Thematic Divisions in Book 4
1. Lanfranc2. Gregory VII3. William the Conqueror4. William Rufus5. Henry I6. Stephen and Henry II7. Frederick Barbarossa8. Thomas Becket9. Becket's letters10. Becket's martyrdom and miracles11. Events of 1172-7812. Waldensians13. Other incidents of Henry II's reign14. First year of Richard I's reign15. Strife at Canterbury16. Richard I and Third Crusade17. William Longchamp18. King John19. Henry III's early reign20. Innocent III and mendicant orders21. Papal oppression of the English Church22. Albigensian Crusade23. Hubert de Burgh24. Gregory IX25. Schism between Greek and Latin Church26. Papal exactions from England27. Louis IX on Crusade28. Frederick II29. Opponents of Papacy30. Robert Grosseteste31. Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste32. Persecution of Jews33. Papal oppression and Alexander IV34. Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders35. Henry III and the barons36. Battle of Lewes37. Battle of Evesham38. End of baronial war39. Ecclesiastical matters and Edward prince of Wales goes on crusade40. Foreign events in Henry III's reign41. First seven years of Edward I's reign42. War with Scotland43. Philip IV and Boniface VIII44. Events of 1305-745. Cassiodorous's letter46. Pierre de Cugniere47. Death of Edward I48. Piers Gaveston49. The Despensers and the death of Edward II50. John XXIII and Clement VI51. Rebellion in Bury St. Edmunds52. Edward III and Scotland53. Edward III and Philip VI54. Edward III and Archbishop Stratford55. Events of 1341-556. Outbreak of the Hundred Years War57. Anti-papal writers58. Quarrel among mendicants and universities59. Table of the Archbishops of Canterbury
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429 [408]

K. Henry. 3. Articles of R. Grosted against the Pope. Actes and Mon. of the church.

are worthy of death. MarginaliaThe pope accused of heresy.Wherfore it may be concluded that as well the Pope (vnles he cease from that vice) as also the same friers, vnles they shewe them selues more earnest and studious in repelling the same, are both worthy of death, that is perpetuall dampnation. Item sayth the Canon decretal, that vpon this vice of heresie the Pope both may and ought to be accused.

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After thys, the vehemence of his disease more and more increasing & because the nyghtes were somthing longer: þe thyrd night before his departure, the B. feling hys infirmitie to grow vpon him willed certaine of hys clergie to bee called vnto hym, therby to be refreshed with some conference or communication: Vnto whom the B. mourning and lamenting in hys minde for the losse of soules through the auarice of the Popes courte sayd on thys wyse, as by certaine Aphorismes. 

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Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste

The Aphorisms (or statements) of Grosseteste at the Council of Lyons remains the most important documents to illustrate Grosseteste's beliefs in how the church should act and reform itself. Grosseteste presented these documents in a series of rolls and by speeches to the Council. He placed the blame for the failures of the church on Antichrist's influence and that it was no good trying to ignore these problems. The arguments are described more fully in D. A. Callus, Robert Grosseteste: Scholar and Bishop (Oxford, 1955), pp. 209-215.

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These statements were obviously extremely useful to Foxe's argument and could be appropriated as both evidence that corruptions had crept into the church by the thirteenth century, that the Antichrist was a recognised presence and that, in the pope's disregard to Grosseteste, he was himself under the Devils spell. This interpretation was strengthened by the retelling of Innocent IV's (ruled 1243-1254) vision of Grosseteste striking the pope on the left side with a staff, which resulted in a real injury to his left side when he woke. This provided a rhetorically impressive tale of prophecy and retribution tied into the apocalyptic drama of Foxe's account. The Aphorisms were extracted from Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, ed. Henry Richards Luard, Rolls Series (7 vols., London, 1872-1884), vol. 5, pp. 402-407 while the tale of Gregory IX's vision was almost certainly taken from John Bale, Scriptorum Illustrium maioris Brytanniae …Catalogus (Basel, 1557), p. 288 buffered with added details from Matthew Paris' Chronica Majora, vol. 5, pp. 429-430, 471-2, and the Matthew Paris, Flores Historiarum, ed. Henry Richards Luard, Rolls Series (3 vols., London, 1890), vol. 2, pp. 391-2, 404. The death and vexation of the pope one year after Grosseteste's death in 1253 and the contention for Grosseteste's bishopric that same year was taken from the same sources coupled with Nicholas Trivet, Annalium continuatio; ut et Adami Murimuthensis Chronicon (Oxford, 1722), pp. 243-4.

