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573 [573]

K. Richard. 2. The bones of I. Wickliffe burned. Actes and Mon. of the church.

and drowned his ashes, yet the worde of God and truth of his doctrine, with the frute and successe therof they could not burne: whiche yet to this daye for the moste part of his articles do remayne. Notwithstandyng, thetrāsitory body and bones of the man was thus cōsumed and dispersed, as by this Picture here set forth to thyne eyes (gentle reader) may appeare.

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¶ The order and manerof taking vp the bodye of John Wickleffe and burning hys bones xli yeares after hys death.
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The first of five large illustrations, which cover the period from Wyclif to Luther. The chance survival of 'proof sheets' from the 1563 edition indicate problems that arose with the printing of a picture of Wyclif's body being posthumously burned. The sheets were identified as 'proof sheets' (even though they are only printed on one side) in the revised STC (no.11222a). Wyclif, who died in his bed, exiled from Oxford where he had recruited a following that proved so challenging, did not make an easy martyr. His views were condemned but he was but by no means persecuted by the Church (though it was long believed by Foxe and others that he had gone into exile abroad for a time). It was the Council of Constance that made it possible to elevate the English heresiarch to new heights, by the judgement that condemned him as a notorious heretic and ordered his body and bones to tbe exhumed and -- providing they could be distinguished from those of others -- cast out of consecrated ground. That was in 1415, when the bishop of Lincoln, who would have had to act, was Philip Repingdon, who might well have found this a repugnant duty. Twelve years later, by which time English heresy seemed to be assuming new dimensions, Pope Martin V took up the case and ordered Bishop Fleming (Repingdon's successor and a man of different mettle) not only to exhume Wyclif's body and bones, but to have them publicly burned. It amounted to an accolade for some of his followers. In order to celebrate the English heresiarch in this posthumous martyrdom Foxe had to anticipate a later part of his narrative on the Council of Constance. The image of the event had no hesitation in portraying each stage of this gruesome process, labelling the church, coffin, and various episcopal officials, who unpacked the bones piece by piece to go into the fire which is already consuming the skull, while the bishop's commissary pours the ashes into the river to prevent any posthumous veneration of the heresiarch's remains. This vivid image might have informed Fuller's commemorative words about how 'this brook hath convey'd his ashes into Avon; Avon into Severn; Severn into the narrow seas; they, into the main Ocean. And thus the ashes of Wickliff are the emblem of his doctrine, which now, is dispersed the world over'. CUL copy: Note that the faces of those depicted are particularly well detailed, e.g., figure detailed 'Com[m]issari' has a flush of colour in his lips, cheeks and ear lobes, which are depicted in a pinkish red. There is also well defined shading of the hands, provided by a pale brown wash. WREN: same stock of colours but not so well executed.

These thyngs thus finished and accomplished, which perteine to the story and tyme of Wicleffe: let vs now (by the supportation of the Lorde) procede to entreate and write of the rest, whiche either in his tyme, or after hys tyme, springyng out of the same vniuersitie, and raysed vp (as ye would say) out of his ashes, were partakers of the same persecution. MarginaliaEx Th. Walden. lib. de sacrament.Of whō speaketh Thomas Walden in his booke, De sacramentis & sacramentalibus. cap. 53: Where he sayth, that after Wickleffe, many suffered most cruell death, & many mo did forsake the realme. &c.

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In the number of whom was William Swynderby, Walter Brutte: Iohn Puruey: Richard White: William Thorpe: Raynold Pecocke Byshop of S. Asaphe, and afterwarde of Chichester.

MarginaliaLaurence Redman, Dauid Sawtre Iohn Aschwerbe. William Iames, Thomas Brightwel. William Haulam. Rafe Grenchurst, I. Scut. Phillip Noris Peter Payne. Lord Cobham 

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This list of Wiclif's followers is taken from notes John Bale made in the Fasciculi Zizianorum (see Bodley Library MS Musaeo e 86, fos. 61v-63v). This list first appears in Commentarii, fo. 44r-v. It was reprinted in Rerum, pp. 20-21 and was subsequently in each edition of the Acts and Monuments.

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.To this Cataloge also pertayneth, mencioned in auncient writers, Lawrence Redman 
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Laurence Bedeman or Beadman, not Readman.

master of Arte, Dauid Sawtre diuine, Iohn Aschwarby vicar as they cal him of S. Mary church at Oxford, William Iames an excellent yong man well learned, Thomas Bryghtwell, & William Hawlam a ciuilian, Rafe Grenhurst, Iohn Scut, & Philip Norise: which being excōmunicate by pope Eugenius the. iiij. in þe yeare of our Lord. 1446 appealed vnto a generall or œcumenicall Councell.

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Peter Paine, who flying from Oxforde into Boheme, did stoutly contende agaynst the Sophisters, as touching both kindes of the Sacrament of the last supper. Who afterward amongest the rest of the Oratours was one of the. xiiij. that was sent vnto the Councell at Basill: where as by the space of. iij. dayes, hee disputed vpon the fourth article, which was as touching the ciuill dominion of the clergy, an. 1438. Also the Lord Cobham. &c.

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To these Oxford men aboue rehearsed, and other fauourers of Wickleffe within this our countrey of England, we may adde also the Bohemiās: forsomuch as thepropagation of the sayde doctrine of Wickleffe, in that countrey also tooke roote, commyng from England to Boheme, by this occasion as in story here foloweth.

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MarginaliaThe occasiō on how the doctrine of Wilkliffe came to Boheme.There chaunced at that tyme a certayne student of the countrey of Bohemia to be at Oxford, one of a welthy house, and also of a noble stocke. Who returnyng home from the vniuersitie of Oxford, to the vniuersitie of Prage: caried with him certain bookes of Wickleffe, De realibus vniuersalibus, De ciuili iure, & Diuino: De ecclesia, De quæstionibus, varijs contra clerū, &c. It chaunced the same tyme, a certayne noble man in the Citie of Prage, had founded and builded a great church of Mathias and Matheus, whiche church was called Bethleē: geuyng to it great landes, and findyng in it ij. preachers euery day, to preach both holyday & workingday to the people. Of the which ij. preachers, this Ihon Hus was one, a mā of great knowledge, of a pregnant wit, and excellently fauoured for hys worthy lyfe amongest them. MarginaliaWiclenus vir bonus sanctus cœlo dignus.
The great affection of Iohn Hus to Iohn Wickleffe.
This Ihon Hus, hauyng familiarity with this yong man, in readyng and perusing these bookes of Wickleffe: toke such pleasure and frute in readyng therof, that not onely he began to defende this autor openly in the scholes, but also in his sermons: commending hym for a good man, an holy man, and heauenly man, wished him selfe when he should dye, to be there placed where as the soule of Wicleffe should be. And thys for the spreadyng of Wickleffes doctrine inoughe.

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And thus much briefly concernyng the fauourers and adherentes of Iohn Wickleffe, in generall. Now particularly and in order let vs (by Christes grace) prosecute the stories and persecutions of the sayd parties aforenamed, as the course of their tymes shall require, first begynnyng with the valiant champions William Swynderby, and Walter Brute.

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