage in the Rerum (p. 443), stating that Warne had made a confession of faith which commented on the Apostle's Creed. Foxe probably had the document at this time, but he did not print it.

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In the 1563 edition, Foxe added the articles put to Cardmaker and Warne, along with their answers as well as an account of Bishop Bonner's examination of Warne. All of these were obtained from Bonner's records. Foxe also printed the confession of faith to which he had alluded in the Rerum.

In the second edition, Foxe added details of Cardmaker's background - that the martyr had been an Observant Franciscan and that he was a reader in St Paul's - undoubtedly obtained from oral sources. This may well have included the unnamed friend to whom Cardmaker sent a letter, which was printed for the first time in 1570. Foxe also added a note relating a final attempt, by Thomas Beard, to secure a recantation from Cardmaker. Cardmaker probably sent this account to a friend, possibly the same one to whom he had sent the letter.

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There were no changes made to the narrative of Cardmaker and Warne in the third or fourth editions of the Acts and Monuments.

 

Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
Cardmaker and Warne

Most of the glosses in this section are the usual narrative pointers. There are glosses mocking the articles alleged against the martyrs ('The beliefe of the Popes Catholicke church'; 'To speake naturally of the naturall body of Christ, these two canot stād together at one tyme, vnles we graunt Christ to haue 2. bodyes'; 'That Christ neuer willed, neyther can the Scriptures beare it'; 'Heresye for laughing at a Spaniell shorne on the head'). A gloss which records that Warne was pardoned under Henry VIII makes the useful (implicit) point that the religious policy of his daughter was even more conservative. As ever, constancy is the signature of the martyrs as portrayed in the glosses ('Iohn Warne constant agaynst the Bishops persuasions'; 'Iohn Cardmaker standeth constantly to the fier'; 'The reioycing of the people at Cardmakers constancye'), and there is also a gloss recording the (as it emerged, groundless) fears of the people about Cardmaker's constancy ('The people afrayd at Cardmakers recanting').

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MarginaliaIoh. Cardmaker and Iohn Warne, Martyrs.VPon the 30. day of May suffred together in Smithfield Iohn Cardmaker otherwise called Taylour, Prebēdarie of þe church of Welles: and Ioh. Warne vpholster of the Parish of S. Iohn in Walbroke. Of whom it remaineth now particularly to entreat, begynnyng first with M. Cardmaker, who first was an obseruaunt Frier 
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I.e., Cardmaker was an Observant friar. These were members of the Franciscan order who claimed to be observing the original, and more rigorous, rules laid down by St Francis of Assisi, the order's founder.

before the dissolution of the Abbayes: then after was a maryed Minister, and in kyng Edwardes tyme appoynted to be MarginaliaMaister Cardmaker reader in Paules.reader in Paules. Where the Papistes were so much agreeued with him for his do-

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