Thematic Divisions in Book 4
1. Lanfranc2. Gregory VII3. William the Conqueror4. William Rufus5. Henry I6. Stephen and Henry II7. Frederick Barbarossa8. Thomas Becket9. Becket's letters10. Becket's martyrdom and miracles11. Events of 1172-7812. Waldensians13. Other incidents of Henry II's reign14. First year of Richard I's reign15. Strife at Canterbury16. Richard I and Third Crusade17. William Longchamp18. King John19. Henry III's early reign20. Innocent III and mendicant orders21. Papal oppression of the English Church22. Albigensian Crusade23. Hubert de Burgh24. Gregory IX25. Schism between Greek and Latin Church26. Papal exactions from England27. Louis IX on Crusade28. Frederick II29. Opponents of Papacy30. Robert Grosseteste31. Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste32. Persecution of Jews33. Papal oppression and Alexander IV34. Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders35. Henry III and the barons36. Battle of Lewes37. Battle of Evesham38. End of baronial war39. Ecclesiastical matters and Edward prince of Wales goes on crusade40. Foreign events in Henry III's reign41. First seven years of Edward I's reign42. War with Scotland43. Philip IV and Boniface VIII44. Events of 1305-745. Cassiodorous's letter46. Pierre de Cugniere47. Death of Edward I48. Piers Gaveston49. The Despensers and the death of Edward II50. John XXIII and Clement VI51. Rebellion in Bury St. Edmunds52. Edward III and Scotland53. Edward III and Philip VI54. Edward III and Archbishop Stratford55. Events of 1341-556. Outbreak of the Hundred Years War57. Anti-papal writers58. Quarrel among mendicants and universities59. Table of the Archbishops of Canterbury
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275 [275]

K. Henry. 2. Fridericus Emper. K. Henry. 2. Fridericus Emper. Actes and Monum. of the Church.

MarginaliaAn. 1157In Englād were sene in the firmamēt, ij. sonnes, or as it is in Chronica chronicarū, in Italy appeared iij. sōnes by þe space of, iij. howres in þe West: and the yeare folowyng appeared iij. moones: wherof the midle moone had a red cros ouertwhart the face. Wherby was tokened (by the iudgemēt of some) the great schisme, that after fel among the cardinals for the electiō of the bishop of Rome: or els rather the busines betwene Fredericus the emperour and the popes: wherof partly now incidently occasion geueth vs to discourse. After þt I haue fyrst writtē of MarginaliaGerhardus.
Dulcinus.
Gerhardus & Dulcinus Nauarensis, who in their tyme according to their gift did earnestly labour and preache against the church of Rome: defendyng and maintayning, that praier was not more holy in one place then in an other: that the pope was Antichrist: that the clergye & prelates of Rome were reiect: and the very whore of Babylon prefigured in the Apocalips, &c. Peraduenture these had receiued some lighte of knowledge of the Waldenses. Who at length with a great nūber of their followers were oppressed and slaine by the pope. MarginaliaEx historia Gisburnēsis.And although some inconueniēt poyntes of doctrine & dishonesty in their assēbles be against them alleaged, of some: yet these times of ours do teach vs sufficiētly, what credit is to be geuen to such popyshe slaunders, forged rather vppon hatred of true religion, then vpon any iudgement of truth. Illyricus in his booke de testibus, referreth þe tyme of these two, to the yere of our Lord, 1280. but as I find in the storye of Robert Guisburne: MarginaliaAn. 1158these two, aboute the yeare of our Lord, 1158. brought xxx. with them into England: who by the king & the prelates, were al burnte in the forehead, and so driuen out of the realme: and after (as Illyricus writeth) were slaine by the pope.

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MarginaliaFredericus Barbarossa emperour.And now according to my promise premised, þe time requireth to procede to þe history of Frideric9 þe first (called Barbarossa) successor vnto Conradus in þe empire, who marched vppe to Italy, to subdue there certayne rebels. 

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Frederick Barbarossa

The legend that Pope Alexander III trod on the neck of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa has no basis in fact. It was first circulated by partisans of Alexander III and it was widely repeated throughout the Middle Ages. It was seized upon by the Protestants and joined the humiliation of Emperor Henry IV at Canossa as a classic example of the overweening pretensions of of the papacy to secular jurisdiction. Foxe's account of Barbarossa first appeared in the 1563 edition and was reprinted without change in subsequent editions. Apart from Barbarossa's letter to his subjects, proclaiming his authority to be superior to that of Pope Hadrian IV - and which comes from Matthias Flacius, Catalogus testium veritatis (Strausbourg, 1562), pp. 247-9 - this entire account is taken from John Bale, Catalogus, pp. 178-80 and 200-2.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

The pope hearyng that, came wyth his cleargy to mete him by the way, in a towne called Sutrium, thinkyng by him to fynd aide against his enemies. The emperour seyng the bishop: lighteth of his horse to receyue him, holdying the stirrup to the prelate on the left side, whan he should hold it on the right: MarginaliaThe pope displeased, that the Emperour did not hold hys ryght styrrup.wherat the pope shewed hym selfe somewhat agreued. The emperour smiling, excused himselfe that he was neuer accustomed to hold stirrups. And seyng it was done onely of good wil and of no duetye, the lesse matter was, what side of the horse he helde. MarginaliaThe Emperour holdeth the popes stirrup.The nexte daye to make amendes againe to the byshop: the emperour sendyng for hym, receyued him holdyng the right stirrup to the prelate, and so al the mater was made whole, and he the popes owne whyte sonne agayne.

