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635 [635]

K. Henry. 4. The deposing and death of K. Richard. 2. Actes and Mon. of the church.

With the same duke of Gloucester also aboute the same tyme, was arested & imprisoned the Earle of Warwicke, and the Earle of Arundell: who beyng condēned by Parliamēt, were thē executed, wherby great grudge and indignation rose in the hartes of many agaynst the kyng. an. 1397.

Fourthly, to omit here the blāke chartes sent ouer all þe land by the king: & how the kyng was said to let out this realme to ferme: Ouer & beside al these aboue premised, fell an other matter, whiche was the principall occasion of this mischief: The banishmēt I mean, of Hēry Earle of Derby, & made duke of Hereford a litle before, beyng sonne of Iohn of Gaunt the duke of Lācaster (who died shortly after the banishement of his sonne and lyeth buried in the church of S. Paul in London) and the duke of Northfolke: MarginaliaErle of Notyngham made duke of Northfolke.Who was before earle of Notingham, and after by this kyng, made duke of Northfolke þe yeare before. At which time, the king made v. dukes, a Marques, and iiij. Earles to wit. Duke of Hereford, which was before Earle of Darby. Duke of Awmerle, which was before Earle of Rutland. Duke of Southrey, who was before Earle of Kent. Duke of Exester, whiche was before Earle of Huntinghton, & this duke of Northfolke, being before Earle of Notingham, as is a foresaid &c. The occasion of banishing these foresayd dukes was this.

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About this present time, the duke of Hereford did appeache the duke of Northfolke vpon certaine wordes to be spoken agaynst the kyng. Wherupon, castyng theyr gloues one agaynst the other, they appointed to fight out þe quarel, a day beyng for the same apointed at Couētry. MarginaliaThe duke of Northfolke, & duke of Hereford banished.But the kyng tooke vp the matter in his owne handes, banishyng the duke of Northfolke for euer, which after died at Venice. and the other duke whiche was the duke of Hereforde, for x. yeares. MarginaliaTho. Arundel banished as a traytour by parliament.Beside these, also was exiled into France, Thomas Arun-dell Archbishop of Canterbury, by acte of Parliamēt, in the same yere, for pointes of treason, as ye haue heared aboue expressed, pag. 612. col. 2. lin. 23. All which turned to the great inconueniēce of this kyng, as in the euent folowyng may appeare.

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MarginaliaAn. 1399These causes and preparatiues thus premised, it folowed the yeare after, whiche was. an. 1399. & last yeare of this kyng, that the kyng vpon certaine affaires to bee done, toke his viage into Irelād. In which meane time: Henry of Bolingbroke, Earle of Darby, & duke of Hereford, & with him the foresayd Archbishop Thomas Arūdell (whiche before were both exiled) returnyng out of Fraunce to Calyce, came into England, chalenging the Dukedome of Lancaster, after the death of his father. With them also, came the sonne and heyre of the Earle of Arundell, beyng yet but yong. These together settyng out of Calyce, arriued at Rauenspur in the North. At þe knowledge wherof, much people gathered vnto them.

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In this meane time, as the Duke was houeryng on the sea to enter the land: Lord Edmund Duke of Yorke the kinges vncle, to whom the king committed the custodie of his realme (hauing intelligence thereof) called to him the bishop of Chichester named Edmund Stafford Chauncelour of the realme, and W. Scroope Earle of Wiltshiere lord treasorer, also Iohn Busshey, W. Bagot, Hēry Grene, and Iohn Ruschel, with diuers other, consulting with them what was best in that case to bee done. Who then gaue their aduise (whether wylfull or vnskilfull, it is not knowen, but very vnfruitful) that he should leaue London, and go to S. Albons, ther to wait for more strength able to encoūter with the Duke. But as the people oute of diuers quarters resorted thether, many of them protested that they would doo nothing to the harme and preiudice of the duke of Lancaster, who they sayd, was vniustlye expulsed. The rest then of the Counsail, I. Busshey, W. Bagot, Henry Grene, Wylliam Scrope treasorer, hearing and vnderstanding how the commons were mynded to ioyne wyth the duke ofof Herford, left the duke of Yorke, and the lord Chauncelor, and fled to the Castel of Bristow. MarginaliaWhat euyll companye doth about a kyng.Where is to be vnderstand, that these foure were they to whom the common fame ran, that þe K. had let out his realme to farme: and wer so hated of the people, that it is to bee thought, that for the hatred of thē more then for the kyng, thys commotion was among the people.

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MarginaliaK Rychard returneth frō Ireland to Milford hauen.As this broyle was in Englande, the noyse thereof sounding to the kinges eares, beyng then in Irelande, for hasty speede of returning into England, left in Ireland both hys busines, and most of hys ordinaunce also behinde him. And so passyng the seas, landed at Milford hauen, not daryng as it semed to come to London.

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On the contrary side, vnto Henry duke of Hereford beyng lāded as is sayd in the North, came the Earle of Northumberlād, Lord Henry Percy, and Henry his sonne: the Earle of Westmerland L. Radolfe Neuyle, and other Lordes mo to a greate number, so that the multitude rose to 60000. able souldiours. Who firste makyng towarde the castle of Bristowe tooke the foresayd Bushey, Grene, Scrope, and Bagot: of whom, iii. incontinent were beheaded. Bagot escapyng away fled to Ireland.

