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228 [213]

K. Harold. Hardeknoutus. Alphred. Actes aud lawes of Canutus.

king: which sonne he had by hys wyfe Hardeknoutes daughter that was a Dane. And so this Godwyn went priuely to Southampton, to meete there with the twoo brethren at their landing. And thus it befel, that the messengers that went (sayth myne author) into Normandy, found but onely Alphred the elder brother. For Edward his yonger brother was gone to Hungary, to speake wt his cosin þe outlaw, which was Edward Ironsides sōne.

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MarginaliaAlphred or Alured sōne of king Egelred.When Alfrede had heard these messengers and perceiued their tidings: he thanked God, and in al hast sped him to England, arriuing at Southāpton. There, Godwine the false traytour (hauyng knowledge of hys commyng) welcommed and receaued him with much ioye: pretendyng to leade hym vnto London, where the Barons wayted for him to make him kyng. And so they together passed forth toward Lōdon. But whē they came to Guild down, the traytoure commaunded al his men to slea all that were in Alphredes company, which came with him from Normandye. And after that to take Alphrede, and to lead hym into the ile of Ely, where they should put out bothe his eyes: and so they did. For they slew all the company that were there, to the number of xii. Gentlemen, which came with Alfrede from Normādy: and after that they took Alphrede, and in the isle of Ely they executed their cōmission. That done, they opened his bodye, tooke out his bowels, set a stake into the ground, and fastened an end of his bowels thereunto, & with niedels of yorn they pricked his tender bodye, therby causing hym to goe about the stake, till that all hys bowels were drawen out. And so dyed this innocent Alphred or Alured, being þe right heyre of þe crown: through treason of wicked Godwine. When the Lordes of England heard therof, and howe Alphred, that shoulde haue bene their king, was put to death through the false traitour Godwine, they were wonders wrothe: and sware betewne God and thē, that he should dye a worse death then dyd Edrith which betrayed hys Lorde Edmunde Ironside: & would immediatly haue put hym to death, but that the traytour fled thence into Denmarke: and there held hym. iiij. yeres and more, and lost al his lands in england.

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MarginaliaEx historia ignoti iutoris.An other latine story I haue (bearyng no name) which saith that this cōming in of Alphred and the Normāds: was in the tyme of Harolde Canutus sonne. And howe Godwyne (after he pretended greate amitie to them) sodenly in the night came vpon them at Gylford: And af-after he had tythed the Normandes: sent Alfrede to Harold at London, who sent hym to the isle of Ely and caused his eyes to be put out.

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And thus much of Canutus: and of hys sonnes, Harold and Hardecanutus. Besides these. ij. sonnes Canutus had also a daughter named MarginaliaGunilda wife to Henricus the Emperour.Gunilda: maried to Hēricus the Emperour. Of whom some wryte, that she beyng accused to the emperour of spousebrech, and hauing no champion or knight that would fyght for her (after þe maner of that countrey) for triall of her cause: a certain little dwarfe or boy, whom she brought with her oute of England (styrred vp of God) fought in her cause agaynst a mightye bigge Germayne of monstrous greatnes: which selye dwarfe, cutting by chaunce the sinewes of his leg, after stroke hym to the grouud, and so cutte of his head, and saued þe lyfe of the queene, if it be true that Gulielmus and Fabianus reporteth.

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MarginaliaCanutus went to Rome. The hospitall builded at Rome for English pilgrimes. Rome shote confyrmed by Canut9. The cathedral church of Wint. inriched by Canutus. S. Benets in Norfolke builded.Of this Canutus it is storied, that he folowyng much the superstition of Achelnotus Archbishop of Cant. went on pilgrimage to Rome: and there founded an hospitall for english pilgrimes. He gaue the pope pretious giftes, and burdened the land with an yerely tribute called the Romeshote: he shryned the bodye of Berinus, and gaue great landes and ornamentes to the cathedral church of Winchester: he builded S. Benets in Northfolk, which was before an Hermitage. Also S. Edmundes bury, MarginaliaBury abbey turned to monkes.which king Ethelstane before ordeined for a colledge of priestes, he turned to an abbey of monkes of S. Benets order.

