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555 [555]

K. Richard. 2. The history of Iohn Wickliffe Actes and Mon. of the church.

he did mitigate and assuage the rigour of hys enemies.

MarginaliaAn. 1382.The next yeare after, which was. 1382. 

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Earthquake synod [1382]

Foxe's account of the Blackfriars council and his printing of the condemned articles of John Wiclif came from the Fasciculi Zizaniorum. This material was first published in the Commentarii (fos. 27r-29v) and reprinted in the Rerum (pp. 13-14) as well as all editions of the Acts and Monuments. Foxe also added two stories concerning near-miraculous events associated with Wiclif to the Rerum (p. 13); these stories were reprinted in the 1563 edition and then deleted. In the 1570 edition, Foxe also added additional material from the Fasciculi Zizaniorum and from the register of Archbishop William Courtney.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

by the commaundement of William Archbishop of Canterburye, there was a conuocation holden at London, where as Iohn Wyckleffe was also commaunded to be present. But whether he there appered personally, or not, I find it not in story certaynly affirmed. 
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In fact, Wiclif was not present at the Blackfriars council.

The mandate of the Archbishop W. Courtney (sent abroade for the conuenting together of this councel) here foloweth vnder written, truly copied out of hys owne registers. 
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Foxe's source for this document is indeed Lambeth Palace Library, Courtney Register, fo. 25r.

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MarginaliaThe mandate of the Archb.
Ex Registro Archb. W. Courtney.
Memorandum, that where as well amongest the nobles as commons of this realme of England, ther hath a certayne brute bene spread of diuers conclusions both erroneous, and also repugnant to the determination of the church: which tende to the subuersion of the whole church, and to our prouince of Canterbury, and also to the subuersion of the whole realme, beyng preached in diuers and sundry places of our sayd prouince, generally, commonly, and publikely: We Wylliam by Gods permission Archbishop of Canterburye, Primate of all England, and Legate of the see Apostolicall, being minded to execute our office and duty herein: haue conuocated or called together, certayne our fellow brethren and others a great many, as well Doctors and Bachilers of diuinitie, as doctors of the Canon and Ciuill lawe, and those whom we thought to bee the most famous men, skylfullest men, and men of soundest iudgement in religion, that were in all the realme, whose names here vnder ensue. And the same being (the. xvij. daye of the moneth of May) in the yere of our Lord. 1382, in a certayn chamber within the territories of the priorye of the friers preachers of London before vs and our foresaid fellow brethren assembled, then and there personally present: After that the sayd conclusions (the tenor whereof hereunder ensueth) were openly proponed, and distinctly and plainly read: We burdened our foresaid fellow brethren, Doctors, and Bachilers, in the fayth wherin they stood bound to our Lord Iesus Christ, & as they woulde answer before the hygh iudge in the day of iudgement, that they should speake their opinions touching the said conclusions and what euery of them thinketh therin.

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And at length, after good deliberation had vpon the premisses, the foresayd our brethren the Bishops, Doctours, and Bachilers, reassembled before vs the xxi. day of the same moneth in the foresayd chamber, the foresayd conclusions beyng agayne and agayne repeated and plainly read: By vs and by the common cōsentes of vs all it remaineth published and declared, that some of the sayd conclusions are hereticall, and other some erroneous and contrary to the determination of the church, as hereafter most manifestly shall appeare. And for as much as by sufficiēt informatiō we finde and perceaue, that the sayd conclusions in manye places of our sayde prouince, haue bene as is sayde, both taught and preached: and that diuers other persons do holde and mayntayne the same, and be of heresie vehementlye and notoriously suspected: haue thought good as well generallye as specially, to send out thys processe vnder written.

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¶ The names of the Iurers were these 
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The names of the clerics condemning these articles were only added in the 1570 edition; Foxe's source for this was the Fasciculi Zizaniorum (see Bodley Library MS, Musaeo 86, fo. 74r).

In primis, viij. bishops, Cant. Winch. Durram, Exeter, Herford, Sarum, Rochest. and Frier Botlesham. B.

Item, iij. friers preachers, Syward, Parris, Langley.

Item. iiij. Minorites, Foluile, Carlel, Frisley, Bernwell.

Item, Augustine fries. iiij. Ashborne, Bowkyn, Woldley, Hornington.

Item, Carmelites. iiij. Glanuile, Dis, Loney, Kynningham.

Item, Monkes. iiij. Wels, Ramsey, Bloxam, Marton.

