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859 [859]

K. Henry. 6. The arte of Printyng. Constantinople.

ple crowne so awrye on the Popes head, that it is lyke neuer to be set streyght agayne.

Briefly, if their were no other demonstration to lead, yet by thys one argument of printyng, the B. of Rome might vnderstand the counsaile and purpose of þe Lord to worke agaynst hym, hauyng prouided such a way in earth, þt almost how many printyng presses there bee in þe world, so many blockhouses there be against the high Castle of S. Angell. So that either the Pope must abolish knowledge & printyng, or printyng at length will roote him out. MarginaliaSo preached the vicar of Croyden in K. Henry the 8. dayes, at Paules crosse, saying that eyther we must roote out Printyng, or ells Printyng will roote out vs.For if a man wisely consider the hold and standyng of the Pope, thus he may repute with him selfe, þt as nothyng made the Pope strōg in time past, but lacke of knowledge, and ignoraunce of simple Christians: so contrarywise now nothyng doth debilitate and shake þe hie spire of his Papacie so much as reading, preaching, knowledge and iudgement, that is to saye, the fruite of printyng: Wherof some experience we see already, and more is lyke (the Lorde before) to folow. For although, through outward force & violent crueltie, tongues dare not speake, yet the hartes of men dayly (no doubt) be instructed through this benefite of printyng. And though þe Pope both now by crueltie, and in tymes past by ignoraunce, had all vnder his possessions: yet neyther must he thinke, that violence will alwayes continue, neyther must hee hope for that nowe, whiche hee had then: for so much as in those former daies, bokes thē were scarse, and also of such excessiue price, that fewe could atteyne to the byeng, fewer to the readyng and studyeng therof: which bookes now by þe meanes of this arte, are made easie vnto all men. Ye heard before, pag. 778. how Nicolas Belward, bought a newe Testament in those dayes for. iiij. markes and. xl. d. where as nowe the same price will serue well. xl. persons with so many bookes.

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Moreouer in the, pag. 508. col. I. it was noted and declared by the testimonie of Armachanus, howe for defect of bokes & good authors, both Vniuersities were decayed, and good wyttes kept in ignoraunce, while beggyng Friers, scraping all the wealth frō other priestes, heaped vp all bokes that could be gottē, into their own Libraryes: where either they did not diligently applye them, or els dyd not ryghtlye vse them, or at least kept them from such as more frutefully woulde haue perused them.

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In this then so great raritie, and also darth of good bookes, when neither they whiche could haue bookes, would well vse them, nor they that would, could haue them to vse, what marueill if the gredines of a few prelates did abuse the blyndenes of those dayes, to the aduauncement of them selues? Wherfore, almighty God of his mercyfull prouidence, seyng both what lacked in the churche, and how also to remedy the same, for þe aduauncement of his glory, gaue the vnderstandyng of this excellent arte or science of printyng, MarginaliaTriple cōmoditie in Printyng.wherby iij. singular cōmodities at one tyme came to the worlde. First the price of all bookes, diminished. Secondly the spedy helpe of readyng, more furthered. And thirdlye the plenty of all good authors enlarged: accordyng as Aprutinus, doth truly reporteth.

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Imprimit ille die, quantum non scribitur anno. i.
The Presse in one day will do in Printyng,
That none in one yeare can do in writyng.

By reason wherof, as printyng of bookes ministred matter of readyng: so readyng brought learnyng: learnyng shewed light, by the brightnes wherof blind ignoraunce was suppressed, errour detected, and finally Gods glory, with truth of hys worde, aduaunced. MarginaliaWhen Gunnes were fyrst inuented.This facultie of printing was after the inuention of Gonnes, the space of. 130. yeares: whiche inuētion was also foūd in Germanie, an. 1380. And thus much for the worthy commendation of printyng.

