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198 [198]

King Ethelbald. Danes King Ethelbald. Danes.

MarginaliaPope Hadrian9 2
Ioannes, 9
Marcinus 2
Hadrianus. 3
Stephan9 5
After this pope Nicolas succeded Hadrianus. ij. Ioannes ix. Marcinus. ij. After these came Hadrian the iij. and Stephen the v. By this Hadriā it was first decreed, that no Emperour after that tyme shuld intermedle or haue any thing to doo, in the election of the pope. And thus began Themperours first to decay, and papacie to swell and ryse aloft. And thus much concernyng Romish matters for this tyme.

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The Danish Invasions to Alfred the Great

This section of Foxe's narrative was added in the 1570 edition, and then not subsequently altered in succeeding editions. It was a compendium from various sources, piecing together the history of the early invasions of the Danes from 852 onwards, through the reigns of the Saxon kings Ethelbald, Ethelbright and Ethelred I, to that of King Alfred. Foxe's brief excursion into the narrative of the early Danish invasions is evident from the lengthy quotation from a 'certain old written story, which hath no name', which the marginal gloss cites as 'ex vetusto exemplo histoiae Carianae W.C. 1', and which Foxe almost certainly gleaned from the Flores Historiarum, which had recently been published under the auspices of Matthew Parker (Elegans, illustris et facilis rerum, præsertim Britannicarum et aliarum obiter, notatu dignarum, a mundi exordio ad annum Domini, 1307 narratio, quam Matthæus Westmonasteriensis ... Flores Historiarum scripsit, [London, 1567]) - see H. R. Luard, ed. Matthew Paris. Flores Historiarum 3 vols (London: Rolls Series, 1890), 1, pp. 416-7. Foxe added a gloss of his own to the passage in order to make the point clear, emphasizing that the Danish invasions were God's vengeance for the 'wickedness' of the Britons in originally resisting Christianity, 'wherefore Gods just recompense falling vpon them, from that time neuer suffered them to be quiet from foreign enemies, till the commyng of William the Normand conqueror'. Thereafter, Foxe's account of Danish barbarity come 'ex histories Iornalens', i.e. from the chronicle attributed to John Brompton, abbot of Jervaulx (J. Brompton, 'Chronicon Johannis Brompton Abbatis Jornalensis.' In Historiæ Anglicanæ Scriptores X. [....], ed. by Roger Twysden [London, 1652], pp. 802-4. The account of the reign of Kinh Ethelbald comes largely from Fabian's Chronicle (R. Fabyan, The Chronicle of Fabian [London, 1559], book 6, chapters 169-70). Foxe elaborated somewhat on the persecution and martyrdom of St Edmund, 'underking' of the East Angles, an avatar of things to come in his narrative. Here, besides Fabian (lib. 6, cap. 169) he also used Roger of Howden (W. Stubbs, ed. Chronica magistri Rogeri de Houdene 2 vols, Rolls Series [London, 1868], 1, p. 39), John Brompton (op.cit., p. 805) and William of Malmesbury (R. A. B. Mynors, ed. William of Malmesbury. Gesta Regum Anglorum Vol. 1 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998), lib. 2, cap. 112).

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Matthew Phillpott and Mark Greengrass
University of Sheffield

Then to returne where we left, touchyng the story of kyng Ethelwolf. About the latter end of his reygne, the Danes, which before had inuaded the realme, in the tyme of kyng Egbert, as is aboue declared: nowe made there reentre agayne, with 33. shyppes arriuyng about Hamshire: through the barbarous tyrānie of whō much bloudshed and murther happened here emong English men, in Dorcetshyre, about Pourtehmouth in Kent, in Eastāgle, in Lindesey, at Rochester, about London, and in Weastsexe, where Ethelwolfe the kyng was ouercoome: besides diuers other vnder kyngs and dukes, whō the Danes daily approching, in great multitudes in diuers victories had put to flyghte. At length, kyng Ethelwolfe, with hys sonne Ethelbaldus, warryng agaynste them in Southrey at Oclea, draue them to the sea: where they houeryng a space, after a while brast in agayne with horrible rage & crueltie, as hereafter (Christ willing) shalbe declared so much as to our purpose shall serue: professyng in this historie to write not of matters externe and politike, but onely pertaining to the church. MarginaliaEx vetusto exēplo historiæ Carianæ. W C. 1.The cause of this great affliction sent of God vnto this realme thus I found expressed and collected in a certeine olde writen story, which hath no name: the wordes of whiche writer, for the same cause as he thought to recite thē, writing as he saith (ad Cautelam futurorū) I thought also for þe same here not to be omitted, albeit in al partes of his commendation I do not fully with hym accorde. The wordes of the writer be these.

