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550 [550]

K. Richard. 2. The history of John Wickleffe and his fellowes.

that the most part of his men, with his mase bearer and all running awaye from him, the poore wounded bishop was there left alone, not able to keepe hys olde power, whiche went about to vsurpe a new power more then to him belonged. MarginaliaPride will haue a fall. Power vsurped will neuer stand.Thus as it is cōmonly true in all, so is it wel exemplified here, which is commonly sayd, & as it is commonly seene, that pride will haue a fall, and power vsurped will neuer stand. MarginaliaThe vsurped power of the pope wuld haue a bridle.In like maner if the citizens of Rome, folowyng the example of these Lennam men, as they haue the like cause, and greater to do, by the vsurped power of their Bishop, would after the same sause handle the Pope, and vnscepter hym of his mase and regalitie whiche nothyng perteyneth to him: They in so doyng both should recouer theyr owne liberties, with more honour at home, and also wynne much more commendation abroad. Ex Chron. mon. D. Albani.

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Marginalia1377.
The death of king Edward.
This tragedy with all the partes therof, 

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End of Edward III's reign

Apart from some closing comments praising Edward III for thwarting papal claims to jurisdiction over and in the English Church, which appeared in all editions from 1570 onwards, the material in this section consisted of a writ sent by Edward III in 1374 ordering that a list be made of English benefices held by foreigners and a list, dated in 1379, of ecclesiastical benefices in England, which were held by the cardinals. These materials came to Foxe from the Tower records and were added to the 1583 edition. Foxe's purpose in presenting these materials was to show that papal authority over the English Church placed much of its revenues in foreign hands and materially weakened both the monarch and the kingdom.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

beyng thus ended at Lennam, 
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I.e., Lynn.

whiche was litle after Easter (as is said) about the moneth of Aprill. an. 1377. the same yere, vpon the 21. day of the moneth of Iune next after, dyed the worthy and victorious prince king Edward the 3. after he had reigned yeares 51. a prince no more aged in yeares thē renowmed, for many singular and heroicall vertues, but principally noted and lauded for his singulare mekenes and clemency toward his subiectes and inferiours, rulyng them by gentlenes and mercy, without all rigour or austere seueritie. Among other noble and royall ornamentes of his nature, worthely and copiously set forth of many, thus he is described of some, whiche maye briefly suffice for the comprehension of all the rest. 
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This quotation is from College of Arms MS Arundel 7, a transcript of Thomas of Walsingham's Chronica majora, covering the years 1377-82. (See Thomas Walsingham , quondam monachi S. Albani historia Anglicana, ed. H. T. Riley, 2 vols., Rolls Series 64 [1874], I, pp. 327-8).

MarginaliaThe cōmendation of K. Edward.Orphanis erat quasi pater, afflictis compatiens, miscris cōdolens, oppressos releuans, & cunctis indigentibus impendens auxllia oportuna. That is. To the orphans he was as a father, cōpaciēt to the afflicted, mournyng with the miserable, releuyng the oppressed, and to all them that wanted, an helper in tyme of nede. &c. But chiefly aboue all other thynges, in this prince to be commemorate, in my minde, is this: 
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This is Foxe's opinion, not Walsingham's.

that he aboue all other kynges of this realme vnto the tyme of k. Henry viij. was the greatest bridler of the popes vsurped power and outragious oppressions, duryng all the tyme of whiche kyng, neither the pope could greatly preuayle in this realme, and also Ihon Wickleffe was mainteined with fauour and aide sufficient

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¶ King Richard the second.

MarginaliaK. Richard 2.AFter 

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Papal condemnation of Wiclif

Almost all of Foxe's account of Wiclif during the turbulent years of 1377-8 is taken from the version of Thomas Walsingham's chronicle contained in College of Arms MS 7. This MS was printed as the Historia Anglicana and reliably edited by H. T. Riley for the Rolls Society No. 28. 2 vols. (London, 1863-4). Although Foxe had this MS in his possession since the early 1550s - it was a work he drew on extensively for the Commentarii - he seems to have re-consulted it before composing this section of the 1570 edition, as new material from Arundel 7 is added to it. Gregory XI's letter to Richard II, the interventions of Sir Lewis Clifford and the London mob on Wiclif's behalf, Wiclif's protestation of his innocence, his conclusions and his commentary on the articles attributed to him, the deaths of Gregory XI and Archbishop Sudbury, and William Berton's persecution all appear in the Commentarii (fos. 10v-12r and 15r-27r) and are reprinted faithfully in Rerum (pp. 5 and 7-13) and in all editions of the Acts and Monuments. (Gregory XI's bull, Wiclif's commentary and the account of Berton's persecution are taken from the Fasciculi Zizaniorum but all the other material came from Arundel MS 7). A sharp denunciation of the iniquity of executing people deemed to be heretics was printed in the Commentarii (fos. 12r-15r), reprinted in the Rerum (pp. 6-7) and the 1563 edition, but was dropped thereafter. In the 1570 edition, Foxe added the articles from Wiclif's sermons, background to Gregory XI's bull and an expanded version of Wiclif's conclusions, all taken from Arundel MS 7. He also added a summary of the papal schism which broke out after Gregory XI's death, which is taken from Bale's Catalogus. There were no further changes to this material in subsequent editions.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

kyng Edward 3. succeded his sonne Richard the 2. being yet but yong of þe age of xi. yeares: who in the same yeare of his fathers decease, with great pompe and solēnitie was crowned at Westminster. an. 1377. who followyng his fathers 
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Actually his grandfather's steps - Richard II was Edward III's grandson.

