Thematic Divisions in Book 4
1. Lanfranc2. Gregory VII3. William the Conqueror4. William Rufus5. Henry I6. Stephen and Henry II7. Frederick Barbarossa8. Thomas Becket9. Becket's letters10. Becket's martyrdom and miracles11. Events of 1172-7812. Waldensians13. Other incidents of Henry II's reign14. First year of Richard I's reign15. Strife at Canterbury16. Richard I and Third Crusade17. William Longchamp18. King John19. Henry III's early reign20. Innocent III and mendicant orders21. Papal oppression of the English Church22. Albigensian Crusade23. Hubert de Burgh24. Gregory IX25. Schism between Greek and Latin Church26. Papal exactions from England27. Louis IX on Crusade28. Frederick II29. Opponents of Papacy30. Robert Grosseteste31. Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste32. Persecution of Jews33. Papal oppression and Alexander IV34. Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders35. Henry III and the barons36. Battle of Lewes37. Battle of Evesham38. End of baronial war39. Ecclesiastical matters and Edward prince of Wales goes on crusade40. Foreign events in Henry III's reign41. First seven years of Edward I's reign42. War with Scotland43. Philip IV and Boniface VIII44. Events of 1305-745. Cassiodorous's letter46. Pierre de Cugniere47. Death of Edward I48. Piers Gaveston49. The Despensers and the death of Edward II50. John XXIII and Clement VI51. Rebellion in Bury St. Edmunds52. Edward III and Scotland53. Edward III and Philip VI54. Edward III and Archbishop Stratford55. Events of 1341-556. Outbreak of the Hundred Years War57. Anti-papal writers58. Quarrel among mendicants and universities59. Table of the Archbishops of Canterbury
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482 [461]

K. Edward. 2. Peter Gaueston. Guy of Warwike.

and of his decretals and Clementines: and holy Henricus the Emperour in his dayes was poysoned in receauing of the sacrament, ye haue heard before. MarginaliaRob. Winchelsey returned home from banishmēt.About this time Rob. Wynchelsey archbishop of Canterbury (whō this kings father had banished before) was released and returned home from Rome.

