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670 [670]

K. Henry. 4. Articles drawne out of Iohn Purueyes bookes

and continually all the commaundementes of God, and so than to pray deuoutly to all the blessed Trinitie, that I maye haue grace wyth wysedome and prudence from aboue to ende my lyfe here in thys foresayd truth and for thys cause, in true fayth and stedfaste hope, and perfecte charitie. Amen.

MarginaliaThe end of W. Thorp vncertaine.What was the end of thys good man and blessed seruaunt of God William Thorpe, I finde as yet in no storye specifyed. By all coniectures it is to be thought, that the Archbishop Thomas Arundell being so hard an aduersarye agaynst those men, woulde not let hym goe. Much lesse it is to be supposed, that he woulde euer retracte hys sentence and opinion, which he so valiantlye maintayned before the bish. neyther doth it seme that he had any such recanting spirit. Again, neither is it foūd, that he was burned. Wherfore it remayneth most lyke to be true, that he being cōmitted to some straight prysonne (according as the Archb. in hys examination before, did threaten him) there (as Thorpe confesseth himselfe) was so straightly kept, that eyther he was secretly made awaye, or ells there he dyed by sicknes.

¶ Iohn Puruey, 
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John Purvey

In the Commentarii (fo. 43r-v), Foxe wrote a brief account of John Purvey, describing his persecution by the authorities, and summarised his writings. This was based on a brief biography of Purvey written by John Bale in Bodley Library MS e Musaeo 86, fo. 62v and notes on Purvey's wrings on fo. 91v. This material was reprinted in the Rerum (p. 20). In the 1563 edition, Foxe translated this material and added the articles that Purvey recanted (these were taken from e Musaeo 86. fos. 91v-95r). In the 1570 edition, Foxe reprinted all of the earlier material and added a fuller list of 'heretical' statements compiled from Purvey's writings by the Carmelite Richard Lavingham. This new material was taken from e Musaeo 86, fos.95r-96v. For the most part, Foxe reprinted this material accurately, although he surreptitiously omitted passages in which Lavingham maintained that Purvey had declared that lay people could legimately administer the sacraments. The 1570 account of Purvey was reprinted without change in subsequent editions of the Acts and Monuments. A note of caution should be added, however: Anne Hudson has pointed out how little is known of Purvey and has been persuasively sceptical about the attributions of anonymous Lollard writings to him (see Anne Hudson, 'John Purvey: A Reconsideration of the Evidence for his life and Writings' in Lollards and their Books [London, 1985], pp. 85-110).

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

MarginaliaIohn Puruey.FVrthermore, in the sayd examination of William Thorpe, mention was made (as ye hard) of Iohn Puruey, of whom also something we touched before: promising of þe said Iohn Puruey, more perticularlye to entreate in order and proces of tyme. Of thys Puruey Tho. Waldē writeth thus in his 2. Tome. Iohn Puruey, sayth he, was þe Librarie of Lollardes, & gloser vpon Wickleffe. He sayd, þt the worshippyng of Abraham was but a salutation. And in his third Tome, he sayth: MarginaliaIoh. Puruey prisoned after his recātation.this Iohn Puruey with Harford a doctour of diuinitie, were greuously tormented, & punished in the prison of Saltwood, & at the length recanted at Paules crosse at London (Tho. Arundell beyng then Archb. of Canterbury) Afterward agayn, he was emprisoned vnder Henry Chicheley Archb. of Canterbury, in þe yeare of our Lord. 1421. Thus much writeth Waldē. The workes of this man whiche he wrote, were gathered by Richard Lauingame hys aduersary, which I think worthy to be remembred. First, as touchyng the Sacramēt of the last supper, the Sacrament of penaūce, the Sacrament of orders, the power of the keyes, þe preaching of the Gospell, of Mariages, of Vowes, of possessions, of the punishing and correcting of the Clergy, of the lawes and decrees of the churche, of the state and condition of the pope and the clergy: Of all these generally, he left diuers monumentes grauely & exactly written, part wherof here in the ende of his story wee thought to exhibite, beyng translated out of Latine into English.

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The Articles whiche he taught, and afterward was forsed to recant at Paules crosse, were these hereafter folowyng.

MarginaliaArticles of Ioh Puruey recanted.1. That in the Sacrament of the aulter after the consecratiō, there is not, neither can be, any accident without the subiect: But there verely remayneth the same substaunce and the very visible and incorruptible bread, and likewise the very same wyne the whiche before the consecration were set vpon the aultar to be consecrate by the priest: likewise as when a Pagan or infidele is baptised, hee is spiritually conuerted into a member of Christ through grace, and yet remayneth the very same man whiche he before was in his proper nature & substaunce.