steps, was no great disfauorer of the doctrine and way of Wickleffe: albeit at the first begynning, partly through the iniquity of time, partly through the popes letters, he could not do that he would. Notwithstandyng, some thyng he did in that behalfe, more perhaps then in þe end he had thanke for of þe papistes, as more (by the grace of Christ) shall appeare. But as tymes do chaunge, so chaungeth commonly the cause and state of men. The bishops seing now the aged kyng to be taken awaye, during the time of whose olde age, all the gouernement of the realme, depended vpon the Duke of Lancaster. MarginaliaThe bishops take vantage of tyme.And nowe the sayd Bishops agayne seyng the sayd Duke, with the Lord Percy, the Lorde Marshall, to geue ouer their offices, and to remaine in theyr priuate houses without intermedlyng: thought now the tyme to serue them, to haue some vantage agaynst Ihon Wickleffe, who hetherto vnder the protection of the foresaid Duke, and Lord Marshall had some reste and quiet. Concernyng the story of whiche Wickleffe, I trust (gentle reader) it is not out of thy me-morie what went before, pag. 527. col. 1. howe he beyng brought before the bishops, by the meanes of the Duke and Lord Henry Percy, the councel was interrupted & brake vp before ix. of the clock. By reason wherof Wickleffe at that tyme eschaped without any farther trouble. Who notwithstandyng beyng by the bishops forbyd to deale in that doctrine any more, continued yet with his felowes goyng barefote, and in long frise gownes preachyng diligently vnto the people. Out of whose sermons these articles most chiefly at that time were collected.

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MarginaliaThe first article collected out of Wickliffes sermons. 

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Foxe took these articles from Arundel MS 7 (see Historia Anglicana,ed. H. T. Riley, Rolls Society 28, 2 vols. [London, 1863-4], I, pp. 324-5). Foxe abridges these articles somewhat, but he is faithful to their general meaning.

That the holy Euchariste, after the consecration, is not the very body of Christ, but figurally.

That þe church of Rome, is not þe head of all churches, more then any other churche is: nor that Peter hath any more power geuen of Christ, thē any other Apostle hath.

Itē, that the pope of Rome hath no more in the keyes of the churche, then hath any other within the order of priesthood.

Item, if God be: the Lordes temporall may lawfully and meretoriously take away their temporalities from the churche men offendyng, habitualiter.

Item, if any temporall Lord do know the churche so offending, he is bound vnder pain of damnation, to take the temporalities from the same.

Item, that the Gospell is a rule sufficient of it selfe to rule the life of euery Christen man here, without any other rule.

Item, that all other rules, vnder whose obseruācies, diuers religious persons be gouerned: do adde no more perfection to the Gospell, then doth the white colour to the wall.

Item, that neither the Pope, nor any other prelate of the churche, ought to haue prisons wherein to punishe transgressours.

MarginaliaThe articles of Iohn Wickliffe sēt to the pope. Pope Gregory the xi.Beside these articles diuers, other conclusions after-terward were gathered out of his writinges and preachinges by the Bishops of England, which they sent diligently to Pope Gregory at Rome: Where the sayde articles beyng read and perused, were condemned for hereticall and erroneous by. xxiij. Cardinals.

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MarginaliaWickliffe called before the archbishops of Cant.In the meane tyme, the Archbishop of Canterbury, sendyng forth his citacions, as is aforesayd: called before him the sayd Ihon Wickleffe, in the presence of the Duke of Lancaster, & lord Percy, who vpon the declaration of the popes letters made, bound him to silence, forbyddyng him not to entreat any more of those matters. But then through the disturbance of the Bilshop of London and the Duke, and Lorde Percy: that matter was soone dispatched, as hath been aboue recorded, pag. 527. And all this was done, in the dayes and last yeare of K. Edward third, and pope Gregory the eleuenth.

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MarginaliaAn. 1378.The next yeare following, which was the yeare of our Lord. 1378. 

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Foxe is taking this date straight from Arundel 7 (see Historia Anglicana, ed. H. T. Riley, Rolls Society 28, 2 vols. [London, 1863-4], I, p. 345). Actually the bulls were received in Oxford a few days before Christmas 1377. As Foxe observes, after printing the bull, Gregory XI issued five bulls condemning the opinions of Wiclif; three of which were sent jointly to the archbishop of Canterbury and the bishop of London, a further one being sent to Richard II and the last one being sent to the chancellor of the University of Oxford. Foxe is reprinting the copy of the Oxford bull, contained in the Fasciculi Zianiorum.

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being the fyrst yeare of kyng Richarde the second. MarginaliaEdmund Stafford bringer of the popes bull.The sayd Pope Gregorye taking hys tyme, after the death of king Edward, sendeth his Bul by the hands, and meanes (peraduenture) of one maister Edmund Stafford, directed vnto the vniuersity of Oxford, rebuking them sharply, imperiouslye and lyke a Pope, for suffering so long the doctrine of Iohn Wickleffe to take roote, & not plucking it vp with the crooked cicle of their catholique doctrine. MarginaliaThe masters of Oxford doubte whether to receaue or reiecte the popes bull.Which Bul whē it came to be exhibited vnto their hands, by the popes meēssger aforesaid: the Proctors & maisters of the Vniuersity ioyning together in cōsultacion, stood long in doubt deliberatyng with them selues, whether to receaue the Popes Bull with honour, or to refuse and reiect it with shame.

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¶ I cannot here but laughe in my mynde, to beholde the autors of this story, whom I follow: what exclamations, what wonderinges and maruels, they make at these Oxford men, for so doubting at a matter so playne, so manifest of it selfe (as they say) whether the popes bul sent to them from Rome, was to be receaued, or contrary. Which thing to our Moonkish wryters seemed then

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such
Aa.i.
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