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Matthew Phillpott
University of Sheffield

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Marginalia1
Certaine Aphorismes or articles layd of R. Grostede against the B. of Rome.
Christ came into the world to saue & winne soules: Ergo, he that feareth not to destroye soules maye he not worthely be counted Antechrist?

Marginalia2The Lord created the whole world in sixe dayes, but in restoring of man he laboured more then. xxx. yeares. Wherefore, he that is a destroyer of that, aboute whiche the Lord so long laboured, is not he worthy to be counted the enemie of God, and Antechrist?

Marginalia3
The pope accused for his wycked clause. (non obstāte)
The pope shameth not impudently to adnihilate and disanull þe priuilegies of his holy predecessours Romane Byshops, by this obstacle (Non obstante) which is not done without the preiudice and manifest iniurie of thē: For is so doyng, he doth reproue and destroy that which so many and so holy men haue builded vp before, & thus semeth he to be a contemner of the saintes: Worthely therfore he that cōtemneth shalbe contemned, accoridng to the saying of Esay: Wo to the that doest despise, for shalt not thou thy selfe be despised? And who shall keepe his priuilegies which so breaketh þe priuilegies of others.

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Marginalia4
The pope accused for arrogatyng more thē is due to hym, and proued not to be equal but inferiour to his predecessours.
The pope answeryng hereunto thus defēdeth perhaps his errour. He that is equal, hath no superioritie ouer his equall: Therfore no pope hath power to bynde me being pope as well as he. To this I aunswer agayne (quod the Bishop) It seemeth to me, that he that now presentlye is sayling in the daungerous seas of this worlde: and he þt is safely ariued in the hauen hauyng past al ieopardies, are not both like & equal. Graunt that some popes be saued (God forbid any should say cōtrary.) Then saith our sauiour: He þt is least in the kyngdō of heauen, is greater then Ihon Baptist, a greater then whom did neuer ryse amongest the children of men. Is not therfore some pope greater beyng a giuer and confirmer of priuilegies then this that is alyue? Truly me thinkes he is greater. Therfore he hath dominion ouer his inferiour.

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MarginaliaThe pope accused for vndoing the actes & foundations of of their predecessours.Doth not þe pope, thus say speaking of all his predecessours for the most parte: This our predecessour and this our predecessour of most worthy memorie. &c. And again we (sayth he) cleauing to, or folowyng the steps of our predecessours. &c. And why then do such popes as come after, destroye these foundations whiche theyr predecessours haue layd?

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Marginalia6
Proued that the pope alyue is inferiour to hys predecessours before him. And therfore to haue no autoritie to infringe the priuilegies of other popes.
Many apostolicke men commyng after, haue confirmed some priuilege beyng graunted by other before: And be not many Byshops beyng all ready saued by the grace of God, to be counted greater & better thē one byshop whiche hath not yet atteined, but standeth in daunger to obteine, that whiche the other haue got already?

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Marginalia7
Proued by example of Benet that men more aunciēt in time ought to be preferred in higher reuerence.
Also, our former fathers Byshops of the Apostolicall see, in preferment of tyme go before the other, whiche in tyme come after. And those whom the estimation of aūcient tyme doth aduaunce, such are we bounde to esteme and to haue in more reuerence. This did the holy mā Benedicte well consider: who in his rule preferreth such as came first in tyme, what soeuer men they were, before them, whiche (albeit beyng more auncient in yeres) commeth after them into the order: and commaundeth themto be their superioures, and to haue the preheminence. Whiche beyng so (as it is) true and certayn: how commeth then this iniurious and rashe presumption, which dare repeale and disanulle, the olde priuilegies of many auncient holy Bishops, in tyme and reuerence, going before them.

