Thematic Divisions in Book 4
1. Lanfranc2. Gregory VII3. William the Conqueror4. William Rufus5. Henry I6. Stephen and Henry II7. Frederick Barbarossa8. Thomas Becket9. Becket's letters10. Becket's martyrdom and miracles11. Events of 1172-7812. Waldensians13. Other incidents of Henry II's reign14. First year of Richard I's reign15. Strife at Canterbury16. Richard I and Third Crusade17. William Longchamp18. King John19. Henry III's early reign20. Innocent III and mendicant orders21. Papal oppression of the English Church22. Albigensian Crusade23. Hubert de Burgh24. Gregory IX25. Schism between Greek and Latin Church26. Papal exactions from England27. Louis IX on Crusade28. Frederick II29. Opponents of Papacy30. Robert Grosseteste31. Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste32. Persecution of Jews33. Papal oppression and Alexander IV34. Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders35. Henry III and the barons36. Battle of Lewes37. Battle of Evesham38. End of baronial war39. Ecclesiastical matters and Edward prince of Wales goes on crusade40. Foreign events in Henry III's reign41. First seven years of Edward I's reign42. War with Scotland43. Philip IV and Boniface VIII44. Events of 1305-745. Cassiodorous's letter46. Pierre de Cugniere47. Death of Edward I48. Piers Gaveston49. The Despensers and the death of Edward II50. John XXIII and Clement VI51. Rebellion in Bury St. Edmunds52. Edward III and Scotland53. Edward III and Philip VI54. Edward III and Archbishop Stratford55. Events of 1341-556. Outbreak of the Hundred Years War57. Anti-papal writers58. Quarrel among mendicants and universities59. Table of the Archbishops of Canterbury
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345 [336]

King Henry the. 3. crowned. French men in England expulsed. Actes and Mon. of the church.

MarginaliaAnother description of K. Iohns death.
Ex histor. Gualt. Hemyngford, Gilburnensi.
In Gisbur, I finde otherwise, who dissentyng frō other, sayth: þt he was poysoned with a dyshe of peares which þe monke had prepared for the kynge therewith to poyson him. Who asking the kyng whether he woule tast of hys frute, and being bidde to bring them in, according to the Kynges bidding so did. At the bringing in wherof, saythe the said story, the pretious stones about the Kyng began to swete. In so much that the Kyng misdoubtyng some poyson, demaunded of the monke, what he had brought. He said: of his frute, and that very good, the best that he did euer tast. Eate, sayd the king: and he tooke one of the peres, whiche he did know, and did eate. Also beyng byd to take an other, did eate likewise sauerly. And so likewise the thirde. Then the Kyng refraynyng no lenger, tooke one of the poysoned peres, and was therwith poysoned, as is before. &c.

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MarginaliaThe fyrst Maior of London.In the raigne of this kyng Iohn the citizens of Lōdon first obtained of the king to chose yearely a Mayor. In whose tyme also the bridge of London was first builded of stone: which before was of woode, Rastall.

¶ King Henry the third. 
Commentary  *  Close
Henry III's early reign

The account of Henry III's reign is full of evidence that the papacy was abusing its power and taking heavy taxes to the impoverishment of the country. Apart from a short paragraph on King John's children taken from The Chronicle of Walter of Guisborough, ed. Harry Rothewell, Camden Society, 3rd Series, 89 (London, Camden Society, 1957), pp. 156-7 the account is a new addition to the 1570 edition partly added to from Guisborough, pp. 157-8 but also largely extracted from Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, ed. Henry Richards Luard, Rolls Series (7 vols, London, 1872-1884), vol. 3, pp. 1-6, 31, 43, 121-2. The account of the Viscount of Meluns on his deathbed confessing the French plans to the rebellious English Barons was taken from Guisborough, pp. 158-9 and Matthew Paris, Flores Historiarum, ed. Henry Richards Luard, Rolls Series (3 vols., London, 1890), vol. 2, p. 163. Foxe also accuses Legate Guala Bicchieri of using the situation to heavily tax the rebellious clerics once the rebellion had ended (taken from Chronica Majora III, pp. 31-2) extending the metaphor of 'gathering the harvest' from Matthew Paris' own words. This is a theme to which Foxe would continually return.

