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802 [802]

K. Henry. 6. William Taylour priest, and Martyr.

tyngs were read to him, whiche he would not nor could not deny to be of his owne hand writyng.

MarginaliaThe opiniō of W. Taylour cōcernyng worshiping of sainctes.The tenour and effect of whose writyng onely tended to proue, that euery petition and prayer for any supernaturall gifte, ought to bee directed to God alone, and to no creature. Albeit in thys hys writyng he dyd not vtterlye denye, that it was not lawfull in no respect to pray to Sanctes (and bryngeth for the same Thomas Aquine) but onely in respecte of that worshyp, which is called Cultus latriæ: MarginaliaCultus latriæ, that is, worship, which is onely due to God.And further so prosecuteth his mind herein, that he semeth litle or nothing to differ from the superstition of the Papistes: as most plainely appeareth by his owne wordes, saying: Nunquam tamē negaui, aut negare intendo, merita aut sanctorum suffragia tam beatorum, quam viantium, tam viuis, quam mortuis ad hoc dispositis, quamtum possunt, suffragari, vel prosicere, quia hoc est elicibile ex Scriptura, quæ nō fallit, & ex consona ratione. &c. And moreouer he inferreth þe example of Moses, who prayed vnto God, alledgyng the merites of Abraham, Isaac, and Iacob, whiche were dead. &c: And furthermore passyng frō the testimonie of Hierome, and alleging the example of Steuen, sayth: Quod nunc magis exauditur pro veneratoribus suis, quam tunc exauditus est pro lapidatoribus. And at length he cōmeth to this cōclusion, prouyng by S. Austen, in this maner: Ne igitur cum impijs & idolatris in veteri testamento, in circuitu ambulemus, nunquam deueniendo ad cētrum, sanum est quod faciamus lecundum consilium Apostoli sic dicentis: Accedamus cum fiducia ad thronum gratiæ eius, vt misericordiā consequamur & gratiam inueniamus in auxilio oportuno. &c. MarginaliaAug. super Psal. 21.That is. And therfore leste wee runne about in circles with the wicked, and with the idolaters of þe old Testament, and neuer come to þe center, therfore it is wholesome and good counsaile, that we folow the mynde, of the Apostle, saying: Let vs resort with boldnes vnto the throne of his grace, that we may obteyne mercy, & finde grace in tyme of oportune helpe. &c.

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Thus much out of the foresayd writyng of VVilliā Taylour I haue excerped, to the intent that the indifferent reader, vsing his iudgement herein, may see howe litle matter was in this, wherfore he should be condemned by the papistes. And yet notwithstandyng the same writyng beyng deliuered by the Archbyshop, to the iiij. orders of friers of London to be examined, was found erroneous and hereticall in these pointes. Marginaliaiiii articles by the 4. orders of fryers layd agaynst W. Taylour.

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1. First, þt euery prayer, which is a petition of some supernaturall gift or free gift, is to be directed only to god.

2. Item, that prayer is to bee directed to God alone.

3. Item, to pray to any creature is to cōmit idolatrie.

4. Also an other opinion there was much lyke to the other, to make vp the fourth, so that although all these opinions agreed in one, yet to make vp a number euery order of the foure sortes of Friers, thought to finde out some matter to offer vp to the Archb. agaynst hym, leste one order should seme more cunning or pregnant in findyng out more, then could an other: or ells perchaunce leste any of them shoulde seeme to fauour the partie, in bryngyng nothyng agaynst hym, as the rest had done.

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When the Saterday was come, whiche was the xx. day of February, vpon the whiche day the foure orders were appointed to declare their censure vppon the Articles in þe chapiter house of Paules first appeareth Frier Tylle, for þe Blacke Friers, thē Frier Wynchelsey: thē frier Lowe: After frier Ashewell, eche frier for his order seuerally bryngyng hys heresie, as is aboue specifyed.