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After this, as they were come in and sate together: Hadrianus the pope beginneth to declare vnto him, how his auncitors before him (such as sought to þe see of Rome for the crowne) were wonte alwayes to leaue behynde them some special token or monument of their beneuolence, for the obteyning therof: MarginaliaThe popes old practyse in setting princes together by the eares.as Carolus magnus in subduyng the Lombardes: Otho, the Berengarians: Lotharius, the Normands, &c. Wherfore, he required some benefite to proceede likewyse from hym to the church of Rome, in restoryng againe the countrey of Apulia, to þe church of Rome. Which thyng if he would do, he for his part agayne would do that which appertayned to hym to do: (meaning in geuing hym the crowne) for at that tyme the Popes had brought the Emperonrs, to fetch their crowne at their handes.

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Frederike with his princes perceyuyng, that vnlesse he would of his owne proper costes and charges fetch in again Apulia out of duke William handes, he coulde not spede of the crowne: was faine to promise to all that the pope required, & so the next day after was crowned.

This done, the emperour returneth into Germany,to refresh his army and his other furnitures, for the subduing of Apulia. In the meane while, Hadrianus not thynking to be idle: first geueth forth censures of excōmunication against William Duke of Apulia. Besides (not content with this) sendeth also to Emanuel Emperour of Constantinople, incensing him to war agaynst the foresayd William. The Duke perceauing this, sendeth to the pope for peace, promising to restore to hym whatsoeuer he would.

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MarginaliaWar more gainful to the pope then peace
Warre styrred vp by the pope.
But the pope through the malignant counsel of hys Cardinals, would graunt to no peace: thinking to get more by warre. The Duke seing nothing but war, prepareth himselfe with all expedition to the same. To be briefe, making all his power out of Sicilia, he arriueth at Apulia, and there putteth Emanuel the Emperor to flight. This done, he procedeth to the City Bonauēture, where the Pope wyth his Cardinals were looking for victory. He planting there his siege, so straytlye pressed the citie: MarginaliaThe pope driuen to entreate for peace.that the pope with his Cardinals were glad to intreate for peace, which they refused before. The Duke graunted to their peace vpon certayn condicions: that is, that neither he should inuade suche possessions as belonged to Rome, and that the pope shoulde make hym king of both Sicils. So the matter was concluded, and they departed. The bishop comming to Rome, was no lesse troubled there about their Consuls and Senators. In so much, that when his curses and excommunications could not preuayle nor serue, he was fayne to leaue Rome, and remoued to Ariminum.

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The Emperour all this whyle, sittyng quietlye at home: began to consider with himself, how the pope had extorted from the Emperours (his precedessors) the inuesting and induing of prelates: how he had pylled and poled all nations by his Legates: and also hath bene the sower of seditiōs through al his Impery: MarginaliaThe godly procedings of Fridericke the Emperour agaynst the pope.he began therfore to require of all the bishops of Germany homagiū, & othe of their allegiance: Commaūding also the popes Legates, if they came into Germanye without his sending for, not to be receiued. Charging moreouer all hys subiectes, that none of them should appeale to Rome. Besides this, in his letters he set and prefixed his name, before the popes name. Wherupon the pope being not a litle offended, directed his letters to the foresaid Friderick Emperour, after this tenor and forme as foloweth.

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¶ he copy of Hadrianus the popes letters, to Fridericke the Emperour.

MarginaliaA letter of pope Hadrian, to the Emperour Fridericke.HAdrianus Episcopus seruus seruorum dei, Friderico Imperatori saluten, et Apostolicam benedictionem. Cætera vide in superiori æditione. In English.

Hadrian bishop, seruant of the seruantes of God, to Fridericke Emperour helth and Apostolicall benediction. The law of God, as it promiseth to them that honour father and mother long life: so it threateneth the sentence of death to them that curse father and mother. We are taught by the woord of truth, that euerye one which exalteth himselfe, shalbe brought low. Wherfore (my welbeloued sonne in the lord) we maruel not a litle at your wysdome: in that you seeme not to shew that reuerence to blessed S. Peter and to the holye churche of Rome, which you ought to shew. For why, in your let-tetters sent to vs, you preferre your owne name before ours: wherin you incurre the note of insolencie, yea (and rather to speake of it) of arrogancie. MarginaliaThe Emperours name before the popes.What shoulde I here recite vnto you, the othe of your fidelitie, whyche you sware to blessed saint Peter and to vs, and how you obserue and kepe the same? Seing you so require homage and allegiance of them that be Gods, and all the sonnes of the high God, & presume to ioyne their holy hands wt yours: working contrary to vs? Seing also you exclude (not only out of your churches, but also out of your cities) our Cardinals, whom we direct as Legates from our side: what shall I say then vnto you? Amende there-

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fore,
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