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The early reign of Henry III is completed with a premonition of Cencio (the future Pope Honorius III) that he would become Pope. Foxe denounces this premonition as a piece of propaganda to gain support for the fifth crusade taken from Konrad of Lichtenau, Burchardi et Cuonradi Urspergnsium Chronicon, ed. Abel H. Friedrich Otto and Ludwig Weiland (Hannoverae, 1874), pp. 104-6. The account of Honorius III's accession to the papal see is taken from Matthew Paris' Chronica Maiora, vol. 3, p. 529. A brief mention is also made to the canonisation of Thomas Becket, which is taken from Arundel MS 5, now in the Royal College of Arms. The 'Scala mundi' was the name Foxe gave for this manuscript.

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Matthew Phillpott
University of Sheffield

MarginaliaK. Hēry the. 3.AFter this kyng Iohn had raigned as som say, xvij. yeres, or as some say, 19. yeares, was, as is aboue said, poysoned and died. MarginaliaThe ysshew of king Iohn.This kyng left behind him foure sonnes, & three daughters, first Henry, second Richard, and he was earle of Cornwal. Third William of Valentia: Fourth, Guido Disenay. He had also another sonne, who afterward was made bishop. Of hys daughters first was Isabel maried afterward to Friderike the Emperour. The second named Alinour, maried to William Marshal Earle. The third to the Earle of Leycestour, &c. An other story saith that he had but two daughters, Isabel & Elionore, or as an other calleth her Ioan which was after Quene of Scotland, ex Chronic. vetusto Anglic.

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This kyng Iohn being decessed which had many enemies both of Earles, Barons, & especially of the popishe clergy, Henry his eldest sonne was then of the age of ix. yeares At what tyme the most of the lordes of England did adhere to Ludouicke or Lewes the Frēch kings son, whom they had sent for before, in displeasure of K. Iohn to be their king, and had sworne to him their allegeance. MarginaliaAn example of a worthy and faythfull counsaylour.Then William erle Marshall a noble man, and of great autoritie, and a graue and a sound counseller, frendly & quietly called vnto hym diuers earles and Barons: and taking this Henry the yong prince, sonne of king Iohn, setteth him before thē, vsing these words: MarginaliaThe oration of the Earle Marshal for young king Henry.Behold (saith he) right honourable and welbeloued: although we haue * Marginalia* Truely sayd, that you persecuted hym, for persecutors ye were of a true man and you own naturall kyng. But wel might Englād cry out of your blinde guides & setters on.persecuted the father of this yong prince for his euil demeyner, and worthely: yet this yong child, whom here ye see before you, as he is in yeares tender, so is he pure & innocent from these his fathers doings. Wherefore in as much as euery man is charged onely with the burden of his owne workes and transgressions: neither shal þe child (as the scripture teacheth vs) beare the iniquitie of hys father: we ought therfore of duetie and conscience to pardon this yong and tender prince, and take compassion of his age, as ye see. And now forsomuch as he is the kings naturall and eldest sonne, and must be our soueraigne & king, and successour of this kingdom, come and let vs appoint him our king and gouernour: and let vs remoue from vs this Lewes the French kinges sonne, and suppresse his people which is a confusion & a shame to our nation, and the yoke of their seruitude let vs caste of frō our shoulders. To these words spake and answered the Erle of Gloucester. And by what reason or right (said he) can we so do, seing we haue called him hether & haue sworne to him our feaultie.