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2. Auricular confession or priuate penaunce, is a certaine whisperyng, destroying the libertie of the gospell, and newly brought in by the Pope and the Clergie, to intangle the consciences of men in sinne, and to drawe their soules into hell.

MarginaliaHe speketh of priestes here, & not of publique ministers appointed in the Churche.3. Euery lay mā being holy, and predestinate vnto euer lastyng lyfe (albeit he be a lay man) yet is he a true priest before God.

4. That diuers Prelates & other of the Clergy, do liue wickedly contrary to the doctrine and example of Christ and his Apostles. Therfore they which so liue, haue not the keyes, neither of the kingdome of heauen, neither yet of hell: neither ought any Christiā to esteme his censure any more, then as a thinge of no force. Yea, albeit the pope should peraduenture interdite the realme, yet could he not hurt, but rather profite vs, for so much as thereby we should be dismissed frō the obseruation of his lawes, and from saying of seruice accordyng to the custome of the churche.

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MarginaliaVowes.5. If any man do make an othe or vowe, to kepe perpetuall chastitie, or do any thyng els wherunto god hath not appoynted hym, geuyng hym grace to performe his purpose: the same vow or othe, is vnreasonable & vndiscrete, neither can any Prelate compell hym to kepe the same, except he will do contrary vnto gods ordinaunce. But he ought to commit him, vnto the gouernāce of the holy ghost, and of his owne conscience: for so much as euery man which wil not fulfill his vowe or othe, can not do it for that cause.

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MarginaliaThe charge of priests.6. Whosoeuer taketh vpon him the office of priesthode, although he haue not the charge of soules cōmitted vnto him, according to the custome of the church: Not onely they may, but ought to preache the gospell freely vnto the people, otherwise he is a thief, excommunicated of god, and of the holy churche.

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MarginaliaAgainst transubstantiation.7. That Innocentius the third Pope, and sixe hundred Byshops, and a thousand other prelates, withall the rest of the Clergy, whiche together with the same Pope agreed and determined: that in the Sacrament of the aulter, after the conuersion of the bread and wyne into the body and bloud of Christ, that the accidentes of the sayd bread & wine do remaine there, without any proper subiect of the same: the whiche also ordeined, that all Christians ought to confesse their sinnes once a yeare vnto a proper priest, and to receiue the reuerent Sacrament at Easter, and made certain other lawes at the same time: All they saith he in so doyng, were fooles & Blockheads, heretickes, Blasphemers & Seducers of the Christiā people. Wherfore, we ought not to beleue their determinations, or of their successors, neither ought we to obey their lawes or ordinaunces, excepte they be playnly grounded vpon the holy scripture, or vpon some reason whiche can not be impugned.

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¶ Other articles drawen out of Purueyes bookes more at large by Ry. Lauyngham.

MarginaliaArticles out of Purueys books collected by R. Lauingham.AS touchyng the Sacrament of thankes geuyng, he sayth: That that chap. of repentaunce and remission: Omnis vtriusque sexus, wherin it is ordained, that euery faithfull mā ought once euery yeare at the least, that is to say, at Easter, to receaue the Sacrament of Eucharist: is a beastly thyng, hereticall, and blasphemous.

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Item, that Innocentius the 3. Pope, was the head of Antichrist, who after the lettyng loose of Sathan, inuented a new article of our faith, and a certeine fained veritie touchyng the Sacrament of the aultar: MarginaliaThe Sacrament of the popishe aultar.That is to say, þt the Sacrament of the aultar is an accident without a substaunce, or els an heape of accidences without a substaunce. But Christ and his Apostles do teach manifestly, that the Sacrament of the aultar is bread, and the body of Christ together after þe maner that he spake: And in that he calleth it bread, he would haue the people to vnderstand as they ought with reason, that it is very and substantiall bread, and no false nor fained bread.

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MarginaliaPope Innocentius head of Antichrist.And although Innocentius that Antichrist doth alledge, that in the councell at Lions where this matter was decised were 600. bishops with him, and 1000. prelates, whiche were of one opinion in this determination: All those notwithstād, he calleth fooles according to that saying of Eccl. 1. Of fooles there are an infinitie nomber. And so in lyke maner he calleth them false Christes and false Prophetes, of whō Christ speaketh the 24. of Math. Many false Christes and false Prophetes shall arise and deceaue many: And therfore , euery christian man ought

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