Thematic Divisions in Book 4
1. Lanfranc2. Gregory VII3. William the Conqueror4. William Rufus5. Henry I6. Stephen and Henry II7. Frederick Barbarossa8. Thomas Becket9. Becket's letters10. Becket's martyrdom and miracles11. Events of 1172-7812. Waldensians13. Other incidents of Henry II's reign14. First year of Richard I's reign15. Strife at Canterbury16. Richard I and Third Crusade17. William Longchamp18. King John19. Henry III's early reign20. Innocent III and mendicant orders21. Papal oppression of the English Church22. Albigensian Crusade23. Hubert de Burgh24. Gregory IX25. Schism between Greek and Latin Church26. Papal exactions from England27. Louis IX on Crusade28. Frederick II29. Opponents of Papacy30. Robert Grosseteste31. Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste32. Persecution of Jews33. Papal oppression and Alexander IV34. Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders35. Henry III and the barons36. Battle of Lewes37. Battle of Evesham38. End of baronial war39. Ecclesiastical matters and Edward prince of Wales goes on crusade40. Foreign events in Henry III's reign41. First seven years of Edward I's reign42. War with Scotland43. Philip IV and Boniface VIII44. Events of 1305-745. Cassiodorous's letter46. Pierre de Cugniere47. Death of Edward I48. Piers Gaveston49. The Despensers and the death of Edward II50. John XXIII and Clement VI51. Rebellion in Bury St. Edmunds52. Edward III and Scotland53. Edward III and Philip VI54. Edward III and Archbishop Stratford55. Events of 1341-556. Outbreak of the Hundred Years War57. Anti-papal writers58. Quarrel among mendicants and universities59. Table of the Archbishops of Canterbury
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418 [397]

Henry. 3. Verses of Frid. and the pope Gul. de S. Amore Arnoldus de No. villa

These verses which here insue were sent and writtē betwene the Emperour and Pope Innocentius the, 4. which for that to þe learned are both commdious and profitable at thende of this history I thought good to place.

¶ Fridericus Imp. Innocent. Papæ. 
Latin/Greek Translations  *  Close
Poems exchanged by Frederick II and Pope Innocent IV

The Emperor Frederick to Pope Innocent

Foxe text Latin

Fata mouent ... esse caput.

Translation

John Wade, University of Sheffield

The fates warn, and the stars and flights of birds teach: at once I shall be the hammer of the whole world. Rome tottering for a long time after being driven by long errors will collapse, and cease to be the head of the world.


Fata mouent stellæq; docent, auiumq; volatus
Totius subito malleus orbis ero.
Roma diu titubans longis erroribus acta
Corruet, & mundi desinet esse caput.

¶ Innocent. Papa Frederico Imp. 
Latin/Greek Translations  *  Close
Poems exchanged by Frederick II and Pope Innocent IV

Pope Innocent of the Emperor Frederick

Foxe text Latin

Fata silent ... cuspide cuncta minatur.

Translation

John Wade, University of Sheffield

The fates are silent, the stars are silent, the bird predicts nothing: to know the future is the privilege of God alone. You are striving in vain to submerge Peter's ship: that ship floats but never sinks. Rumour reports, Scripture teaches, and your sins tell us that life for you is short, but your punishment will be everlasting. Julian realised what power the hand of God had: you are succeeding him and the anger of God holds you. FRE - rages in the world, DE - presses down lofty things into the deep, RI - searches out evil, CUS - threatens all with his spear.

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Fata silent, stellæq; tacent, nil prædicat ales:
Solius est proprium nosse futura dei.
Niteris in cassum nauem submergere Petri,
Fluctuat: at nunquam mergitur illa ratis.
Fama refert, scriptura docet, peccata loquuntur:
Quod tibi vita breuis, pœna perennis erit.
Quod diuina manus potuit, sensit Iulianus:
Tu succedis ei, te tenet ira dei.
Fre.fremit in mundo, de deprimit alta profundo:
Ri.mala rimatur, cus.cuspide cuncta minatur.

