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784 [784]

K. Henry. 5. The Bohemians. Pope Martine.

And now from our English matters, to returne againe to the story of the Bohemians, from whence we haue a little digressed, when as the newes of the barbarous cruelty exercised at Constance against Iohn Hus, and Hierome of Prage, were noysed in Boheme, the nobles and gentlemē of Morauia and of Boheme, such as fauoured the cause of Iohn Hus, gathering themselues together in the zeale of Christ: 

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Hussite Wars

Those who continue to insist that one of the purposes of the Acts and Monuments was to present England as the elect nation, might do well to examine Foxe's glorification of the Hussites. With the possible exception of Thomas Cromwell, there is no magistrate or secular leader whom Foxe admired as much as the Hussite military commander, Jan Ziska. Foxe's account of the Hussites allowed him to stress two themes important to him: that the False Church, led by the Papacy, was unrelenting in its determination to eradicate the True Church and that God could be counted on to protect his people. With the exception of Zisca's epitaph, which was taken from Matthias Flacius, Catalogus testium veritatis [Strassburg, 1562], p. 499, all of Foxe's account of Zisca and of the Hussite wars in the 1563 edition is taken from Aeneas Sylvius Picclomini's Historia Bohemica (Basel, 1489), sigs. c8v-e2v. In the 1570 version, Foxe reprinted most of this material, although he deleted material which had been included in the first edition but was now considered too embarrassing: among them a description of the Adamites (radical sectarians who renunciation of worldly goods allegedly extended to nudity) and Picclomini's descriptions of massacres perpetrated by the Hussites. In the 1570 edition, Foxe added two documents. One was a bull of Martin V ordering prosecution of the followers of Wiclif and Hus. Foxe stated that he received a copy of this bull from Richard Hakluyt the elder, the cousin of the Richard Hakluyt who compiled The Principal Navigations. The other document was a manifesto sent by the Hussites to European rulers in an effort to garner support. Foxe states simply that this document came 'ex vetustissimo codice manuscripto'. The account of the Hussite wars in the 1570 edition was reprinted without change in subsequent editions of the Acts and Monuments.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

first sente their letter vnto the councell, expostulating with them, for the iniurie done to those godly mē, as is before expressed pag. 755. for the which letter they were all cited vp to the Councell. Vnto this letter Sigismund the emperour maketh aunswere agayne in the name of the whole Councell: first, excusyng himselfe of Husses death, whiche he sayd was against his safeconduicte and against his will: In so muche that he rose in anger from the Councell, and departed out of Constance, as is before remembred. Secondly, he requireth them to be quiete, and to conforme themselues peaceably vnto the order of the catholique church of Rome, &c.

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Also the councell hearing or fearyng some stirre to ryse among the Bohemians, dyd make lawes and articles wherby to bridle them, to the number of xxiiij.

MarginaliaArticles decreed in the Councell of Cōstance against the Bohemiās.FIrst, that the kyng of Bohemia shall bee sworne to geue obedience, and to defende the liberties of the church of Rome.

2. That all maisters, doctours & priests, shall be sworne to abiure the doctrine of Wickliffe, & Hus, in that councel condemned.

That all they which being cited would not appeare, should also be sworn to abiure: and thei which wold not apeare, contēning the censure of the keyes, should haue processe against them, and be punished.

That all suche lay men as had defended the causes of Iohn Wickliff and Iohn Hus, should sweare to defend them no more, and to approue the doings of that councel, and the condemnation of Iohn Hus.

That all such seculare men as had spoyled the clergy, should be sworne to restitution.

That priestes beyng expelled from their benefices, should be restored agayne.

That all prophaners of churches should be punished after the canonical sanctions.

That such as had bene promoters in the Councell against Iohn Hus, should be permitted safely to returne into Boheme againe, and to enioy their benefices.

That the reliques and treasure takē out of the church of Prage, should be restored fully againe.

That the vniuersitie of Prage shoulde bee restored agayn and reformed, and þt they which had bene the disturbers therof, should be really punished.

MarginaliaIoan. Iessenitz.
Iacobellus.
Simon de Tysna.
Simon de Rochinzano.
Christānus.
Ioan. Cardinalis.
Zdenko.
Prouost of alhalowes.
Zdislaus.
Michaell.
That þe principal heretikes & doctors of that sect, shold be sent vp to the sea Apostolique, namely Ioannes Iessenetz, Iacobellus de Misna: Symon de Tysna, Symon de Rochinzano, Christannus de Brachatitz: Ioannes Cardinalis: Zdenko de loben: The prouost of Alhalowes, Zdislaus de SuiertitZ, and Michael de Czisko.

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That all secular men which cōmunicated vnder both kyndes, should abiure that heresie, and swere to stoppe the same hereafter.

That they whiche were ordeined priestes by the suffragane of the Archbishop of Prage, MarginaliaThis suffragane was a good man and helde with Iohn Hus.taken by the L. Zenko, should not be dispensed with, but sent vp to the sea Apostolike.