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Wherunto the erle Marshal inferred againe & said: Good right and reason we haue, and ought of duetie to do no lesse for that he contrary to our mynde & callyng hath abused our affiance and fealties. Truth it is, we called him, and ment to prefer him to be our chieftaine and gouernour: but he eftsones surprised in pride, hath contemned and despised vs: and if we shall so suffer him, he will subuert and ouerthrow both vs and our nation, and so shall we remayne a spectacle of shame to all men, and be as outcastes of all the world.

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At these words all they, as inspired from aboue, cried altogether wt one voice: be it so, he shall be our kyng. And so þe day was apointed for his coronatiō which was þe day of Simon & Iude. This coronation was kept not at Westminster, for as much as Westminster the same time was holden of the Frenche men, MarginaliaEx Chron. Monac. Oisburnās.but at Gloucester the safest place (as was thoughte) at that tyme in the realme, an. 1216. by Swalow the popes legate through counsel of all the Lordes and Barons that held with his father king Iohn, to wit, the bishop of Wint. bishop of Bath, bish. of Chester, and bish. of Worcester: the Earle Radulph of Chester, William earle Marshal, William Erle of Pembrocke, William Tren Earle of Feres, William de Bruer, Serle or Samarike de mall Baron. MarginaliaKing Henrye the. 3. crowned.These were at the crowning of the king at Glocester. Many other lordes and Barons there wer, which as yet held with Lewes the Frēch kings sonne, to whō they had done their homage before. And immediatly after the crowning of this king, he held his councel at Bristow at S. Martines feast: where were assembled xi. byshops of England and Wales, with diuers Earles and Barons and knightes of England. All which did sweare fealtie vnto the kyng. After which homage thus done to the kyng, the Legate Swalo interdicted Wales because they held with þe foresayd Lewes: and also the Barons & all other as many as gaue helpe or counsel to Lewes, or any other that moued or stirred any warre against Hēry the new king, he accursed them. All which notwithstandyng, the said Lewes dyd not cease, but first layde siege to the castell of Douer 15. daies: MarginaliaBerchāsted and Hartford taken by Lewes.when he coulde not preuayle there, he tooke the castle of Berkhamsted, and also the castle of Hartforde, doyng muche harme in the countreies, in spoyling and robbyng the people where they went: by reason whereof, þe lordes and Commons which held with the king, assembled thē selues together, to driue Lewes and his men out of the land. MarginaliaLincolne taken by LewesBut some of the Barons with the Frenche men, in the meane season went to Lyncolne and tooke the citie, and held it to þe vse of Lewes. Which being knowen, eftsones a great power of the kyngs part made thether, as the Erle Randolfe of Chester, Williā earle Marshal and William de le Brues, Earle of Feres, with manye other lordes and gaue battaile vnto Lewes and his partie: Marginalia1217.so that in conclusion Lewes lost the field, and of hys syde were slayne the Earle of Perchys, Saer de Quincy Earle of Winchester, Henry de la Boghon Earle of Herford, & syr Robert le Fizwater, wt diuers other mo. Whereupon Lewes for succour fled to Londō, causing the gates there to be shut and kept, wayting there for more succour out of Fraunce. Which as soone as the king had knowledge of, immediately sent to the Maior and Burges of the citye, wylling them to render them and their citie to him as their chiefe Lord and king, promisyng to graunt to them againe all their fraunchies & liberties as in tymes past, and to confirme the same by hys great charter and seale. MarginaliaThys Eustace some say he was a Spaynyard.In this meane time on Bartholmew euen, Eustace a French lord, accompanied wt many other lordes and nobles of Fraunce, came with a great power, to the number of a hundreth ships, to ayde and assist the sayd Lewes. Who before they ariued, wer encountered vpon the seas by Richard king Iohns Bastard sonne, who hauing no more but. xviij. ships to kepe the Cinque portes, set egerlye vpon them, MarginaliaA noble victory by gods grace geuen to king Iohns sonne.and throughe Gods grace, ouercame them. Where presently he smote of the head of Eustace, the rest of the french lords to the numbec of. x. he brought with him to the lande, where he

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