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¶ Fredericus Innocentio. 
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Poems exchanged by Frederick II and Pope Innocent IV

Frederick to Innocent

Foxe text Latin

Fata mouent ... christianoq; gregi.

Translation

John Wade, University of Sheffield

The fates warn, the stars teach, the flights of birds tell that you are soon destined to fall into the caves of black Styx. It is not Peter's ship but that of Christ which swims in the waves; that ship floats, but never sinks. Rumour reports, your writings tell us, and your abominable sins show us your destruction and death. A fly strangled Adrian, and does not the anger of God think also of exacting punishment from you? Benedict hanged himself in prison, and the other one caught in debauchery perished, wounded by his own sword. Satan, himself more wicked, killed Silvester: so you will be gaining rewards worthy of your deeds. You note in what you sa that you are innocent, although you are about to harm the world and its Christian flock.

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Fata mouent stellæq; docent auiumq; volatus
Lapsurum te mox at stigis antra nigræ.
Cymba Petri non est, sed Christi, quæ natat vndis:
Fluctuat, at nusquam mergitur illa ratis.
Fama refert, tua scripta docent, peccata nefanda
Interitum ostendunt, exitiumq; tuum.
Stangulat Adrianum musca, annon ira tonantis?
Cogitat & de te sumere supplicium?
Carcere suspendit sese benedictus, et alter
In stupro captus, saucius ense perit.
Siluestrum extinguit Sathan sceleratior ipse:
Ergo tuis factis præmia digna feres.
Innocuum te voce notas cum sis nociturus
Orbi terrarum christianoq; gregi.

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¶ Fredericus Innocentio de integro. 
Latin/Greek Translations  *  Close
Poems exchanged by Frederick II and Pope Innocent IV

Frederick to Innocent afresh

Foxe text Latin

Esses si membrum ... sidera, jura, Deos.

Translation

John Wade, University of Sheffield

If you were a limb you would not be boasting that you are the head of the world and the city when you are a burden to the world and the city. Now you are not a member, but a rotten corpse, a sore that should be cut away with the sword, a ridiculous head. By Daniel you are said to be an 'abomination', a sin and the head of evils, by Paul to be the son of destruction. We make Christ only our head, but you make yourself the head of the evils of the whole world. And the head is one, as Paul says everywhere. You, foolish jester, tell me what sort of head. The head then of a monstrous body, and you are giving birth to monsters, you are giving birth to monsters who are monks and you are fondling abominable prostitutes. Your religion is debauchery, anger, arrogance, murder, error, pleasure, disasters and shameful profit. From this then it is clear that you spurn Christ: that you are a hateful enemy and a disgrace to God. In the end the King will come gliding down from high heaven, and then your sacraments will not defend you, nor your masses and crosses; not the plumes rising on the top of your head, not a powerful diploma, not your sacred cohort; not your triple crown, nor your see gained with blood, no honour of your throne and no purple. Judas sold Christ for thirty pieces of silver, you are selling more bodies of your Christ. You are selling for a little piece of bronze bodies of Christ, and the pole, heavenly spirits, the stars, the laws and the Gods.

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Esses si membrum non te caput orbis et vrbis
Iactares cum sis orbis et vrbis onus.
Nunc membrum non es, sed putre cadauer & vlcus,
Ense recidendum ridiculumq; caput.
A Daniele xxx, nesasq; caputq; malorum
diceris, a Paulo filius exitij.
Nos solum Christum nostrum caput esse. malorum
Totius orbis te caput esse facis.
Et caput est vnum, quod Paulus dicit vbiq;,
Tu vecors balatro, dic mihi quale caput?
Corporis ergo caput monstrosi monstra parisq;
Monstra paris monachos, scorta nefanda foues.
Est tua religio stuprum, Ira, superbia cædes,
Error, deliciæ, fulmina, turpe lucrum.
Ex his ergo liquer Christum te spernere Christo
Hostem esse inuisum, dedecoriq; deo.
Rex tandem veniet cælo delapsus ab alto
Tunc non defendent te, sacra, missa, eruces
Non in sublimi surgentes vertice cristæ,
Non diploma potens, non tua sacra cohors
Nec diadema triplex, nec sedes sanguine parta,
Nullus honos solij, purpura nulla tui.
Triginta argenteis Christum vendebat Iudas,
Tu Christi vendis corpora plura tui.
Corpora tu vendis Christi paruo ære, polumq;,
Cælestes genios, sidera, Iura, deos.