Item, Doctours of the Canon and Ciuill lawe. xiiij. Appelby, Waltram, Baketon, Chadesden, Tregisyon Stow, Blaunchard, Rocombey, Lidford, Welbourne, Flaynburghe, Motrum, Brandon, and Prophet.

Item, Bachilers of Diuinitie vi, Humbleton, Pickweche, Lindlow, wych, Chiselden, Tomson.

The articles of Iohn Wickleffe here aboue specified, wherof some were. x. which were by these friers condem-ned as hereticall, þe rest as erronius: here in order follow, and are these. Although it may be thought, that some of them were made worsse by their sinister collecting, then he ment them in his own workes and writings. 

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24 articles attributed to Wiclif were condemned by the Blackfriars Council. Ten were condemned as heretical. Foxe omits the sixth of these which stated the God ought to obey the devil. Needless to say, Wiclif believed no such thing and, in fact, similar charges were often made against notorious heretics. Foxe's source for these articles was the Fasiculi Zizaniorum (see Bodley Library MS, Musaeo 86, fo. 71r-v).

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¶ The articles of Iohn Wickleffe condemned as hereticall.

Marginalia1THe substaunce of material bread and wine, doth remayne in the sacrament of the aulter after the consecration.

Marginalia2The accidents, do not remayne without the subiecte in the same sacrament, after the consecration.

Marginalia3That Christ is not in the sacrament of þe alter truely and really, in his proper and corporall person.

Marginalia4
* This article eyther is slaunderously reported, or els can hardly be defēded
* That if a byshop or a priest be in deadly sinne, he doth not order, consecrate, nor baptise.

Marginalia5That if a man, be duely and truely contrite and penitent: all exterior and outer confession, is but superfluous and vnprofitable vnto hym.

Marginalia6That it is not founde or stablyshed by the Gospell, that Christ did make or ordayne Masse.

Marginalia7If the pope be a reprobate and euill man, and consequently a member of the deuill: he hath no power by any maner of meanes geuen vnto hym ouer faythfull Christians, except peraduenture it be geuen hym from the Emperour.

Marginalia8That since the time of Vrbane the sixt, there is none to be receaued for Pope, but to liue after the maner of the Greekes, euery man vnder hys own lawe.

Marginalia9
* He meaneth church goods not to be so peculiar to ministers but that they may be taken away if they so deserue.
* To be agaynst the Scripture, that ecclesiasticall ministers should haue any temporall possessions.

¶ The other Articles of Ihon Wickleffe, condemned as erroneous.

Marginalia10THat no prelate ought to excommunicate any man, except he knew him first to be excōmunicate of God. 

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Note Foxe's concern in his marginal notes, to qualify this article.

Marginalia11That he whiche doth so excommunicate any man, is therby him selfe either an hereticke or excommunicated.

Marginalia12That a prelate or Byshop excommunicating any of the clergy, which hath appealed to the kyng or to the coūsel, is therby him self, a traitor to the kyng and realme.

Marginalia13That all such which do leue of preaching or hearyng the worde of God or preachyng of the Gospell, for feare of excommunication: they are all ready excommunicated, and in the day of Iudgement, shalbe counted as traitors vnto God.

Marginalia14That it is lawfull for any mā, either deacon or priest, to preach the word of God, without þe autoritie or licence of the apostolicke see or any other of his catholickes.

Marginalia¶ This article perauēter was not so straitly mēt of him as it was gathered of them as is aforesaid.¶ That so long as a man is in deadly sinne, he is neither bishop nor prelate in the churche of God.

Marginalia16
* This article expoundeth the 9. article aboue.
* Also that the temporall Lordes, may accordyng to their owne will and discretion, take away the temporall goodes frō the churche men, when soeuer they do offēde. 

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Note Foxe's concern in his marginal notes, to qualify this article.

Marginalia17That tenthes are pure almose, and that the parissoners may for the offence of their Curates, deteine & kepe them backe, and bestow them vpon others, at theyr own will and pleasures.

Marginalia18Also, that all speciall prayers applied to any priuate or particular persō, by any prelate or religious man: do no more profite the same person, then generall or vniuersall prayers do profite others, whiche be in lyke case or state vnto him.

Marginalia19Moreouer, in that any man doth enter into any priuate religion, what so euer it be, he is thereby made, the more vnapte and vnable to obserue and keepe the commaundementes of God.

Marginalia20That holy men whiche haue instituted priuate religions, whatsoeuer they be (as well such as are indowed and possessed, as also þe order of begging Friers, hauyng no possessions) in so doyng, haue greuouslye offended.

Marginalia21That religious men, being in their priuate religiōs,

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