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¶ The lamentable losing of Constantinople. 
Commentary  *  Close
Fall of Constantinople

Foxe's account of the fall of Constantinople is taken from Caspar Peucer's continuation of the chronicle of Johann Carion. (See Chronicon Carionis, ed. Philip Melanchthon and Caspar Peucer [Wittenberg, 1580], pp. 581-3). Foxe follows this account closely, although he abridges it somewhat. The fall of Constantinople may seem a curious disgression for Foxe, but he uses it as an opportunity to remind his readers of the dangers of the Ottoman threat and to urge them to pray to God to avert it.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

Marginalia1453.
The losing of Cōstantinople.
AN. 1453. Constantinus Palœlogus, beyng Emperour of Constātinople, the. 29. day of the moneth of May, the great Citie of Constantinople was taken by þe Turke Mahometes, after the siege of. 54. dayes: whiche siege began in the begynning of Aprill. Within the Citie, beside the Citizens were but onely. 6000. reskuers of the Grekes. And. 3000. of the Venetians and Genuues. Agaynst these, Mahometes brought an armey of. 400. thousād, collected out of the countreis and places adioynyng nere about, as out of Grecia, Illyrico, VVallachia, Dardanis, Triballis, Bulganis, out of Bithynia, Galatia, Lydia, Cecilia, and such other: whiche places had þe name yet of Christians. Thus one neighbour for lucer sake, helped to destroy an other.

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The Citie was compassed of the Turkes, both by sea and land. Mahometes the Turke diuided his armey in. iij. sondry partes, whiche in. iij. partes of the Citie, so bette the walles and brake them downe, that they attempted by the breaches therof to enter the citie. But the valiātnes of the Christians therin wanne much cōmendation, whose Duke was called Ioh. Iustinianus, of Genua. But for somuch as the assaultes were great, and the number of þe Christiā souldiours dayly decreased, fighting both at the walles and at the Hauen, agaynst such a multitude of the Turkes, they were not able long to holde out. Beside the armeys whiche lay battryng at the walles, the Turke had vpon the sea his nauye of. 200. and. 50. sayle, lyeng vpon the hauen of the Citie, reachyng from the one side of the hauens mouth vnto the other, as if a bridge should bee made from the one banke to the other. Whiche hauen by the Citizens was barred with yron cheynes, whereby the Turkes were kept out a certayne space. Against which nauie. 7. shippes there were of Genua, within the hauen, and. iij. of Creta, and certaine of Chio, whiche stode agaynst them. Also the souldiours isshuing out of the Citie, as occasion would serue, did māfully gaynstāde thē, & with wild fier, set their shippes on fire, that a certayne space they could serue to no vse. At length the cheynes beyng brast, and a waye made, the Turkes nauye entred the hauen, and assaulted the Citie: whereby the Turke began to conceaue great hope, and was in forwardnes to obtaine the Citie. MarginaliaThe tyranny of the Turke toward hys own men.The assault & skirmishe then waxyng more hoate, Mahometes the tyraūt stode by vpō an hill, with his warriers about him, cryeng and houlyng out vnto them to skale the walles and enter þe towne: otherwise, if any reculed, he threatned to kill them, and so he did: Wherby a great number of his souldiours in their repulse and retire, were slayne by the Turkes men, beyng sent by his commaundement to slay them: and so they were iustlye serued, and well payde theyr hyer.

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Although this was some comfort to the Christians, to see and behold out of the citye, the Turkes retinue so consumed: yet that hope lasted not longe. Shortlye after, by rage of warre, it happened Iustinian the Duke aboue named, to be hurt, who notwithstandyng that he was earnestly desired by Palælogus the Emperour, not to leaue hys Tower which he hadde to keepe, seing hys wound was not deadly daungerous, MarginaliaThe cowardnes of duke Iustinian.yet could he not be entreated to tary, but left his standing, and his fort disfurnished, setting none in his place to award the same. And so this doughtye Duke, hurt more wyth hys false hart, then wt force of weapon, gaue ouer & fled to Chius, where shortlye after for sorrow, rather then for sorenes of wounde, he dyed. Many of his soldiours seyng their Captapne flee, followed after, leauing their fort vtterly destitute without defence. The Turkes vnderstandyng that vantage, soone brast into the Citie. MarginaliaThe Emperour of Cōstantinople slayne.The emperour Palælogus seyng no other waye but to flee, making toward the gate, either was slayne, or els troden downe with the multitude. In the which gate. 800. dead mens

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