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MarginaliaW. Taylour disgraded.Thus the verdicte of these. iiij. orders being geuen vp to the Archbishop, and seuerally, eche order commyng in with his heresie, whiche was the. xx. day of February, VVilliam Taylour vpon the same was forthwith cōdemned as a relapse, first to be degraded, and after to be burned, & so was cōmitted to the seculare power. Who then beyng had to Smithfield, the first day of March, MarginaliaW. Taylour Martyr burned in Smythfield.with Christian constancie, after long imprisonment, there did consummate his Martyrdome. an. 1422.

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¶ The burnyng of VVilli? Taylour, Priest.
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Commentary on the Woodcuts  *  Close
In Foxe's first edition the story of William Tayler (or Taylor) opens the 'The thirde part or section of this Ecclesiasticall history'. William Taylor, 'a persistent and, in the end at least, fearless follower of Lollard views', was burned for heresy after a long heretical career. We know about his opinions not only from the record of proceedings against him in Archbishop Chichele's register and reports in Thomas Netter's Doctrinale, but also (unusually) from the survival of one of his sermons. Taylor was a native of Worcestershire and sometime principal of St Edmund's Hall, Oxford, who was cited and arrested for heresy on several occasions, the first being for a sermon he preached at Paul's Cross in 1406. He admitted in 1420, when arrested in Bristol, that he had been excommunicate for about fourteen yerars. His long, persistent careeer of heretical sympathies was finally terminated in March 1423, when he was burned at Smithfield as a relapsed heretic. It was his writings that incriminated him, the authorship of which he neither confessed nor denied to be in his own handwriting when examined. Foxe stated that his writings were so 'indifferent' that he deemed them not worthy of such a severe judgement against the man. In 1563 Taylor was represented by one of the vivid group of woodcuts that proved problematical because of their size. It showed a martyr chained to the stake with raised arms and the words 'Lord help me and forgeve them' in a bandarole. In and after 1570 he was illustrated by one of the new small woodcuts. . CUL copy: the martyr is depicted as wearing a white shroud. Although balding, his hair and beard are coloured in light brown. WREN copy: in this copy Tailor's hair and beard are greying slightly.

MarginaliaThe popes maner of degradation.The maner of his degradyng was all one with the degradyng of Iohn Hus before: for the papistes vse but one forme, for all men. First disgradyng them frō priesthood, by takyng from thē the Chalyce and Patine. Frō Deaconship, by takyng from them the Gospell booke & Tunicle. From Subdeaconship, by taking frō them the Epistle booke and Tunicle. From Accoluteshyp, by takyng from them the Cruet and Candelsticke. From an Exorciste, by takyng away the booke of Exorcismes or Graduall. From the Sextonshyp, by takyng away the churchdore key and surplis. And likwise from Benet, in takyng away the surplis, & first tonsure. &c. All which they orderly accomplished vpon this godly Martyr, before his burnyng.

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¶ Iohn Florence a Turner.

MarginaliaIohn Florence a Turner.JHon Florence a Turner, dwelling in Shelton, in the diocesse of Norwich, was attached for that he helde & taught these heresies here vnder wrytten (as they called thē) cōtrary to the determinatiō of the church of Rome.

In primis that the Pope and Cardinals haue no power to make or constitute any lawes.

Item, that there is no day to be kept holy, but onely the Sonday which God hath halowed.

Item, that men ought to fast no other time, but of the Quatuor temporum.

Item, that images are not to be worshipped, neither that the people ought to set vp anye lightes before them in the churches, neyther to go on pilgrimage, neither to offer for the dead, or with wemen that are purified.

Item that Curates should not take the tithes of their parishioners, MarginaliaHe meaneth they should not claime such tythes by any exaction.but that such tithes shoulde be deuided amongest the poore parishoners.

Item that all such as sweare by their lyfe or power, shall be damned, except they repent.

Marginalia1424.Vppon Wensday, being the second daye of August in the yeare of our Lorde. 1424. the sayde Iohn Florence personally appeared before William Bernam, Chauncelour to William bishop of Norwich, where as he proceeding against him, obiected the first article touching the power of the Pope and Cardinals: to whych article the said Iohn Florence answered in this maner.

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