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679 [679]

K. Henry. 4. The Pope periured. The councell of Pise.

And thus much concerning thys worthye and fruitfull Sermon, which as by the auncientnes of the phrase seemeth to be preached much aboute the tyme of Iohn Wickleffe: so I thought here, by the occasion of William Thorpes examination, best to place the same: for the apte coherence both of the spirit, and of the matter. Especiallye hauing before our eyes, the publique vtilitie of the reader, to whom by the studious reading therof, might rise plentifull matter of true Christian informacion, both of the wholesome fearinge of God, and of the right guiding of euery Christen mans life.

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Which thus being finished, now to continue 

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Henry IV and Gregory XII

Generally Foxe's material on individual popes came either from John Bale's Catalogus or Matthias Flacius's Catalogus testium veritatis. In the case of Gregory XII and Alexander V, however, Foxe took all of his information from College of Arms MS Arundel 7, which was one version of Thomas of Walsingham's Chronica majora. The only exception to this is the discussion of the duration of the Great Schism, which comes from John Bale, Catalogus, pp. 439-41. Everything else, including the letter from Henry IV to Gregory XII, comes from Arundel 7. (See Thomas of Walsingham, Historia Anglicana, ed. H. T. Riley, 2 vols., Rolls Series 28 [London, 1863-4], II, pp. 275, 279-80, 281 and 284). Foxe's account of Gregory XII first appeared in the 1570 edition and it was reprinted, without change, in all subsequent editions. Foxe's purposes in printing this account were simply to portray the Papacy in a bad light. Foxe highlights the inability of Gregory XII and other popes to set aside their personal interests, even to end the schism. Along the way, Foxe was also able to denounce papal political ambitions, their use of miolitary force and even to sarcastically contrast the lavish granting of promises of eternal life (indulgences) by the popes with their strikingly ephemeral pontificates.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

and to proceede further in our story, after the examination of W. Thorpe, and the martirdome of W. Sawtrey, and of Iohn Badby thus discribed (as ye haue hard) whiche was about the yeare. 1409: By the way here is to be cōsidered, at least to be admonished, that all thys while the schisme in the church of Rome did yet continue, and so endured till the councell of Constance, whiche was in whole, the space of. xxix. yeares. MarginaliaVide supra pag. 533.
Vrbanus. 5.
Bonifacius. 9.
The origen wherof (as was sayd. pag. 533) first beganne at Vrbanus. 5. Which Vrbanus being dead, an. 1389, next folowed Pope Boniface the. 9. who sat. 14. yeares. He in selling his pardons was so impudent & so past shame, that he brought the keyes of Peter (as sayth Platina) in contempt. MarginaliaInnocentius 7.
Gregorius. 12.
After him succeeded Innocentius. 7. & sat. 2. yeares: who being dead, the Cardinals consulting together, and seyng the foule enormitie and inconuenience growing vpon this contentious schism in their church of Rome (minding to prouide some remedie for the same after the best deuise they could) MarginaliaThe Cardinalls deuise to cease the schisme.in their conclaue where they were assembled for a new election of the pope, tooke this order: promising emong thēselues, with a solemne vow made to God, to Mary the blessed virgin, to Peter and Paul, & to all the blessed companye of saintes: MarginaliaThe vowe and othe of the cardinals made for the ceasing of the schisme.That if any of thē within þe college or wtout the college, should be called to that high place of Apostolicall preeminence: he should effectually renounce the iurisdiction & title of his Popedome, if or whensoeuer the contrary Pope for the tyme being, would in like manner renounce hys place and title, & his cardinals in like manner to condescende to the other cardinals of Rome. So that both these. ii. colledge of Cardinals agreing together: one chiefe bishop myght be chosen and taken out of thē both, to be made the true Pope. Prouided moreouer, that none should seeke anye releasement or absolucion from the sayd promise, vow, & bond, once passed emōg them: Vnto all which things furthermore, euery one subscribed with his hand. These thinges thus prefixed and ratified vpon the same, they proceeded to the election. In which was chosen Gregorius the xii. who the same day of hys election, in the presence of all the Cardinals: confirmed þe vow, sacramēt, and promise made, subscribing the same with his hande in forme as foloweth. MarginaliaThe othe and vowe of pope Gregorye. 12.And I Gregory, this day being the last of Nouember, in the yeare of our Lord, 1407, chosen and elected for bishop of Rome: do sweare, vow, and promise, & confirme all the premisses, aboue cōteined, &c. This being done, shortly after he was crowned being of the age of 80. yeres. As the time thus passed, the people and Cardinals wer in great expectacion, waiting when the Pope according to his othe woulde geue ouer, wyth the other Pope also. And not long after, the matter begā in dede betwen the ii. popes to be attēpted, by letters frō one to another: assignyng both day & place, where & whē they should meete together: but yet no effect did folow. MarginaliaEx Chron. D. Albani.