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Marginalia1311.
The counting of the yeare was in the olde tyme from Michaelmas to the same day againe.
These thinges thus declared, let vs proceede (by the Lordes grace) to the next yeare, which is of the Lorde 1311. and the fift yeare of this kings raigne. In the which yeare, compting the yeare frō Michaelmas, to the same feast agayne, as then the visage of the realme was: Peter Gaueston, who had wandered the countries about and could fynde no safe resting place (notwithstanding he was vtterly banished, vpon forfeiting life and goodes out of the realme, yet trusting vpon the kinges fauour, and the good wyll of the Earle of Glouceter, whose sister he had maryed) secretlye returning into Englande with a certayne company of straungers: presented him selfe to the kinges sight. At the beholdyng of whom, the king for ioy ran to him, and embrasing him, did not only retaine him: but also for his sake vndid al suche actes as had bene in the parlament before, enacted. MarginaliaEx chron. R. Auesb. The quene and the whole court seing this doting of the king, made an heauy Christenmas. After this returne of Gaueston was noysed among the commons, the Peeres & Nobles of the realme were not a litle styrred, casting with them selues, what way wer best to take. If he were suffred stil they saw not only thēselues reiected, but also þt the quene could not enioy the loue of the king, neither coulde there be any quietnes in the realme. Agayn, to styr vp war in the land, it were not the best: to vexe or disquiet þe king, also they wee afrayd. But forasmuch as they could not abyde, all the nobilitie so to be thrust and out vilepended for þe loue of one straūger, & also the realme so to be spoiled and impoouerished by the same: This way they toke, that Thomas Earle of Lancaster, shoulde bee elected among them the chieftayne and chiefe doer in that busynes: to whom al other Earles and Barons, and prelats also did concordly condescend and consent, MarginaliaThe archb. of Cant. excommunicateth the B. of Couētry for holding with Peter Gaueston.except onely Walter bishop of Couentry, whom Robert the archbishop therefore afterward did excommunicate. Whych Thomas of Lancaster by the publicke assent of the rest sent to the kyng (lying then at Yorke) humble petitions, in the name aswel of the whole Nobilitie, as of the commōs: Desiring his grace to geue the foresayd Gaueston vnto them, or els according to the ordināce of the realm, that the land might be auoyded of him. But the tyrannous king, who set more by the amour of one straunger then by his whole realme beside: neyther would harken to their counsaile, nor geue place to their supplications: But in al hasty fury, remoued frō Yorke to Newcastel, where hee remayned almost tyll Midsommer. In the meane seasō, þe Barons had gathered an hoste of sufficient & able soldiours, comming toward Newcastell: not entending any molestation agaynst the king, but onelye the execution of the lawes vpon wicked Gaueston. The king not hauing wherewith to resist their power: remoueth in all speedy maner to Thinmouth, wher the quene lay. And hearing that Newcastell was taken: taketh shipping & saileth from thence (notwithstanding the quene there being great with child, with weeping teares and all instance, desireth to tary with her, as safely he might) but he nothing relenting to her, tooke Peter his compere wyth him, and coasted ouer to the castell of Scarbrough, where he leauing Peter Gaueston to the safe keeping of his men, himselfe iourneth towarde the coast beside Warwyke. MarginaliaPeter Gauestone taken of the nobles.The Lordes hearing wher Peter was, bendeth thither al their power: so that at length Gaueston seing no remedy but he must nedes come into their handes, yeldeth and submitteth him selfe: requiring none other condition, but onely that he myght talk but a few wordes with the king in his presence. ThusGaueston being apprehended, MarginaliaThe kyng entreateth for Gaueston.the king hearing thereof, sendeth vnto the Lordes, requiring his lyfe to be spared: and that he might be brought to his speeche, and so promised that in so doing he woulde satisfye their myndes and requestes, whatsoeuer. About this, aduisement was taken: but thē the Earle of Penbroke hearing the kings promise, perswaded the Barons to graunte vnto hys petition: promising himselfe, vpon loosing all his landes to take the charge vppon hym to bee brought vnto the kinges speeche, and so to be recommitted to them again. Which whē he had obtayned, he taketh Peter Gauestō with him, to bring him where the king lay. And so comming to Dedington not farre from Warwike, leaueth hym in the keeping of hys soldiours, while he that night went to his wyfe, being from thence not farre of. MarginaliaGwy of Warwike.The same night it chaunced, Guido the Earle of Warwike to come to the same place wher Gaueston was left: who taking him out of the handes of his keepers, MarginaliaPeter Gaueston againe apprehēded by Gwy of Warwike.carieth him to the castell of Warwike, where incontinent they wold haue put him to death: but doubtyng and fearyng the kynges displeasure, a lytle they staied. At what time one of the company, (a man of sage and wyse counsayle as myne autor writeth) standing vp among them with hys graue oration declareth the nature of the man, the wickednes of his condition, the realme by hym to greatlye endamaged, the nobles despised and reiected, the pryde and ambition of the mā intollerable, the ruine of things lyke to ensue by hym, & the great charges and expenses they had beene at in so long pursuyng and getting of hym. And now being gotten and in their handes, he exhorted them so to vse and take the occasion now present: that hereafter being out of their hands, they afterward might seeke it, and should not finde it. Briefly, in suche sorte he perswaded the hearers, that foorthwith he was brought out, MarginaliaPeter Gaueston beheaded.and by common agrement beheaded in a place called Blakelowe, which place in other stories I finde to be called Gaueshead, but that name (as I think) was deriued vpon this occasiō, afterward. And thus he, that before had called the Earle of Warwike the black dog of Ardeyne: was thus by the said dog woorowed, as ye haue heard. &c. His carkas, the Dominicke Friars of Oxford had in the monastery interred the space of. ij. yeares: MarginaliaThe corpes of Peter Gaueston taken vp and buried in the kings maner of Langley.but after that, the king caused the sayde carkas to be taken vp and buryed within hys owne Manour of Langley.

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After thys, great disturbance began to ryse betwene the kyng and the Lordes: 

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The Despensers and the death of Edward II

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who hauing their power lying about Dunstable, sent stoute message vnto the kyng at London, to haue their former actes confirmed. Gilbert Earle of Gloucester the kynges Newphew (who neyther dyd holde agaynst the king, nor yet agaynst the nobles) with the Byshops and prelates of the realme: went betwene both parties with greate diligence, to make vnitie. At which tyme, also came ij. Cardinals from Rome, with letters sent vnto them from th epope. The nobles aunswered to the message of the Cardinalls, lyeng then at S. Albans: that as touching themselues they shoulde be at all tymes welcom to them: MarginaliaThe nobles of England cared not for the popes letters.But as touching theyr letters (for asmuch as they were men vnlettered, & only brought vp in warre and feates of armes) therfore they cared not for seing the same. Then message was sent again, that they would graunt at least to speak wt the Popes Legates, which purposely came for the intent to set quiet & vnitie in the realme. MarginaliaThe popes legates not admitted of the nobles of England.They answered againe, that they had byshops both godly and learned, by whose counsaile they would be ledde onely: & not by any straūgers, who knew not the true cause of their commotion. And therfore they sayd preciselie, þt they would not foreners or alians to be doers in their busines, and affayres appertaining to þe realme. Yet notwithstāding, through the mediation of the Archbishop, & of the Earle of Gloucester: the matter at length was so taken vp, that þe Bar-

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rons
R.iij.
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