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Henricus Archdeacon of Huntyngton lib. 6. maketh mention of this Canutus, as doth also Polydorus lib. 7. That he after his cōmyng from Kome, walkyng vpon a tyme by the port of Southampton. (But as Polydor sayth) and Fabian affirmeth þe same that it was by Thames syde at London. MarginaliaFlatterers and claubackes about princes.When hys flatterers commyng about hym, began to exalt hym with hygh wordes, callyng hym a kyng of all kynges (most mightye) who had vnder his subiection both the people, the land, and also þe sea. Canutus reuoluyng this matter in his mynde (whether for pride of his hart exalted, or whether to trye and refell their flattering wordes) commaunded his chayre of estate to bee broughte to the see syde at what tyme it should begin to flowe. Polydore saith, that no seate was brought, but sittyng vpon his garments beyng folded together vnder him: MarginaliaCanutus chargeth the sea to stād backe, but it would not bee.there charged and commaunded the floudes arising and comming toward his fete, that they should not touche neither him, nor hys clothes. But the water kepyng his ordinary course, came nearer & nearer: Fyrst to hys feete, and so growyng higher began to washe him welfauoredly. Wherwith the kyng abashed and partly also afeared start backe: and lookyng to hys lordes: Loe (saith he) ye call me such a mighty kyng, and yet can I not commaund backe this little water to stay at my worde, but is readye to drowne me. MarginaliaA lessō notable for kings and princes.Wherfore all earthly kings may know, that all their powers bee but vayne: and that none is worthye to haue the name of a kyng, but he alone: which hath all thynges subiect to the power and authoritie of hys worde: MarginaliaGod onely the king of all kings and lord of all lordes.which is the lorde of heauen and earth: the creator aboue of all thynges: the father of our Christ and Lord: who with hym for euer is to be glorified: him let vs worshyp and extol for our king for euer. After this (as histories witnes) he neuer suffred the crowne to come vpon hys head, but went to Winchester (or as some say, to Canterbury, but both those may be true) for his goyng to Canterbury, was to acknowledge þt there was a Lord much higher, & of more power then he himself was, and therwithall to render vp hys crowne for euer. With that, Egelnothus Archbishop of Canterbury: enformed him of the image of the crucifixe before mentioned which dissolued the matter betwene maried priests and the lyfe of Monkes, and dyd manye other miracles mo, beyng then at Winchester. MarginaliaThe kinges crowne put on a roode.Wherwith the king prouoked to go to Winchester to þe roode, there resigned vp hys regal crowne, and made the roode king ouer all the land.

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Here is also to be noted in this Canutus, þt although (as is sayd) he cōdescended in þe beginning of his raigne, vpon kyng Edgares lawes: yet after in proces of time, he set forth peculiar lawes of hys owne. MarginaliaKings of England haue as much right in causes spiritual as temporall.Among which, diuers there be that concerne as well causes ecclesiastical, as also temporal. Wherby it may appeare, þt the gouernment of spirituall matters not to depend then of the bishop of Rome: but to appertayne to the lawfull autoritie of the temporall prince, no lesse then of matters and causes temporal. As for example by these ordinaunces of the foresaid Canutus, may be wel considered as here folow. Pecuniæ sepulturæ iustum est vt aperta terra reddatur. Si aliquod corpus a sua parochia deferatur in aliā, pecunia sepulturæ. &c. In english.

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MarginaliaCertayne lawes of king Canutus for the ordering of matgters ecclesiasticall.It is meete and right that in funerals money be geuen for openyng the earth.

If any body, or corse, be caryed from hys own parish into an other: the money of the buriall shall pertayne by the lawe to hys owne parish church.

All ordinaunces and ceremonies of God, let them be obserued, as nede in all thynges requireth.

Vpon the Sonday, we forbyd all publique fayres or markets, all Synodes or conuenetcles, huntyngs, or any

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