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MarginaliaCertayne preachers in Sueuia.As ye haue hard of the iniquitie and ragyng pride of the popishe Churche agaynst their lawfull Emperour: now shal ye heare (Christ willing) how god beginneth to resist and withstand þe corruption of that horysh church, by stirring vp certaine faithfull teachers in sondry countreys: 

Commentary  *  Close
Opponents of the papacy

This section follows on from the detailed account of the pope's war with Frederick II, by using what is know called the antifraternal tradition to show that there were a variety of learned men writing against the papacy at this time. The antifraternal tradition concerns literary writings that were hostile to fraternal orders from the 1250s to the end of the Middle Ages. Chaucer is perhaps the most well known of these writers today although William of St. Amour is widely acclaimed as inaugurating the tradition. For more information on this form of writing and its connections to the Lollards see Penn R. Szittya, The Anti-fraternal Tradition in Medieval Literature (Princeton, 1986). It is significant that Foxe does not use Chaucer as a main source at any point in his account, and this suggests that Foxe was more interested in lesser-known but similar authors, which could act as a further confirmation of Chaucer as a proto-Protestant, widely accounted in other Elizabethan writings.

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For this particular account Foxe uses various examples from Matthias Flacius, Catalogus testium veritatis (Basil, 1556) such as the preachers of Svenia (pp. 856-7), a Spaniard named Arnold (pp. 799-801), and John Semeca in Germany (p. 801). These authors act as a context for the thirty-nine arguments (signs) of William of St. Amour, which Foxe presents in their entirety to show to the reader that his condemnation and the burning of his books were for beliefs that were in agreement with the reformed church in England. Although the background to William of St. Amour was derived either from Flacius, Catalogus Testium Veritatis pp. 801-5 or Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, ed. Henry Richards Luard, Rolls Series (7 vols., London, 1872-1884), vol. 5, pp. 598-600 the articles themselves probably came from a manuscript in the collection of Archbishop Matthew Parker. The Arnaldus Bonaevallensis et Aliorum Scripta (CCCC MS 103.8) as described in M.R. James, A descriptive catalogue of the manuscripts in the Library of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge (2 vols., Cambridge, 1912) contained William's articles. Its relationship to the Fasciculi Zizaniorum, a collection of Lollard writings collected by John Bale and used by Foxe, suggests a connection also to Bale. Significantly Bale also published information on William of St. Amour in his Scriptorum Illustrium maioris Brytanniae …Catalogus (Basel, 1557), pp. 308-9 from which Foxe might also have derived some of his information. The section ends with further examples of books and scholars who stood against the Pope in the thirteenth century taken from Flacius, Catalogus testium veritatis, pp. 803-4, 806, 872-3 and a brief description of the prophecies of the Dominican friar, Robert Gallus who had similar visions as Hildegard against the spiritual authority of Rome (Flacius, Catalogus testium veritatis, pp. 840-3). Matthew Phillpott
University of Sheffield