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MarginaliaThe pope falsly periured.This so passing on, greate murmuring was emong the Cardinals, to see theyr holy periured father, so to neglect his othe, and vow aforenamed. MarginaliaCardinals leaue the periured pope.Insomuche that at length, diuers of them did forsake the pope, as being periured (as no les he was) sending moreouer to kinges and princes of other lands, for their counsell and assistaunce therin, to appeace the schisme. Amongst þe rest, Cardinall Bituriensis was sent to the kyng of Englād: who publi-shyng diuers propositions and conclusiōs (remainyng in the registers of Thomas Arūdel) disputeth, that the pope ought to be subiect to lawes and counels. Marginalia1409.Then K. Henry (moued to write to Gregory the Pope) directeth thys letter here vnder insuing, whiche was the yeare of our Lord. 1409. The contentes of the letter be these.

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☞ The letter of K. Henry. 4. to Pope Gregory. 12.

MarginaliaKing Henry 4 to Pope Gregory 12.MOst blessed father, If the discrete prouidence of the Apostolique sea, woulde call to minde, wyth what great perils the vniuersall worlde hath bene damnified hetherto, vnder pretence of thys presente schisme: Marginalia21. hūdreth thousand slaine, by the scisme of Rome. xxx. thousand slaine in camp fighting for the bishopprick of Lodium.and especially would consider, what slaughter of Christē people, to the number of. ii. hundreth thousand (as they say) hath bene throughe the occasion of warre raysed vp in diuers quarters of the world, and nowe of late, to the number of. xxx. thousande souldiours whiche haue bene slayne through the dissension moued aboute the bishopricke of Leodium, betwene two set vp: one by the autority of one Pope, the other by the authority of the other pope, fighting in campe for the title of that Bishoprike: Certes ye woulde lament in spirit, and be sore greued in mind for the same. So that, with good cōsciēce you wuld relinquish rather the honor of the sea Apostolike, then to suffer such horrible bloudshed hereafter to ensue, vnder the cloke of dissimulacion, folowing herin the example of the true mother in the booke of kings: who pleading before Salomon for the right of her childe, rather would depart from the childe, then the childe should be parted by the sword. And although it may be vehemently suspected by the new creatiō of. ix Cardinals, by you last made, cōtrary to your othe (as other men do say) that you do but little hede or care for ceasing the schisme: Yet far be it frō the hearing & noting of the world, that your circumspect seate should euer be noted and disteined with such an inconstancy of mind: Whereby the last error may be worse, then the first. Ex Chronic D. Albani. part. 2.

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King Henry. 4. to the Cardinals.