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MarginaliaThe cause of gods wrath, wherby the realme of England was scourged by the Danes.In Anglorum quidem ecclesia primitiua, religio clarissime resplendit: ita vt Reges et reginæ, principes ac duces, cōsules, et Barones, &c. In english thus:

In þe primitiue church saith he of þe Englishmē, religion did most clerely shyne, in so much þt kinges, quenes, princes and dukes, consuls, and barons, and rulers of churches incensed with desire of the kingdome of heauē: laboryng and striuing emong themselues, to enter into monkerye, into voluntarie exile and solitarye life: forsoke al, & folowed the Lorde. Where in processe of time, all vertue so much decayd emong them, that in fraude & trechery none semed like vnto them: Neither was to thē any thyng odious or hateful but pietie & iustice: Neither any thing in price and honor, but ciuill warre, and shedyng of innocent bloud. Wherfore almighty God sent vpon them pagane & cruel natiōs like swarmes of bees, which neither spared wemē, nor childrē as Danes: Norwagians, Gothes, Sueuians, Vandals, and Fresians. Who from the begynnyng of the reigne of kyng Ethelwolfe till the comming of the Normandes, by the space nere of CC. xxx. yeares, destroyed this sinnefull land, frō the one side of þe sea, to þe other: from mā also to beast, for why they inuadyng Englād oftymes of euery side, wēt not about to subdue & possesse it, but onely to spoyle & to destroy it. And if it had chanced thē at any tyme to be ouercome of Englishemen, it auayled nothyng, when as other nauies still with greater power, in other places were ready vpō a sodē & vnwars to approche vpō thē. &c. historia Cariana.

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MarginaliaAn other cause rendred, why England was scourged of the Danes.Thus farre haue ye the words of mine autor, declaring the cause, which prouoked Gods anger: wherunto may be adioyned the wickednes, not onely of thē but of their forefathers also before thē: who falsly breaking þe faith & promise made wt þe Britains, did cruelly murther their nobles: wickedly oppressed their cōmons: impiously persecuted the innocent christiās: iniuriously possessed their land & habitation: chasing the inhabitaunce out ofhuose & countrey: besides þe violent murther of þe monks of Bangor, & diuers foule slaughters against the poore Britaines, which sent for thē to be their helpers. Wherfore, Gods iust recompens falling vpon them, from that time neuer suffered thē to be quiet from forein enemies, till the commyng of Williā the Normād conqueror. &c.

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MarginaliaThe first entryng of the Danes.Moreouer concernyng the outward occasions geuē of the Englishmens partes, mouing the Danes first to inuade the realme, I finde in certaine storyes two, most especially assigned. Thone iniustly geuē and iustly takē. Thother not geuē iustly, & vniustly taken. Of the which two, the first was geuen in Northumberlād, by meanes of Osbryght reigning vnder kyng of Weastsaxons, in the North partes. This Osbright, vpon a time, iorneyng by the way, turned into þe house of one of his nobles called Bruer. MarginaliaEx historia Iornalensi.
Example, what mischiefe commeth by adultery.
Who hauyng at home a wife of great bewtie (he beyng absent abroad) the kyng after his dynner, (allured with the excellencie of her beutie) tooke her to a secret chāber, where he forceablely contrary to her will did rauishe her. Wherupon she beyng great dismayd, and vexed in her mynde, made her mone to her husband returnyng, of this violence and iniury receaued. Bruer consultyng with his frendes, first went to the kyng, resignyng to hys hands all such seruice & possessiōs, which he did hold of him. That done tooke shipping and sayled into Denmarke, where he had great frends: and had his brynging vp before. MarginaliaCodrinus king of Denmarke.There makyng his mone to Codrinus the kyng, desired his ayd in reuēgyng of the great vilany of Osbright against him and his wife. Codrinus hearyng this, and glad to haue some iust quarel to enter that land: leuied an army with all spede: and preparyng all things necessary for the same, sendeth forth MarginaliaInguar & Hubba captaines of the Danes.Inguar, and Hubba two brethren, his chief captaynes, with an innumerable multitude of Danes into England. Who first ariuyng at Holdernesse there brent vp the coūtrey, and kylled without mercy both men, women and childrē, whom they could lay handes vpon. Then marching toward Yorke, entred there battaile, with the foresayd Osbright, where he with the most part of his army was slayn. And so the Danes entred the possession of þe city of York. MarginaliaAn other cause of the cōmyng of the Danes.Some other say (& is by the most part of story writers recorded) that the chief cause of the comming of Inguar and Hubba with the Danes, was to reuenge king Edmūd reignyng vnder the Weastsaxōs ouer the Eastangles in Northfolke & Southfolke: for the murderyng of a certayn Dane beyng father to Inguar and Hubba, which was falsely imputed to kyng Edmund. The story is thus told.

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MarginaliaLothbroke father to Inguar and Hubba.A certaine noble mā of þe Danes, of the kings stocke, called Lothebrocus, father to Inguar & Hubba, entring vpon a time with his Hauke into a certaine schaffe or cockbote alone: by chaūce through tēpest was driuen wt his Hauke to the coaste of Northfolke named Rodham, where he beyng found and deteined was presented vnto the king. The kyng vnderstāding his parentage, & seing his case: enterteined hym in his court accordingly. And euery day more and more perceauyng his actiuities, and great dexteritie in huntyng and haukyng, bare speciall fauour vnto hym. MarginaliaWhat miserable enuy worketh.In so much that the kynges faukner, or master of game, bearyng priuey enuie agaynst hym, secretly as they were hunting together in a woode, dyd murder him, and threw him in a bush. Thus Lothbroke being murdered, within two or three dayes began to be missed in the kynges house: of whō no tydinges could be hard, but onely by a dogge or spaniell of his, which continuyng in þe wood with the corps of his master, at sondry times came and fawned vpon the king: MarginaliaMurther wyl out.so long that at length they folowyng the trayse of the hounde, were brought to the place where Lothebroke lay. Wherupon inquisition made, at length by certain circumstaunces of wordes and other euidēces, it was knowen how and by whom he was murthered, that was, by the kings hū-

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tesman
q.iij.
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