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MarginaliaK. Rychard forsaken of his subiectesThe kyng in this meane while, lyeng about Wales, destitute & desolate without comforte or counsaile, who neither durst come to London, neither would any man come to hym, & perceauyng more ouer, the commōs that were vp in such a great power agaynst him, would rather dye, then geue ouer that they had begon, for feare of thē selues: MarginaliaWhat it is for a Prince to be beloued of hys subiectes.Seyng therfore no other remedy, called to hym L. Tho. Percy earle of Worcester, and stuard of his houshold, willing him with other of his familie, to prouide for them selues in tyme. Who then openly in the hall brake his white rod before them all, cōmaundyng euery man to shift for him selfe. Although Fabian and some other say, that he did this of his own accord, cōtrary to his allegeāce. The kyng compassed on euery side with miseries, shifted frō place to place, the duke still folowing him, till at lēgth beyng at the castle of Conewey the kyng desired to talke with Tho. Arundell Archb. and the Earle of Northumberland: MarginaliaK. Richard agreed to resigne his crowne.To whom he declared, that he would resigne vp his crown, in condition that an honorable liuing might be for him prouided, and life promised to viii. persons such as he would name. Whiche beyng graunted and ratified, but not performed, he came to the castle of Flint, where (after talke had with the duke of Lancaster) he was brought the same night by the duke and his armey to Chester: MarginaliaThe king committed to the tower.And from thence was conueyed secretly into the tower, there to be kept till the next Parliament. By the way as he came nere to London, diuers euill disposed men of the citie beyng warned thereof, gathered them selues thinkyng to haue slain him, for the great crueltie he had vsed before toward the citie. But by the policies of the Maior & rulers of the Citie, the madnes of the people was stayd. Not long after folowed the duke, and also began the Parlament. In which Parliament, þe Earle of Northūberland with many other Earles & Lordes were sent to the king in the Tower, to take of him a full resignatiō according to his former promise, and so they dyd. Thys done, diuers accusations and articles were layd and engrossed against the said king, to the number of 33. some say 38. which for the matter not greatly materiall in them contayned, I ouer passe. And the next yeare after was had to Pomfret castel, and there famished to death.

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¶ King Henry the fourth.

ANd thus king Richard by cōmon assent being deposed from his rightfull crowne: The Duke of Lancaster was led by Tho. Arundel tharchbishop, to the seate royall: who there standing vp, and crossing him selfe on the forehead and the brest, spake in wordes as foloweth.

MarginaliaThe words of Henry Duke clayming the crowne.In the name of God: amen. I Henry of Lancaster clayme the realme of England and the crown, with all the appurtenances, as I that am descended by ryght lyne of the bloud comming from that good Lorde K. Henry 3. And through the ryght that God of hys grace hath sent to me with the helpe of my kinne and of my frendes to recouer the same, which was in poynt to be vndone for defaulte of good gouernaunce, and due iustice. &c.

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MarginaliaK. Henry 4. inthroned & crowned.After which words, tharchb. asking the assēt of the people, being ioyful of their new king: tooke the duke by the hand, & placed him in the kingly throne, whych was an. 1399. and shortly after by the foresayde archb. he was crowned also for kyng of England. Ex chron. D. Alban

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Marginalia1400
W. Sautrey Martyr.
The next yeare after, followed a parlament holden at Westminster, in whyche parlament, one Wylliam Sautre, 

Commentary  *  Close
William Sawtrey 

In the Commentarii, Foxe printed a note on William Sawtre, the first Lollard martyr; the note had been written by John Bale in the margin of the Fasciculi Zizaniorum (cf. Commentarii, fo. 115v with Bodley Library MS e Musaeo 86, fo. 62r-v). Foxe's account of Sawtre in the Commentarii also included seven articles for which Sawtre was condemned; this was also taken from the Fasciculi Zizaniorum ((Bodley MS e Musaeo 86, fos. 96v-97r). This account was reprinted exactly in the Rerum (p. 79). In the 1563 edition, Foxe reprinted this material but added a royal decree against Sawtre, which was probably taken from London diocesan records. In the 1570 edition the 1563 account was reprinted, but the earlier process against Sawtre and his recantation as well as Sawtre's examinations by Archbishop Arundel and the sentence against Sawtre were all added. Foxe took all of these documents from Archbishop Arundel's register (Lambeth Palace Library Arundel Register, vol. II, fos. 178r-181r). This account was reprinted without change in subsequent editions.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

a good man and a faythfull priest, inflamed with zeale of true religion, required he might be hearde for the cōmodity of the whole realme. MarginaliaW. Sautre brought before the bishops in the conuocation.But the matter being smelt before by the bishops, they obtayned that the matter should be referred to the conuocation: where the sayd William Sautre being brought before the bishops and Notaries therunto appoynted, the cōuocation was differred to the Saterday next ensuing.

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