MarginaliaKing Henry 4. to the Cardinals.ANd to the Cardinals likewise, the said king directeth an other letter with these cōtents here folowing: We desiringe to shewe what zeale we haue had and haue, to the reformation of the peace of the church: by the consent of the states of the realme, haue directed to the bishop of Rome, our letters after the tenour of the copie here within these presēts enclosed, to be executed effectually. MarginaliaConcilium Pisanum.Wherfore, we seriously besech your reuerend colledge, that if it chaunce the sayd Gregory to be present at the councell of Pise, and to render vp his Popedome according to your desire, and his owne othe: you then so ordein for his state totally, that chiefly God may be pleased therby, and that both the sayd Gregory, and also we which loue intierley his honour and commoditie, may haue cause to geue you worthely, condigne thankes for the same. ibid.

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MarginaliaEx chro. d. Albani.
1410.
Conciliam Pisanum.
This being done in the yeare of our Lord. 1409. afterward in the yeare next folowing an. 1410. 

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Persecution of Lollards and Hussites

For the next few pages, Foxe weaves together two separate strands of material. The first is an account of Alexander V summoning Jan Hus to Rome, and then, when Hus refusd to comply, the pope's ordering the archbishop of Prague to ban all pro-Wiclifite writings in Bohemia and finally of Hus's denunciation of the papal order. All this material came from Johannes Cochlaeus's history of the Hussite wars. (See Johannes Cochlaeus, Historiae Hussitarum [Mainz, 1549], pp. 19-21). The second strand of material is a series of episodes where fourteenth-century English bishops were demonstrating what, to Foxe, was intolerable arrogance in insisting upon either outward deference (such as the having bulls rung in their honour on visitations) or enforcing their tithes and rents with ecclesiastical sanctions such as penance. Foxe took these instances from various archiepiscopal registers. Archbishop Arundel's letter authorizing an indulgence of 40 days to everyone who said five Pater and Aves at the morning bells, is taken from bishop Reginald Braybook's register (London Guildhall Library MS 9531/3, fo. 303A-B). Arundel's commission to suspend certain London churches is from Lambeth Palace Library, Arundel Register I, fol. 392A and his mediation between the bishop of Worcester and his prior is from Lambeth Palace Library, Arundel Register I, fol. 441A. Archbishop Chichele's letter to the abbot of St. Alban's is taken from his register. (See The Register of Henry Chichele, ed. E. F. Jacob, 4 vols. [Oxford, 1943-7], IV, p. 278). Courtney's penance, imposed upon his defaulting tenants, is taken from Lambeth Palace Library, Courtney Register, fol. 337B. This material first appeared in the 1570 edition and was reprinted, without change, in subsequent editions.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

the Cardinals of both the Popes, to witte, of Gregorius, and Benedictus: By common aduise assembled together at the city of Pise, for the reformation of vnitye & peace in the church. MarginaliaPope Alexander. 5.To the which assemblye, a greate multitude of Prelates & bishops beinge conuented, a newe Pope was chosē, named Alexāder. 5. But to this electiō neither Gregorius, nor Benedictus did fully agree. Marginaliaiii. Popes together.Wherby, there were. iii. Popes together in the Romane church (that is to vnderstand) not. iii. crownes vpon one Popes heade, but. iii. heades in one popish church together. MarginaliaThe vaine remission by the Popes indulgence.This Alexander being newly made Pope, scarsely had well warmed his triple crowne but strayght geueth out full remission, not of a few, but of all maner of sinnes whatsoeuer: to all them that conferred any thinge to the monastery of S. Bartlemew by Smithfielde, resortinge to the sayd church anye of these dayes folowinge: to witte, on Maundy thursday, good friday, Ester euen, þe feast of the annunciation, frō the first euensong, to the latter. MarginaliaPope Alexander dead.
Pope Iohn. 23.
But this Pope which was so liberall of geuing remission of many yeares to other, was not able to geue one year of life to himselfe: for wythin the same yeare, he died. In whose steed stept vp, Pope Iohn. 23.

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In the tyme of thys Alexander, great styrre beganne in the countrye of Bohemia, by þe occasion of þe bokes of

Iohn
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