MarginaliaWickleiffes bookes translated by Iohn Hus and Iacobellus, into the Bohemian speech.That the treatises of Iohn Wickleffe translated into the Bohemiā tōgue by Iohn Hus, & Iacobellus, shold be brought to the ordinarie.

That the treatises of Iohn Hus condēned in the councell, should also be brought vnto the ordinarie.

That all the tractatiōs of Iacobellus De vtraque specie, de Antichristo (wherin he calleth the Pope Antichrist) Et de semanētia panis post cōsecrationē, shuld likewise be brought and burned.

That all songes and balates made to the preiudice of the Councell, and of the Catholike persons of bothe states, should be forbyd to be song in Cities, townes and villages, vnder great and extreme punishment.

That none should preache the worde without the licence of the ordinarie, or of the person of that place.

That ordinaryes and Prelates hauyng iurisdiction, should not be stopped in their iurisdiction, by the secular power, vnder payne of excommunciation.

That all and singular persons shall bee commaunded to obedience vnder payne of excōmunication: and that who soeuer knoweth any persō to fauour any Wycleuistes or their doctrine, or that kepeth company with suspect persons, hee shall present the same to his diocesans or his officials.

That the cōfederacie of the seculars made betwene thē selues, or any of the spiritualtie, to þe preiudice of the foresayd Councell, and of the Apostolicke sea and church of Rome, in the fauour of Iohn Hus, Hierome of Prage, & other in the sayd Councell condēned, shalbe dissolued. MarginaliaConcilium malignātium.

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That the rites & ceremonies of Christiā religiō, touching gods seruice, Images, & worshiping of reliques, shalbe obserued, & transgressors of þe same be punished.

That all and singular, either spirituall or secular that shall preach, teache, hold or mainteine the opinions and Articles of Iohn Wickleffe, Iohn Hus, and Hierome, in this Councell condemned, and conuict of the same, shalbe holden for heretickes, and fallyng in relapse, shalbe burned.

That all secular persons being monished and charged by the ordinaries, shalbe bounde to geue their ayde and furtheraunce vnto them, touchyng the premisses.

The Bohemians notwithstandyng these cruell Articles, contemnyng the vayne deuises of these Prelates and fathers of the Coūcell, ceased not to procede in their leigue and purpose begon, ioyning them selues more strongly together. MarginaliaDeposing of pope Iohn 23.In this meane tyme it happened, that duryng this Councell of Constāce, after the deposing of Pope Iohn, and spoylyng of his goods, whiche came to. 75. thousād poundes of gold and siluer, as is reported in the story of S. Albans,

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MarginaliaEx hist. S. Albani.pope Martin vpō the day of S. Martin, was elected. Concernyng whose election great preparation was made before of the councell, so þt beside the Cardinals. v. other Bishops of euery nation should enter into the conclaue, who there together should bee kept with thinne dyet, till they had founded a Pope. MarginaliaThe election of pope Martyne.At last, when they were together agreed vpon this man, they not tarying for openyng of the doore, lyke mad men, for hast, brast open an hole in the walle, crying out, Habemus papam, Martinum, wee haue a Martine Pope. MarginaliaThe Emperour kisseth the popes feete.The Emperour hearyng thereof, with the lyke hast, came a pace, & fallyng down kyssed the new popes feete. Then went they all to the churche together, and sange. Te deum.

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MarginaliaPope MartynThe next day followyng, this Martine was made priest (which before was but a Cardinall deacon) & the next day after was consecrate bishop, and sang his fyrst masse, wherat was present 140. mitred bishops. After this, the next morrow, the new holy pope ordained a generall procession, where a certayne clearke was appointed to stand with flaxe and fyre, who setting the flaxe on fyre, thus said: Ecce pater sancte, sic transit gloria mundi, i. beholde holy father, thus vadeth the transitory glory of this world. MarginaliaThe coronation of pope Martin.Which done, þe same day the holye father was brought vp vnto an high scaffold (saith the storye) I will not say to an high mountaine, where was offred to him all the glorye of the world &c. there to bee crowned for a triple king. This done, the same day, after dinner, the new crowned pope was with greate triumphe brought through the middest of the citie of Constance, where all the bishops and abbots followed with their miters. The popes horse was all trapt with redde skarlet down to þe ground. The Cardinals horses MarginaliaMeretrix equitans super bestiam Apocalyp.were all in white silke, MarginaliaThe pope on horsebacke the Emperour on foote.the Emperour on the right syde, and prince Electour on the lefte playing bothe the Popes footemen, went on foote leading the popes horse by the bridell.

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As this Pageant thus with the great gyaunt proceded, and came to the market place, there the Iewes (accordyng to the maner) offered to hym their law and ceremonies. Whiche the Pope receauyng, cast behynd

him,
Vv. iiij.
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