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Marginalia8
The pope accused for maintayning of vsury.
Moreouer, and though many popes haue bene greuous to the church, yet thys pope moste speciallye hath brought it moste into seruitude, and manifolde wayes hath damnified the same. For these Caursini, these opē vsurars, whom our holy forefathers & doctors (whom we haue seene) and namely our learned maister in Fraūce preacher: also the Abbot of Flay a Cistercian: Maister Iacobus de veteri: and maister Steap. Archbishop of Cant. in the tyme of hys banishment: And also maister Robert Curcun: with hys preaching, banished oute of Fraunce (for before that tyme these kinde of vsurers were neuer knowen in Englād) the same Caursini, these wicked vsurers (I saye) were by this pope induced, supported, and maintained: so that if any do speake against them, he is miserablye tossed & trounsed for his labour, wherof partly Rog. B. of Londō hath some experience.

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Marginalia9
Against vsurers.
The world doth know, that vsurie is counted a detestable thing in both the Testamentes, and is forbiddē of God. But now, the popes vsurers or exchangers (the very Iewes crying out agaynst them) be openlye suffered in London to exercise their vsurie, to the greate damage and detriment of all ecclesiasticall persons (but especially houses of religion) cōpelling such as be in pouertie, to counterfete, and to put to their seales vnto forged writings: which is no lesse then to commit idolatrie, and to abrenounce the veritie which is God him self. MarginaliaThe crafty practise of vsurers.As for example, I borowe a. C. markes for a yeare, in stead of a. C. poundes. I am compelled to make my writing, and to seale the same, confessing that I haue receaued in borowe an. C. poundes to be repayed again at the yeares ende to suche a man, &c. And if it shall chaunce that your occupying be such, that within a moneth you bryng againe the principall to þe popes vsurer, he will receaue no lesse notwithstanding then hys full hundreth poundes: MarginaliaThe popes vsurers worse then the Ieweswhich condition of vsurie is much worse, then that of the Iewes. For to the Iewe what principall you bryng, he will requyre no more then proportionallye, for the commensuration of so much tyme, wherin hys money hath been out of hys handes.

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Marginalia10
Crafty subtiltie of the pope to get money.
Moreouer, we haue sene and knowen the pope to haue geuen in charge and cōmaundement to the friers preachers, and minorites: to inquire diligētly for such as lye sicke and lyke to dye, and so commyng to them diligently to persuade them, to make their wils and testamentes fauorably to the profite and subsidie of the holy lād, and to take the crosse vpon them, that if they do amend, they may wryng them in the law. And if they dye, they may wrast the money from their executors.

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Marginalia11We haue knowen lykewise and sene men that haue take the vowe and signe of þe crosse vpon them, to be sold to lay men, as shepe and oxen were wont in tyme past, to be sold in the temple.

MarginaliaMen signed to the holy lād, sold for money like sheep by the pope. Remission of sins sold for money.We haue seene with our eyes, the Popes letter in whiche we haue found this to be writen: that they which bequeth any thyng to the behoffe of subsidie of the holy land, shall receaue so much indulgence, as they haue disbursed money.

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Marginalia12
The pope accused to be iniurious to churches in hye prouisions & reseruations.
Ouer and beside all this, the Pope in diuers and sondry hys letters, hath wylled and commaunded prelates to receaue into ecclesiasticall benefices, and to prouide some such lyuing in their churches (as shal be sufficient to such and such a straunger, beyng both absent, and also vnworthy) which haue neither learning, not yet þe langage of the countrey: whereby they are neither able to preache, nor to heare confessions, nor to keepe residence for to refreshe the poore and wayfarers.

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