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As in the countrey of Sueuia, about the tyme of this Emperour. an. 1240. or nere vpon the same, wherewere many preachers, mentioned in the Chronicle of Vrspergensis, & also in Crantzius Lib. 8. cap. 16, et 18. MarginaliaEx chron. Aba Vrspurg.
Crantz. lib. 8. Cap. 16.
which preached frely agaynst the Pope. These preachers (as Crantzius sayth) ringyng the belles, and calling the Barons in Hallis of Sueuia: there preached that the Pope was an heretique, and that his bishops and prelats were simoniacke and heretiques. And that þe inferiour priestes and prelates had no autoritie to bind and loose, but were all seducers. Item that no pope, bishop, or priest, could restraine men from their dewtie of seruyng and worshippyng of God. And therfore such cities or countreys, as were then vnder the popes curse, might notwithstādyng lawfully resort to the receauing of Sacramētes, as well as before. Itē that friers Dominicke, and Franciscane, did subuert the churche with their preaching. MarginaliaResistaunce agaynst the pope no new thing in Christs churchAnd as the indulgence of the pope, and his popelynges was of no regard: so that remission, whiche they did preach vnto thē, they preached it not from the Pope, but as frō the Lord. And thus much I thought here to recite, wherby it may appeare, how the resistyng of the popes vsurped power and corrupt doctrine, is no new thyng in these dayes in þe churche of Christ. &c.

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MarginaliaArnoldus de noua uilla condemned of heresye.
An. 1250
And not long after these aforesayd, rose vp Arnoldus De noua villa, a Spanyard, and a mā famously learned, and a great writer. an. 1250. whom the Pope with hys spiritualtie, condemned among heretiques, for holdyng and writyng agaynst the corrupt errours of the popishe churche. His teachyng was, that Sathan had seduced all the world from the truth of Christ Iesus. Item that the fayth (whiche then christen men were commōly taught) was such a fayth as the deuils had: meanyng belike, that as we now affirme, that the papistes do teach onely the historicall fayth, whiche is the fayth Historiæ non fiduciæ. Item, that christen people (meanyng belyke for the most part) are led by the pope vnto hell. MarginaliaVide librum, de testibus veritatis.Itē, that all cloysterers are voyde of charitie, and damned: And that they all do falsefie the doctrine of Christ. Item, that the diuines do euill in mixtyng Philosophie with diuinitie. Itē, that Masses are not to be celebrated. And þt they ought not to sacrifice for the dead. Certayne other opinions there be, whiche the slaunderous sectes of monkes and friers do attribute vnto him: but (as they are wont in all other to do) rather vpon enuyous takyng, then of anye iust cause geuen.

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MarginaliaIoannes Semeca, the glose writer to the popes decres excommunicated.And as this Arnoldus was condemned, so also the same tyme Ioannes Semeca, the glose wryter of the Popes decrees, and Prouost of Halberstate was excommunicated, and depriued of hys Prouostshyp: for resistyng Pope Clement the fourth, gathering certaine exactions in Germanie. And therefore he appealed from the Pope to a generall councel, and had many great fauorers on his side, til at last both the pope and he died.

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MarginaliaGulielmus de S. Amore.Consquently in this order and number, foloweth the worthie and valiant champion of Christ and aduersary of Antichrist Gulielmus de S. Amore, a master of Paris, and a chief ruler then of that vniuersitie. This Gulielmus in his tyme had no small a do writyng agaynst the friers, and their hypocrisie. But especially agaynst the beggyng friers, both condemnyng their whole order, & also accusing them as those þt did disturbe & trouble all the churches of Christe by their preachyng in churches agaynst the will of the ordinaries and pastors, by theyr hearyng of confessions, and executyng the charges of curates and pastors in their churches. All the testimonies of Scripture that make agaynst Antichrist, he applyeth them agaynst the clergy of prelates, and the Popes spiritualtie. The same Gulielmus is thought to be the autor of the booke, whiche is attributed to the schole of Paris, and intituled: De periculis ecclesiæ. Where he proueth by xxxix. argumentes, that friers be false Apostles.

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Moreouer, he doth wel expound this saying of Christ (if thou wilt be perfect, go and sell away al thou hast, and

come
M.i.
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